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IB 20th


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IB 20th

  1. 1. Beginning of WWI • • • • • •   12/17/13 9:28 AM Alsace-Lorraine was wanted by Germany because of its strategic placing. • Alsace-Lorraine served as a buffer for the Germans to protect the Tsar (?) and the Rhineland which had the Ruhr (area rich in materials) • Alsace-Lorraine was also rich in iron. France wanted two things from the Germans • Revenge and to get Alsace-Lorraine (AL) back. Germany had almost double the population and industry than France. • French were intimidated by Germany. • Could not fight against Germany alone. Jingoism (?)  EXTREME nationalism At the beginning of WWI, no one understood the power of machine guns and artillery. • By the end of the war, some still didn’t understand that cavalry would not stand against the machine guns. Germany found themselves in a difficult predicament – two front war. • Army had to be split in half – against France and Russia. • The Von Schlieffin Plan o Had to go through Belgium – though Belgium was neutral and Germany promised to protect their neutrality. o French army would be coming into AL and Russians would take a long time to mobilize.  
  2. 2. •   Germany would go through Belgium to come behind the French army and cut them off.  
  3. 3. • • • • • • French Plan 17; believing in Elan Vitale – sheer believe that you could win if your spirit was high enough, despite the numbers. June 28, 1914 • Archduke Ferdinand shot by Gavrilo Princip of the terrorist group known as “The Black Hand” • Austria knew that Serbia was behind the attack – Serbia was the aggressor, wanted to create Yugoslavia. • Austrians couldn’t prove that the Serbian government was behind the attack. • Russia was backing Serbia – Austria-Hungary knew that they could trigger the “Great War.” • Needed the backing of Germany. July 5 Mission of Count Hoyos to Berlin • The “Blank Check” because Germany felt that Austria deserved justice – unconditional support. o One of the most controversial parts of the war; gave them the blame for the war in the Treaty of Versailles. July 14 Austria crown council. • Austria stated that they did not want to annex any Serbian territory. July 20-23 Visit of President Poincaré and Premier Viviani of France to St. Petersburg. • French president and prime minister visit Russia. o Wilhelm was vacationing at the beach. • Agreed to invite Britain with France and Russia to put pressure on Austria-Hungary. • French disregarded the assassination, thought the matter was about alliances (a test of the solidarity of the entente cordiale (?), almost like a blank check) when in fact it was to be a local matter. • Blame could be placed on France – WHOA. July 24 • First formulation of Russian policy – Serbia must not be attacked •   and devoured by Austria. July 25 – Austria assured Russia that Austria would not annex any Serbian territory.  
  4. 4. o Russia said that if Serbia gets attacked, they will go to war.  Russia is in a vulnerable position – needs to prove itself, cannot back down. o France assures its support of Russia – blank check. o France was desperate to keep its alliance with Russia. o Serbia rejected point VI (6) in the ultimatum.  Serbia mobilizes against Austria before making the reply, Austria begins to mobilize too. LOCAL MOBILIZATION – not war. • •   July 26 • Sir Edward Grey proposed a conference to deal with the AustroSerb issue. • Austria refused – knew their alliance was outnumbered. • Direct conversations between Russia and Austria. July 27 • France begins to prepare for war, British fleet ordered to not disband, Grey gives Russia a blank check. • British and French knew it was crucial to keep Russia on their side.  
  5. 5. Week that Shocked the World • THE WEEK THAT SHOCKED THE WORLD • July 28 o Austria declared war on Serbia. o Fait acompli – do it before anyone can say no. o LOCAL mobilization still. o Germany wanted to continue local talks. o France gave ANOTHER blank check – damn French. • July 29 o Germany is pressuring Austria to negotiate the terms of the Serbian reply – trying to prevent war. o Germany asked Britain to stay neutral – promised to not take French territory or Belgian territory, this was rejected.  Attempt to make peace, seen as an attempt to ruin the Alliance. o Russia began GENERAL MOBILIZATION – Tsar gave into pressure from his military men, everyone else said not to go to war. o Recalled the general mobilization, made only against Austria when the Tsar received a telegram from Berlin saying that Wilhelm was trying to calm Austria. • July 30 o Austro-Russian conversations resumed. o Russian government reversed its decision (cannot unmobilize, too big, technical difficulties) – RE-generally mobilization, despite German warnings.  Schlieffin plan is ruined if Russia mobilizes. • July 31 o Germany proclaimed “state of threatening danger of war.” o Sent a 12-hour ultimatum to Russia demanding the demobilization of Russia. o Germany inquires France’s position. o Germany refused a British request that the neutrality of Belgium be respected. •   12/17/13 9:28 AM o AUSTRIA GENERALLY MOBILIZED. August 1 o France said that they would be “guided by her own interests.”  
  6. 6. o France mobilization  German mobilization. Execute Von Schlieffin Plan! Germany offers a promise to England to not attack France if England remains neutral. o German declaration of war on Russia. August 2 o British cabinent meets with France, promises to protect the French coast. o Germans invade Luxemburg. August 3 o Germany declared war on France. August 4 o England declared war on Germany. August 6 o Austria declared war on Russia.   • • • • • Basically, in 5 days, WWI has begun. • Whoa!    
  7. 7. Peace Treaties • • • • • •   12/17/13 9:28 AM The Big Four Treaty of Versailles Wilson’s 14 Points The League of Nations Territorial Changes Weimar Republic  
  8. 8. The War • 12/17/13 9:28 AM Schlieffen Plan – 1905 • Created as a response to the possible two-front war • Reasons it failed: o Ineffective movement of troops  To Alsace Lorraine  To the western Front o Uncoordinated communication  Movement of supplies and troops  No army group commander, all commands from Brlin  Swung east of Paris instead of West – fatal decision • Battle of the Marne o French troops begun to retreat but launched a counter attack. o Sept. 6, France’s Sixth Army (~150k men) attacked the right flank of the German First Army. o Allies exploited break in German Line.  Communications suffered  If German had stayed, they would have had a victory but Berlin (300 miles away) ordered a retreat.  Retreated 40 miles away and dug trenches – beginning of trench warfare.  France loss – 250k, British loss 12.5k1 • Trench Warfare o First lines completed in late Nov 1914 o Trenches built by both sides extended nearly 400 mi.  From Nieuport on the Belgian coast to the Swiss border. o Types of Trenches  Front-line trenches (firing and attack trench)  50 yards – 1mile from enemy trenches  Support trench  Assistance if needed – men and supplies  Reserve trench     For emergencies (resting) Communication trench  Running perpendicular, used for communication  
  9. 9. • o Soldiers  4 days – week at front-line  4 days – week at support  4 days – week at reserve  Many soldiers died from living conditions  Many trenches served as trash areas, decomposing food/bodies, rats, lice, etc.  Trench foot  Flesh eating bacteria caused by rain and mud • Weapons o Big Bertha  Largest cannon built by Germans o Poison gas  Allies used grenades with tear gas to attack the Germans.  Germans used poison gas – chlorine.  Exposure could burn skin o Tanks  Tanks first used in WWI  British and French tanks played a big role on allied victory. o Barbed wire  Used between trenches in “No Man’s (Person’s) Land” Colonies • Early 20th century when nationalism was heightened • Imperialism increased, many European states wanted to expand in Africa and Asia • Colonies Role: o Helped in war effort, especially in Africa and Middle East o If colonies were lucky they’d be given gifts of appreciation for their help (though they hoped for independence) o European nations exploited their colonies  Took raw materials for factories to produce goods    Exploited the people  Britain used their domains to attack German colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific  
  10. 10. • o British Exploitation  Most popular in India  British officers didn’t want people with darker skins serving on the western front  Eventually forced to approve Indian contingents  Recruited under the same conditions as British citizens  Used people from India and New Zealand in trench warfare to get mowed down on the front line. Biggest Major Battles: • Battle of Gallipoli (April 1915 – Jan 1916) o Allied operation against Turkey in 1915 for control of the Dardanelles Straits. o Russia needed the strait to avoid being blocked off. o Wanted to end stalemate trench warfare. o Bring down the Turkish government. o Allow Russia access to the Mediterranean and the western allies.  Would Turkish into war of the canal allowing them in. o Drive German forces east. o *Without the loss at the battle of Gallipoli – Russia might not be communist. o Planned to use naval operations. o Jan 1915 a fleet of French and British ships gather at Lemnos island. o Failed to force through the straits. o Thought that they could break through the straits with ships. Later figured out they needed to capture the land first – should’ve done it first. o If they had an amphibious landing, would’ve been a quick victory. o 500k men deployed, 252k casualties. o Russia still cut off, Constantinople still blocked. o Caused Russian revolution, no morale boost. o Brainchild of Churchill – almost destroyed his career. o Britain used Australian and New Zealand troops.    
  11. 11. • • • • War • •   o Absolutely stupid execution on the British side. Battle of Verdun (Feb 1916 – Dec 1916) o Second largest in WWI o Verdun was a fortress established by Ancient Romans to guard the Meuse River Valley. o Located near the German border in France o Plan to attack Verdun to draw out France, capture all 18 forts. o Wanted to inflict damage on the French Army to make them unable to continue fighting. Hoped for a quick and easy attack. o Battle began on Feb 21, 1916. o Germans would be pushed back by the British assistance and the Romanians. o Caused Falkenhayn to be dismissed and replaced by Hindenburg. o ¾ of the French Army fought, large slaughter. Battle of Somme (July 1916 – Nov 1916) o French/British attack against Germans o Attack along a 20 mile section of the Somme river. o 18 divisions scattered for initial assault. o Duplicated Pickett’s charge from the Civil War o Total failure for the British. o Germans suffered more losses however it was little gain for the Allies. o Largest battle of WWI. Battle of Passchendaele (AKA Ypres) (July 1917 – Nov 1917) o British offensive campaign against Germans. o Poorly selected location – harsh weather conditions. o Was unsuccessful as an offensive attack. in the Balkans Albania o WWI Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro occupied most of Albania, aided and opposed. o Jan 1916, most of Albania is overrun by Austria and Bulgaria. Bulgaria entered WWI on the side of the Central Powers. o Bulgaria lost horribly  
  12. 12. • • • • •   Serbia o Serbia was attacked by everyone – occupied by all of its enemies, suffered horribly. o Upon victory, Serbia wanted revenge on everyone who attacked it. Africa • African theater split among colonies. • Britain began an attack against the Boers. • German and Portuguese troops clashed multiple times. Japan • 1914 – 1918 in an alliance with the Allied Powers • Japan declared war on Germany. • Used this to expand sphere of influence on China. • Used this war to make itself a great power, benefit economically and imperialistically. • First big move into China. Russia • Entered the war with the largest army. Along the two fronts, neither side made progress. Ended in a complete stalemate always. • Insanity – just kept repeating battles that ended in stalemates.  
  13. 13. US Intervention • US Neutrality • Violations o Britain blockaded Germany's legal imports, we did nothing to stop them. o By law, should've declared war on Britain o Critics said US was not neutral o US allowed the allied blockade of Germany o US gave the allies ammunition and financial aid •   12/17/13 9:28 AM o Germany stated that US violated the Sussex pledge o Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare Lusitania – May 1915  
  14. 14. • • • o Was carrying passengers (and suspected contraband – later confirmed) o Sunk from 1 German torpedo o 2k died, 128 Americans o Caused outrage against Germany William Jennings Bryan – US Secretary of State • Resigned on June 9, 1915 • Famous platform was free silver. • Wilson told Germans that unrestricted submarine warfare was illegal, Germans said either to stop trading or demand equal trade. Wilson said NO. – right to trade with whoever they want. o Germans gave in (partly cause they thought they would win) o Wilson looked like a hero o Germans figure that Wilson would lose in 1916. • Replaced with Robert Lansing Failure of Mediation • Wilson’s attempts o December 18, 1916 – have both sides talk it out, state the terms in which they could cease fighting. France and Britain didn’t want “peace without victory.”  Robert Lansing secretly assured the British and French that Wilson was pro-allies.  Britain and France made their terms for peace a total victory. o Jan 22, 1917 – Wilson went before the Senate to declare that the US would mediate a “peace without victory.”  Wilson held a secret meeting with the Germans assuring he would aim for peace without victory.  Germans wanted total victory, ready for war with US.  Jan 31, 1917 – Germany said they would begin a violent submarine campaign. Attitudes and War Aims of Britain • Reluctant to enter war until Germans invaded Belgium. • • •   Wanted to keep entente with Russia Wanted total victory and protect Belgium – keep their buffer. Dominant in seas  
  15. 15. • • • • • Maintain imperial power • Punish Germany Attitudes and War Aims of France • Viewed Germany as their archenemy • Wanted to keep alliance with Russia • Total victory, Alsace-Lorraine back, revenge for Franco-Prussian war Attitudes and War Aims of Germany • Total victory – before US became involved. • Wanted to dominate Europe • Take colonies from Britain and France • Territory in Europe • War dictatorship – Paul von (??????) o Real dictator was someone else … (?) o Only way to win, cut off American supplies Zimmerman Telegram • Jan 1917 Britain decoded from Zimmerman (Foreign Minister for Germany) • Germany offered Mexico US territory if Mexico joined Germany against the US. • Hinted that Germany was also asking Japan for help. • Feb 26 – Wilson found out. • Public on March 1 • April 2 – Wilson asked congress to declare war • April 6 – US declared war on Germany • Mexico stayed neutral – despite hating America • Russian Czar overthrown, Russia became democratic. Wilson’s Impact • War Aims & Slogans o Wanted to stay neutral but knew we couldn’t. o After we entered he called it “The war to make the world safe for democracy.” o “The war to end all wars.” o “Peace without victory.” – official war aim of the allies without Britain and France    
  16. 16. • • • • • •  No punishment for the loser. Russian Withdrawal • Ended two-front war • Germany now focused on western front Ludendorff’s Spring Offensive • Attempt to end war before US arrived in France • Began on March 21, 1918 • Attack where British and French forces joined • Extremely detailed and planned out bombardment. • American troops arrived just in time. • Battle of Bellau Wood o Decisive battle Germany attempted to negotiate • Wilson made a list of demands but Germany declines • FATAL ERROR OF GERMANY AND THE ALLIES o If all military and imperial leaders were replaced with democratic government – blame placed on the new government  LINKS TO WEIMAR REPUBLIC  Government turned over to Reichstag  Forced to sign humiliating armistice  Ebert is democratic – takes command o November 11 sign armistice in a railway car o Stab in the back – German people didn’t know that they lost the war, thought that they were winning. o November Criminals Germany’s loss became the basis for WWII US prevented Germany from winning. I am terrified of bananas 1. Complete US neutrality was impossible because the US relied on trade with Europe.    
  17. 17. 2. Official US neutrality policy was to trade noncontraband materials with everybody equally. 3. Flaws in US neutrality policy because the US allowed Britain to blockade Germany, gave ammunition to the Allies, and financed the Allies. 4. Germany practiced unrestricted submarine warfare, the Lusitania was sunk killing 128 Americans. 5. The Zimmerman telegram prompted Wilson to ask congress to declare war on Germany and the US officially entered the war in April 1917. 6. When Russia withdrew from the war, Germany focused all of its energy on ending the war on the western front before US troops could land. 7. In March 1918, Germany launched an all out attack known as the “Ludendorff’s Spring Offensive,” which was an elaborate plan to break through the trenches. 8. The US troops arrived just in time and Germany was unable to carry on. 9. In October, Germany requested an armistice but were unwilling to meet Wilson’s terms. 10. After Germany was forced to replace its leaders, negotiations for an armistice began and in November 1918 an armistice was signed between the Allies and Germany. 1. 2. 3. 4. WIESNER’S LIST The US was historically neutral and had no interest in the outbreak of WWI. The US had to maintain trade with Europe to sustain our economy and the US could maintain neutrality by trading equally noncontraband material as long as it was enforced. Wilson has an unfair and unrealistic neutrality policy because the US financed the war by providing supplies (contraband and noncontraband) and loaning money to the Allies while not providing anything for Germany and allowing Britain to blockade Germany. Germany gave into Wilson’s demands to halt unrestricted submarine warfare thus allowing Wilson to be reelected.    
  18. 18. 5. Wilson gave the war meaning with his slogans “War to end all wars,” “peace without victory,” and “war to make the world safe for democracy” and then he wrote his 14 points. 6. Growing desperate, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in order to cut off Britain and France from US supplies because they had no other chance of winning the war and they also sent the Zimmerman telegram out of fear of the US entering the war. 7. Russia withdrew from WWI, ending the two front war however the US also joined the war and Germany’s only shot at winning was the Ludendorff spring offensive. 8. The Ludendorff spring offensive failed because of misconduct and the US arrived just in time and the convoy system destroyed unrestricted submarine warfare – Germany was kaput. 9. Germany was desperate to sign an armistice and we forced them to get rid of the Kaiser and the Allies forced Germany to sign an armistice that was really a surrender that caused hundreds of thousands of Germans to starve to death. 10. Blame for the war would fall upon the new government because of the “stab in the back myth” in which Germans believed that the government (known as the November Criminals) stabbed the army in the back and caused them to lose the war despite the fact that the German army had no choice but to surrender.    
  19. 19. Impact of the War • 12/17/13 9:28 AM Total War: • Everything for the war effort, whole country involved. • Rape of Belgium: o August 1914 o Attack on Belgium (neutral) against German signatory. o Violated saying “necessity knows no laws.” o Gunned down civilians, raped women, bayoneted babies. o Thought it was illegal for civilians to fire at them. o Military philosopher Clausewitz believed that the civilian population of an enemy country should not be exempted from war. o Belgium military fought back at Liege (“heavily and brilliantly”) o No evidence that this was civilians, only militia. o 5k+ civilians murdered. o Rather than striking fear, spread message that Germany must be defeated. o Other German atrocities:  Bombed civilian centers in France, bombing raids in Britain.  Use of poison gas and bullets exploding on impact.  Turks (Ottoman Empire) committed genocide against the Armenians. o Armenian Genocide  Armenians seeking independence from Ottoman Empire in 1915.  600k – 1.5mil Armenians died, forced into dessert with nothing, some shot, starved, etc. • British Brutality o Sinking of German submarine, shooting the survivors, killing survivors in life rafts. • Conscription o Mandatory enrollment in the army.    
  20. 20. • • o British relied on volunteer forces until 1917 but had to implement a draft after troops wiped out during trench warfare. o United States passed selective service act in 1917. o Soviet Union implemented law in 1930 saying all citizens had to be forced to learn to function in military situations. o Allies didn’t reinstitute conscription until WWII was on the verge of breaking out. Government Influence o US government sold war bonds to pay for cost of war ($32 billion) 58% paid by war bonds. o Rest was covered by increased taxation and money creation. o All countries were sort of controlled by military. o Britain censored media, imprison without trial, free right to execution – suspended civil liberty and human rights, established military dictatorship. o Germany did the same. o Wanted to use nationalism to raise morale. o France controlled some but only required companies to meet quotas for production to supply the war.  Largest allied producer of weapons and munitions. o Women played a large role in the military.  Replaced men’s jobs. o Manpower all contributed to the war effort. Women in the War Effort o Emily Davison (?) o Military look influenced fashion.. o Lloyd George opposed the Boer War.  Introduced convoy system, formation of ships to protect merchant ships.  Rendered U-boats useless. o Alfred Milner  Ultimate cold-blooded administrative henchman.     Provoked the Boers to make Britain seem like the victims. Britain was completely disorganized.  
  21. 21. Milner was the reason war production went up – reorganized Britain Rudyard Kipling  Wrote propaganda.  Famous writer – Nobel prize for writer in 1907.  Strong imperialist  “White man’s burden” wrote the poem  Extreme racist and imperialist  Glorified war  Greatly affected when his son was killed in the Battle of Loos, was devastated. Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst  Cofounders of Women’s Social and Political Union (Suffragettes)  Supported industrial conscription of women.  Suffragettes was very militant, unlike American efforts. Keir Hardie  Advocate for women’s rights, free schooling and pensions, and Indian self-rule. Bertrand Russell  Political and social activist  Improved the lives of men and women  Supported suffragettes  Opposed British participation in WWI  Took part in no conscription fellowship Sylvia Pankhurst  Opposed violent movements  Created own campaign  Opposed going into war  Legendary socialist, fought for the poor people.  Went to live in a poor area by choice.  Almost like Mother Theresa  Very independent thinker, great crusader to help the  o o o o o •   poor. Richmond 16  
  22. 22. • • Role • • • • • • • •   o Men were allowed to reject military service on grounds such as faith or moral beliefs (Quakers, Methodists, Jehovah’s Witnesses and Socialists)  Offered alternative service.  Were allowed to become medics  Absolutists refused alternative service  Imprisoned  Richmond 16 were absolutists who refused alternative service  Forced to watch deserters be executed and crucified.  Sent to France could be shot if refused to fight.  Set up for execution.  Were saved due to British outcry. Fenner Brokway o Would’ve been a Lord but gave it up to work with the poor people. o Became a socialist with the labor party. o Was a conscientious objector o “DOWN WITH THE WAR” o Co-founder of no conscription fellowship o Thrown in prison, very sickly o Thought he would die in prison, offered to let him work in a hospital, refused. of Propaganda Demonize the enemy, depicted themselves as victims of foreign aggression Used because WWI was supposed to be short Wanted to keep people’s spirits up Used to justify continuation of the war Cartoons, posters, films, and press reports Government also used censorship to keep citizens on their side. More than a dozen professors lost jobs for expressing anti-war sentiment. Anti-War filmmaker was imprisoned.  
  23. 23. Committee on Public Information (CPI) – public committee on propaganda. • Pro-war movies made money for the cause. • Made an unpopular war popular. Psychological impact of the war • Shell shock – soldiers unable to function on the battlefield o Headache, fatigue, loss of balance, confusion, nightmares, impaired sight and hearing, and tremors Ireland • Had been conquered by Britain • Britain is to Ireland as what Nazis are to Jews and Whites are to Blacks  Mr. Wiesner • • • • • • •   Saw WWI as a chance to get their independence 1916, Formed Irish regiments Ireland tried to rise up, Britain sent troops to Ireland and crushed the uprising. Gained world sympathy  
  24. 24. Peace Treaties 12/17/13 9:28 AM 1. Following the armistice, the Allies met at Versailles to establish the terms of a treaty known as the Paris Peace Conference. 2. Each member of the Big Four (the primary leader of each of the Allies) had his own individual goals for what the terms of the treaty should be and each was unwilling to compromise. 3. Due to Japan and Italy pulling out of the conference and Wilson falling ill, Britain and France wrote the entire Treaty of Versailles which included none of Wilson’s 14 points. 4. The Treaty of Versailles placed blame on Germany for WWI so Germany was forced to pay reparations (32 billion dollars), give up all of its colonies, reduce its army to 100,000 men, demilitarize the Rhineland, and was prohibited from uniting with Austria. 5. With the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was left vulnerable and France and Britain felt secure that another war could not break out. 6. None of Wilson’s 14 points were included Wiesner’s List 1. After the German armistice/surrender, Germany was starving and many were dying and the German people blamed their new government for stabbing the German military in the back. 2. Arriving at Versailles, the Big Four had different interests; France wanted to destroy Germany and get back Alsace-Lorraine, Britain wanted security and to keep Germany as a trading partner, and Italy merely wanted the land it was promised. 3. Wilson spread the idea of self-determination which caused the other nations to view him as a fool and they didn’t like him because they knew that self-determination would be a cultural nightmare in Europe.    
  25. 25. 4. Without Japan, Italy, and Wilson, Britain and France wrote the Treaty of Versailles together secretly which Britain believed to be too harsh and France believed to be too lenient. 5. The Treaty of Versailles placed blame on Germany for WWI so Germany was forced to pay reparations (32 billion dollars) which crippled Germany and was detrimental to Europe’s economy as a whole, reduce its army to 100,000 men and demilitarize the Rhineland which left Germany vulnerable to attacks and unable to rise up and guaranteed security for the Allies – only needed to enforce these terms. 6. Italy was left in chaos and this paved the way for Mussolini to take power. 7. All over Europe, communism began to grow popularity which prompted the rise of fascism to challenge it, blamed the war on the capitalists “merchants of death.” 8. Revolutions in Germany – Freikorps brought in to stop the communists.    
  26. 26. Russia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •   12/17/13 9:28 AM Very large, both in Asia and Europe. • Regarded as Asian to the rest of Europe. • Great Asian influence Czar/Tsar – Cyrillic alphabet, one way of spelling in their alphabet, have to translate into our phonetic alphabet. Ruled by the Czar – last absolute monarch • Very strongly trying to preserve absolutism (why alliance with France was so surprising) • Did not believe in a parliament, wanted to preserve absolutism. Old imperialistic empire – old took over anywhere, without any intention of moving in. New – created spheres of influence American Manifest Destiny – expand north, northwest, west, and south west, eventually meant to take over Canada (war of 1812) Russia is expansionist, started out where Moscow was and just expanded, “~Rolling rolling rolling Russia~” Russia attempted to annex Afghanistan in 1979. Afghanistan became to Russia what Vietnam became to the US. Russia is still our enemy, three views on Russia. • Regan nickname – Evil Empire • Red Menace • Just attempting to gain full protection of their borders after WWI and WWII, trying to secure protection Russia’s main nightmare was modernizing The idea of liberalism seeped into Russia, despite attempts to stamp it out. Nicholas II was a total reactionary – against liberalism • Especially civil law because Russia was a theocracy • Icons – paintings of things were considered to be very sacred, eastern orthodox. 1053 (?) – great split between eastern orthodox and roman catholic Russia was run by both the Czar and the church Late 19th century – three pillars • Czar • Russian Orthodox Church  
  27. 27. Bureaucracy – army of civil servants (workers), vast amount of paperwork and government officials – too much paperwork, very worse for tax collection, greatly brought Russia down. Portugal is having terrible bureaucratic nightmares. Czar Nicolas II allowed a little freedom – was assassinated in 1881. Persecuted Russian Jews & minorities, many left the country. Forced Russification – caused first big push to found modern state of Isreal. 1905 – Country erupted in a revolution, result of tensions rising and loss in Russo-Japanese War (and Black Sunday) • Tsar gave Russia a parliament (Duma) but ignored it completely. • Country filled with discontent, formation of underground political groups “seething below the surface.” • • • • • •    
  28. 28. Russia Video 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Wanted to save the Tsardom from democracy – maintain autocracy. The crown, the church, and the bureaucracy controlled the country. The church was the only source of hope for many lower class citizens. Czar Nicholas married for love, not just for class to Alexandra (?) • Believed in saving the autocratic country in order to give it to their son. • Believed that a constitutional monarchy was shameful. The czar owned over 6,000 MILLION acres, 95% of the country was owned by landowners (?) Many landowners were hated (however some were not) Most of Russia’s peasants had no reason to love their landowners. Until 1861, peasants were “owned” by landowners. Peasants were uneducated and inarticulate, ignorant of politics or philosophy. • Knew only how to fear authority and to starve. The abolition of serfdom allowed peasants to leave their land and most of them did, knowing nothing of the outside world, only thought that it could not be worse. St. Petersburg, fastest growing area in Europe. Most peasants found only more poverty, just in an urban setting. Suffered horrible working conditions, like rest of industrial Europe. Production doubled before WWI. By tradition, Russian oil industry was in the lead. Began to think of revolution. Revolutionaries spread word through pamphlets. Began to strike, realized their power as a whole working class. Leaders caught, many executed. Lenin • Born 1870 • Born into middle class • Perfect report card, YAY! • Brother associated in plot to assassinate the Czar. • •   Lenin started to convert his friends to Marxism Suffered from a famine and demonstrated an understanding that without a change in society, famines would always occur.  
  29. 29. 1895 – settled in St. Petersburg Devoted much of his time to the underground revolution Arrested in 1895 December, was able to smuggle out pamphlets while in prison • Exiled to Siberia • Used Siberia as a training ground for revolution • Married lol. • Believed in the need for a strong group, made of devoted members Communist meeting – split into two groups • Mensheviks wanted to allow anyone to join if they wanted to • Bolsheviks believed only in hardcore enthusiasts. o “Majority” by two votes. The Czar was unaware of the prospect of Revolution January was a bitter month, march organized in St. Petersburg • Killed peaceful protesters, protestors carried no weapons • “Bloody Sunday”, 1000 protestors killed. Lenin believed in need for an immediate armed uprising. Russian council formed – aka soviets • Organized a strike • 3 million workers on strike, Czar granted parliament – Duma • Soviet leaders were exiled – Trotsky was one of them Many protestors executed, died in prison, or sent to work in camps. 1912, miners threatened with pay cut went on strike Outbreak of WWI! • Germany declared war, Czar promised to not make peace unless all foreign soldiers were out of Russia • Strong feeling of nationalism spread • 1.5 million men mobilized in first week of war, on their way to the greatest slaughter • ½ men became a casualty, dead left, wounded left to freeze in their own blood • Lenin wanted to use the war to his advantage, believed in organizing all of the workers, wanted to turn WWI into a civil war • • • • • • • • • • • •   within Russia. Everyone in Russia believed they would win however they suffered miserably.  
  30. 30. 300,000 casualties – dead, POW, or severely wounded Czar went to the front lines of war, continued to suffer defeats 1/3 men had no rifle, many had no boots Rasputin had a great influence on the empress, grew to a high position • The empress set up a military hospital • Russian army pushed steadily back. • Rasputin was murdered – dumped into the river lol, Empress was extremely upset • Huge riots organized • Many of the soldiers meant to stop the rioters, joined them #plottwist • Kerensky was a gifted orator, both in national assembly and the soviet • March 2, 1917 – Czar fell, forced to abdicate. Bolesheviks took the power Lenin took refuge in Siberia • Called for an end to the war • Wanted workers worldwide to take power and rise up • Germans helped him re-enter Russia • “Peace, bread, land!” End of April 1917 marched with soviets opposing the war Used new freedom of speech Kerensky named minister of war Wilson twisted Russia’s arms to stay in the war Launched a new offensive • Failed New call for peace Tension mounted in St. Petersburg • Russia out of control Spontaneous revolution broke out in July Kerensky became prime minister of Russia • Might have succeeded if he was ruthless against the Bolsheviks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •   • Lenin went into hiding Kerensky holds a meeting with 2000 delegates General Kornilov rose  
  31. 31. Wanted to institute marshall war Was relieved of his term Soviet called on its workers to oppose it – red guard of the revolution • Kerensky allows this, thinks he’s leading the 25000 man force • The winner wasn’t the government, it was the Bolshevik party Trotsky was elected president of the St. Petersburg soviet Central Committee met • 10 – 2 supported Lenin’s insurrection of the government Planning a revolution under the eyes of the provisional government, Kerensky • No moves made to stop it Final plans made for revolution Bolsheviks seized the key points of the city, revolution had begun February and October Revolutions • • • • • • • • •    
  32. 32. Marxism  12/17/13 9:28 AM • All of us are “prostitutes”  and will be 5ever • We are selling ourselves – selling all of ourselves • If were not prostitutes, would be at school only for love/joy of learning • Instead, sell ourselves for a grade/college Alienation (term coined by Engel) • Marxist believe that human beings are creators • We created the world we live in. • Live in a natural world but change it to become the world we create in our minds, do not want to live in the natural world • Want the world to be the way we want it to be • “Everything in this room is our creation” leave nothing natural • We would use genetic modification if we could get our hands on it, would not leave even the creation of life natural • Leave ourselves unnatural, makeup, hair, clothes, etc. • Landscaping edits the natural world • We are creators – because we love to do it • Marxist believes that babies would naturally love to go out and create for the pure pleasure of it, we would cooperate and work together for the pleasure of creation. • From the moment we were born, we have all been turned into prostitutes. • Creativity is for the pure intrinsic value but we have been taught to do things for external rewards. • Alienated from our own creativity by selling it to someone else. • Makes us hate creativity – loses its intrinsic pleasure o Ex. loving to write gets reduced if you’re forced to do it. • When you get paid to do what you love, you end up stopping loving it. • Believed that if we grew up naturally, we would do things for pure pleasure, the idea of work would not exist, make no connection with getting an external reward. • •   In order to work, must grow up in that environment  
  33. 33. Do things for pure fun because you would receive everything you needed would be given to you from others who do what they love for pure fun. • Could do whatever we wanted whenever. o Would create an excess amount of everything o No need for ownership because everyone would have an excess, guaranteed provision because of the excess. o Only worries would be over production • Idea of a communist utopia • Only reason we have a concept of laziness is because we’ve been prostitutes all our lives • Monumental difficulty – how to create a utopian society if we aren’t mentally capable of understanding it o May understand it but cannot make it a reality • Create such an abundance of supply of goods and services, no shortage of anything • In a world when everything is free the need for wealth would be gone. • Nightmare faced was how do we get there, because we’ve been “brainwashed” • If we unleashed all human productivity, there would never be a shortage of supply. Could never figure out how to create the utopia with a nation of brainwashed people. All bad things that came from communism came as a result of us being all brainwashed into prostitution. How do we unbrainwash the world? • Marxists’ goal was to unbrainwash the world • Hard for people to change if we’ve been raised as prostitutes our whole lives. • Lenin used a technique developed by Robespierre in French Revolution o Kill everyone against you – everyone would be scared and not • • • • go against you, Red Terror o Could terrorize the nation into blind subjugation    
  34. 34. o That doesn’t turn them into people who want to create for pure pleasure o SO HOW IS IT DONE?  never solved Truly (x3) intellectual communists understood that it had to be the whole world o Knew you had to dictate the entire world and then generation by generation unbrainwash them o Knew had to gain total control over the Soviet Union also. o Goal is utopian goal, nightmare is the numerous people who were brainwashed.  Even the workers simply wanted better pay, redistributed wealth – which defeats the whole purpose! List of Problems that they faced • Long range problem – unbrainwashing the Soviet Union and the entire world • Starvation – immediate problem • Many different nationalities, 100 languages 50 nationalities – all had to be unbrainwashed! • Had to bring back in all the republics • Had to restore order – complete anarchy • Control by red terror but everyone who’s controlled is against them • Super intellectuals controlling the nation, idealists, Revolutionaries  spent all their time engaging in complex • • • • •   theory, impractical, all time spent in bringing about the revolution, but what to do now???? Now have to run the country o Inherent problem created – they’re super duper intellectuals, all going to start arguing because that’s just what they do. o Except for Stalin – “not smart enough to argue”  Knew how to run things Interesting parallel o During the revolutionary war, had a lot of renowned intellectuals (John/Samuel Adams, Franklin, etc.) o Washington knew how to lead How are the intellectuals going to lead the country if all they have is ideas and arguments?  
  35. 35. Soviet Union • • • • • • • • • • • • USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Smart because soviet was a council that claimed to be the new leadership Russians are very bureaucratic – love soviets! All you need is to gain legitimacy in the minds of the people you are trying to lead Became a union of the soviets, eventually had 15 soviet republics Calling yourself a soviet republic is not attached to nationality or culture! Ultimate goal was to create a worldwide union – internationalism Until 1918, no one called themselves communists – called Marxists or socialists • No one knows if “communism” works or not because no one’s ever gotten there! • Marx said not allowed to call themselves communist unless they’ve actually reached the communist utopian society 1918 – Bolshevik party changed their name to communist party 1919 – first time ever, worldwide Marxists left the socialist party and created new communist parties  under the direction of the third Comintern (Communist International – cute right?) Ruthlessly brought in other cultures but did NOT force Russification, cultures could keep their own identity as long as they followed the exact direction of the communist party. • Similar to the US, each state is whoever they want as long as they answer to the federal government. • Had to deal with the problem of separatism. Two constitutions – 1925 and 1936 • Former Bolsheviks only allowed elite revolutionaries, no choice now but to expand • Membership sky rockets, 70,000 to 2 million by 1930. • Bringing in anybody as long as you are supposedly blindly obedient, loyal, and dedicated – refusal was penalty of death. • Wanted only toilers – dedicated hard workers, selflessly work hard, only goal is to achieve the communist state • •   12/17/13 9:28 AM Feared careerists getting into the party, people who wanted to get benefits. The party got corrupted, and they were aware of the danger.  
  36. 36. • • • • • • • •   Only way in was through sponsorship/mentorship – once someone was considered a trusted member, they could bring in more people by recommendation. Set up a very bureaucratic system – parallelism Called the party the apparatus Whole country is under the government, getting rid of private ownership. The party would be watching over everybody. o Ex in school, teachers running the school, the party running the teachers Used the secret police to keep control (eventually became KGB) Created this atmosphere of fear to keep people in line Supposed to be purely democratic, voted from the bottom up  
  37. 37. Stalin Video 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • • In 3 years, Russia became a world power. Stalin was born in Georgia as Joseph (something…) WAS NOT RUSSIAN People believed that Stalin was genius as Lenin’s successor. Stalin believed in ruling by terror, even when young. Stalin read many pamphlets that inspired his ambition. Became a revolutionary at the age of 19 Many Georgians were becoming Marxist but he became more Russian when he started following Lenin. Stalin learned all his knowledge from books rather than having a thorough understanding of the proletariats. Was seen as power-hungry and disruptive. Deeply affected by the death of his wife. Felt no compassion (“warm feelings”) for people after her death. Used bank robbing as a way to get money for the parties. Stalin betrayed people many times. Was doubtful of other revolutionaries. Had respect but shunned friendship. Escaped from exile in 1904 – escaped back to Georgia. Bolsheviks wanted to rally the factory workers. Wanted to channel the discontent of the working class to use to overturn Russia. Failed miserably in WWI. Food shortages. 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, provisional government took over. Stalin knew how to lead, not necessarily intellectual. “Got things done.” When police broke up protests, Lenin went into hiding. Stalin was Lenin’s right-hand man Peasants sided with the party, secret police disbanded, democracy became a possibility. Lenin disbanded the assembly in order to liquidate democracy. Government moved to Moscow, Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI. Beginning of a civil war in Russia. • • • Emergence of the Red Army War Communism – strict centralized control of manpower and resources Stalin’s chance to extend his authority. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •    
  38. 38. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •   May 1918, Stalin appointed Director of Food Supplies in southern Russia. Stalin was considered “Asian” and ruthless Failed assassination attempt against Lenin, beginning of the Red Terror New state security formed, Chekka (?) Reinstituted death penalty – basically Robespierre Chekka meant to be temporary, became permanent. Famine spread, forcing peasants from their villages. 5 million starved to death, resorted to cannibalism. Peasants tried to rise up, many were killed. Needed to entice the peasants to Lenin reinstated some compromised form of capitalism. Ultimate goal of the Marxists – unbrainwash the world to go back to our natural creative state. They were ruthless, willing to kill in order to achieve their goal. Were willing for millions to die, whole nation turned against Lenin. Lenin banned all splits and factions in the party. No more intellectual openness. Made Stalin(?) a general secretary – not really a leadership job, administrative. 1922 Purely bureaucratic job, don’t realize the power he’ll gain. By 1922 Trotsky was the closest to leader, Lenin was ill. Lenin wanted Stalin to bring Georgia into Russia. Descended onto his homeland with a vengeance, annexed Georgia. Lenin heard about Stalin’s brutal handling and began to have doubts about him. Lenin asked Trotsky to hold a block against Stalin but two of his secretaries warn Stalin so he arrived fully prepared. Trotsky makes a deal with Stalin (fatal deal) Lenin died at the age of 56 Lenin’s body was embalmed (ew..) Stalin realizes that all the super intellectuals are rivals, and he turns against them all. Stalin had to defuse the time bomb in Lenin’s testament. Zinoviev makes a speech falsely saying Lenin had no problems with Stalin, didn’t want him to leave.  
  39. 39. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •   Stalin was concerned about whether he would be forced to leave, majority voted to keep him in power. Exchanged support in order to unite against Trotsky. Stalin gained greater power than his rivals. Zinoviev and Kamenev side suddenly with Trotsky against Stalin (who teamed up with Bukharin – recognized as the smartest) Squeezed the others out of power and Trotsky was exiled. The peasants organized themselves, Kulaks rose Secret police ruled, political dictatorship Development of prison camps The party used propaganda against the Kulaks Launch of collectivization Bukharin is out, end of NEP Kulaks murdered by poor peasants Return to communism from the capitalism 1929 – Stalin in total control Stalin gives people their jobs  where his power comes from Head of the apparatus People would kiss up to him Trotsky’s handicaps • Jewish (along with Kamenev and Zinoviev) o Jews have been persecuted under the Roman empire for days o Seek out social justice o Many Jews were intellectuals, many among the Bolsheviks o Average Russians began to join the party, not intellectuals, Russians are very anti-Semitic • Too intellectual o Stuck in a world of ideas and theories, didn’t carry them out • Very arrogant o Recognized as a genius, but was highly arrogant 1929 – Totalitarian state under Stalin • Actually attempt to exercise total control over everything • Nobody has a private life • Absolute monarch • Given your power by god to do anything you want, under no law  
  40. 40. •   Don’t control everything necessarily, but nothing controls them  
  41. 41. 12/17/13 9:28 AM • •   1917 – 1923 Woodrow Wilson impact – US Entry, ending, peace treaties 1917 – 1939 for the soviet union, revolutions, collectivization, purges, Stalinism (1929 totalitarian state)  
  42. 42. Polarization • • • • • •   12/17/13 9:28 AM WWI was a world war • Used colonial troops • Many countries involved Was SUPPOSED to be the “war to end all wars”, make the world safe for democracy • Based on the idea that democracies don’t go to war with each other • Democracies were less likely to go to war together, and if they did it would be easy to solve. • Self-determination comes out of democracy. Wilson was from the south, believed strongly in state’s rights • Believed states could secede. Biggest issues with democracy • Could elect whatever government they wanted ie. communism • Vague idealistic concept • Rise of world wide communism (and therefore fascism) o Lead to cold war eventually WWI opened up a gigantic can of worms (commi worms lmao) • Metternich’s ideas about democracy o Democracy can’t happen overnight. o Monarchists existed – most vocal in France, believed that democracy would be bad for France. o Benefit of monarch/dictator – things get done, no uncertainty.  Provides stability (even if “morons”)  The stability and order outweigh the advantages of freedom  Democracy = chaos o Churchill “Democracy is a terrible form of government but it’s the best one we have.” o Very few nations succeed in becoming democratic overnight.  Czechoslovakia did, YAY! Anytime people are faced with the option for change, you end up with the political spectrum. • Left wing – radicals (want change!)  communist groups • Center left – liberals  socialist groups • Center – moderates  democratic groups  
  43. 43. • • • • • • •   Center right – conservatives  democratic, against socialism CAPITALISM! Right wing – reactionaries (do not want change)  monarchists • Extreme right – fascists, extreme authoritarianism Communism vs. socialism • Communism wants to completely create a new way of life. • Socialism wants government control of private enterprise Post WWI worldwide explosion of communism • Resulted in the existence of fascism Communism advantage – had power in numbers (appealed to the working/peasant class) Against communism: capitalists and the upper middle classes/churches/military officers/nobles eie  
  44. 44. 12/17/13 9:28 AM T95 Salient Points • Nationalism was strong during WWI and many socialist parties and workers mobilized with the rest of the country. • From the “Zimmerwald program,” the Third (Communist) International was formed in 1919. • The communists used the Comintern to isolate and wipe out moderate socialists and spread the idea of violent revolutions worldwide. • Lenin creates the Twenty-One Points to separate and expel the moderate socialists from the true Communists and determine which countries would actually follow the USSR. • In 1927 (Stalin’s rise to power) the Comintern was forced to be more moderate because of the Russia-wide suppression of Troskyism and worldwide revolution. • The soviets wanted the communists to join a coalition with socialist liberals to combat the rise fascism and fascist dictators. • The USSR disbanded the Comintern but Marxism had grown to 1/6 of the world. • • • • WIESNER’S LIST Socialists hoped that WWI would result in class warfare and that the enemies were truly the capitalists, not each other and this led to the worldwide surge of communism. Europe-wide (and in Japan and China) attempts at communist revolutions – worldwide communist movement. The Third International formed in 1919 and Lenin’s Twenty-One Points led to the domino theory being formed (any person who truly understands communism knows it must be worldwide, unbrainwash worldwide). Split between communist and moderate socialist parties (unclear in Germany 1918) because socialist wanted the government to control and regulate private enterprise while the communists didn’t want to make the workers and peasants happy because then the workers wouldn’t rise up and bring up ultimate communism (believed that socialism saves capitalism, socialism poisonous for communism).    
  45. 45. • • • • • • •   T96 Post-WWI the transition from war to peace created a worldwide depression as many soldiers were jobless and many farms and factories lost their market. Worldwide democracy was beginning to emerge but particularly in the newly formed states, none of which were created intentionally except for Poland. Great Britain and the US also experienced a rise in democratic measures such women’s suffrage and universal male suffrage for Great Britain. Italy did not experience a rise in democracy like the other nations due to Mussolini’s rise to power and the establishment of a fascist regime. New states embodied self-determination but because the cultures were intermixed there were still minority groups. New governments were forced to improvise since Eastern Europe was historically agrarian and now they had to deal with land reforms while keeping up with agricultural production. WIESNER’S LIST Post-War depression was a nightmare across Europe (1919-1923 – NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH THE GREAT DEPRESSION) because of the wartime economy shutdown (soldiers left unemployed and loss of a market), sudden collapse of agriculture prices with the move to machinery – fueled the communist movements.  
  46. 46. 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • • • • • • • • • • • The Social Democrats governed Germany during 1919-1933. The Social Democrats were caught in the middle of the polarization in post-war Europe between the communists and the reactionaries. The Freikorps began popping up (fascist paramilitary groups) to crush communist uprisings in Germany aided by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. In July 1919 the National Constituent Assembly met and established the Weimar Republic. The German people viewed the Treaty of Versailles as a Diktat but they were able to begin rebuilding themselves with the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922 with the establishment of a system of trade with the Soviet Union. The German government began printing off money it didn’t have and caused a high inflation, leaving the middle class destitute. The Dawes Plan was launched in 1924 to stimulate the German economy so that it could pay reparations and the Allies could pay back the US the money they owed. In 1925 many European powers signed a bunch of peaceable treaties at Locarno, Switzerland. All peace and economic progress halted when the Great Depression hit in 1929. WIESNER’S LIST Germany 1919-1923 – Immediate postwar period Freidrich Ebert (NSDP) 1924 – 29 Locarno Period The establishment of the Weimar republic – political chaos, revolution, economic collapse – hyper inflation. Communist rising and the Freikorps rising up to crush the communists. Polarization. November criminals, stab in the back. Bitter because of the Treaty of Versailles. Constitution too democratic. Needed a large middle class to stabilize itself. • Why the Weimar Republic held: o Knew they needed a constitutional monarchy – but they needed a monarch, Wilhelm II abdicated, SHOULD have been the crown prince but he was ALSO a moron (like his father lol) he was regarded as a joke – but firmly believed in legitimacy.    
  47. 47. • •  Wars of the Roses in Great Britain over legitimacy o Ebert wanted the constitutional monarchy, trying to bypass the crown prince. o People crowding around the town hall and Schidermann (?) declares that they will be a republic – non legal declaration. o BAM! Weimar Republic which was too democratic • All the judicial and executive branch were remnants from the monarchy. • Center held thanks to Ebert! • Ebert is now in the exact same position as Kerensky. • Ebert was successful by using the Freikorps to crush communist uprisings – YES YOU EBERT, YOU GO EBERT. • Held onto Germany until 1921 until hyper inflation hit. Germany was suffering from post-war depression (NOT GREAT DEPRESSION) – led to hyper inflation. (Everyone was suffering post-war depression to an extent – end of war economy, soldiers unemployed, war industries out of work, minimum consumer industries) • Hurt the middle class worst because they saved money and it all became worthless. • Secret to getting rich – borrow money and invest in capital, then use the capital to sell it back. • French seized the Ruhr, Germany went on strike. 1924-1929 Locarno period • Dawes plan went into effect o US loan money to Germany so they could pay back the Allies who could pay back the US o Economists told the US to forgive the Allies debt in order to not drag down the economies so that the economy could generate even more money  DIDN’T LISTEN •   Debt was not forgiven, Germany brought into League of Nations, Dawes Plan lead to Germany’s economic recovery  
  48. 48. Video 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • Men were forced to wear hair in ponytails – could be beheaded 1911 military revolt, overthrew the emperor (Qing Dynasty), hair was cut as a symbol of revolution Republic of China was declared Chiang Kai-shek (CKS) and Mao Zedong (MZ) were two revolutionaries that were against each other. The central government was weak and ineffective at the beginning of the republic Warlords took power – were a nightmare Fighting between warlords would kill people Many warlords were landlords and supported by a certain foreign power, China was torn apart by foreign powers English, France, Germany, US, Japan all had interest in major ports – spheres of influence “China was really messed up” – Mr. Wiesner Local control was a big thing Foreign devils was how they knew the foreigners – hated foreigners who wanted to “divide up” (invade) China 1919 – Chinese took to the streets to protest the dividing up of their country Sparked a vocal nationalism and intense search for political resolution. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was the leader of the national party – speeches drew crowds and followers Sun knew that he needed an army to defeat the warlords and unite the country – he appealed to western governments to support his cause, the Soviet Union wanted to help them because it needed friends in Asia England and the other countries didn’t want China to be united China had to cooperate with the Soviet Union – one condition was that the nationalists had to let communists into the party. Set up military academy outside of Canton – trained youths in order to be in the Northern expedition to unite china. Sun recruited the head of the academy – CKS to join him Highly enthusiastic about national affairs – wanted to build up China, • • escape from autocracy. CKS commanded many of China’s leaders Communists under CKS originally • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •    
  49. 49. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •   Sun and his wife traveled to Beijing to negotiate with warlords but he died not long after, sudden loss of their “incredible” leader – father of the Chinese republic (LIKE LENIN!) No one to take over and struggle for power in the party began. CKS emerged the victor and took the power, commander in chief of the northern expedition (campaign to unite the country) The young army set out not long after Won victory after victory – defeated 30 war lords, swept up to central china. The people were open to the army – hated warlords Held mass rallies – talked about defeating imperialists and warlords, asked peasants not to pay land rents or debt Many of the propaganda teams were communists Urged young girls to not bind their feet, urged women who had done it to UNBIND it (BAD IDEA….) If a young woman refused to cut her hair, they’d do it forcefully. Wanted to destroy the old culture and traditions Northern expedition was temporary concession between communists and nationalists CKS wanted to purge the party but it was difficult Planned to purge when party reached Shanghai Nationalists troops came to Shanghai and the purge struck Communists were shot by the Nationalists, many were killed Communists weapons taken away, warned to go home and not make trouble. CKS took full control of Shanghai Communists and workers held a demonstration against the betrayal but they were mowed down by machine guns When arrested, beaten with rifle buds (?) CKS’s purge spread, communists and left-wing organizers were arrested and thousands executed – absolutely brutal. 90% of the country were peasants CKS tried to establish a base in Nanking The success of the northern expedition earned him much credit with the foreign countries. Sets up a shrine for Sun, marries his sister in law (she was Christian)  
  50. 50. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •   Seemed like a new era was beginning – China was modernizing (business/middle class) WHAT ABOUT WORKERS/PEASANTS? • All modernization took place in the cities CKS said he organized and modernized the party, made it impossible for the communists to operate IN THE CITIES Top priority was to suppress communism in the cities which had gone underground Believed “better to kill an innocent one by mistake than let a guilty one go” • Used security police – SECRET POLICE? In factories, child labor was common, working class was miserable. • CKS only good for middle class Created perfect conditions for the communists to win over the workers Communists believed that revolution would happen as Marx had said. Key was to appeal to the peasants – primarily lived in countryside Communist party led by MZ. By 1927 he organized peasants in the south Made the area a fertile ground for communist activities Huge gaps between rich and poor in south China, rents high – collected decades in advance. Landlords called “masters of the earth” Treatment of women was horrendous – women were sold as maids and brides Communist organized peasant associations – unleashed pent up anger Fought against the landlords – violent class struggle Appealed to the poor – gave them food and clothes – redistribution of wealth Formed the red army under chairman MZ CKS was concerned because middle and upper classes were the base of his support Nationalists defeated by the red army – lured into the mountains and then pulled back, drew them in and then surround them and wipe them out. Wiped out Nationalist army groups Guerrilla warfare – nationalists continued to attack  
  51. 51. • • • • • • • • • •   CKS launched a movement against the communists (modeled after Confucianism and fascism) Failed to solve the peasants problems – therein lies the problem CKS gathered nearly 1 million soldiers and changed tactics – wanted to move step by step – stronghold tactic Communists changed their tactics – biggest mistake, Comintern sent in an adviser Otto Braun (German) who claimed that the golden age of guerilla warfare was over, needed traditional warfare now MZ stopped going to military meetings, he lost his position as head and guerilla tactics were abandoned Tried to use stronghold tactic but it was unsuccessful for them – no planes or canons so the communists shrank Nationalists were winning Already lost much popular support – losing badly by 1934, lead to long march Communist organizers arrested by nationalists Women tortured  
  52. 52. 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • • • • • • • • • Asian resentment towards the Western powers rose between the 19th-20th century which led to the two sided revolt in which the Asians both wanted to rebel against the imperial system yet learn from and imitate the Western Powers in order to be politically and economically equal. The Russo-Japanese war in 1905 was the first victory against a Western Power that inspired later revolutions in Persia, Turkey, and China in which each revolution tried to revive, modernize, and westernize their countries to avoid domination by Western Powers. Due to Asian involvement in WWI the “home governments” compromised with Asian countries and granted some measures of self-government such as a legislative assembly. After viewing the Bolshevik revolution and the immediate success of the USSR the Asian countries adopted a doctrine of self modernization WIESNER’S LIST Major movement of nationalism in Asia to gain independence from the imperialists There were revolutions going on throughout Asia (Persia, Turkey, China) and the Russo-Japanese war. The imperialists began to give more freedom (India got a parliament and wanted home rule). Turkey managed to drive out the Greeks and Western Allies because of the Ottoman Empire collapse and modern Turkey was forming and wanted to become democratic and secular (not religious). Iran (Persia) was historically threatened by the Soviet Union and the British but ultimately the British installed the Shah Reza Kahn in 1925 (later overthrew in 1979 – Persepolis!) Gandhi and Nehru were leaders in India which suffered the nightmare of being split between Muslims and Hindus (most violent split in the world) which lead to Pakistan being formed (now secular but many support the Taliban).    
  53. 53. Capitalism • • 12/17/13 9:28 AM COMES IN STAGES • Capital • Profit – reinvest • Cycle of reinvestment First book on science of economics was written by Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations” • Adam Smith was a moral philosopher – father of David Hume o David Hume said all human beings are governed by emotions  Emotions  economics “Reason is and ought only to be the slave of passion.” Opposite is governed by reason – Spock on Star Trek lol. Greed/Want & Desire drives capitalism • Actually desire material wealth – goods & services • Nations had believed that gold and silver = wealth, even now people argue for that • People were terrified by the reliance on paper money. Adam Smith said people want goods & services – that’s the wealth of people • Because we believe it brings us happiness • The wealth of a nation is determined by the ability to produce goods and services. o Capital – anything that produces goods and services o More capital = produce more goods and services Shipping business • Capital is ships/railroad o Someone has to make the ship  Shipyard is their capital Goal is to make a monopoly • Vertical – is own everything from production (make ships, use ships, etc.) • Horizontal – own everything on one level (own all the ships)   • • • • • •   Intellectual capital – when your skill is your capital CAPITALISTS = Entrepreneurs • For example:  
  54. 54. • • • • • • • o Metal smith o Writer/Composer o Stock brokers Liquid capital – the cash your business has • Can use that money to buy more capital • Liquidity is when your business has cash so you could but any capital you want • Business’s need liquidity to use to buy capital All is governed by desire. Food has a limited expansion compared to other goods The more capital you have the more goods and services you can produce. • Nations want to produce goods and services – their wealth o Need mines o Shipyards o Factories/machines o Don’t want the product you sell, you want the thing that produces the product o YOU WANT THE CAPITAL, NOT THE PRODUCT The wealth of nations is capital – but the capital is privately owned by capitalists. • Want it privately owned because the capitalists are greedy – wants to get richer and richer. o The capitalist is irrational – wants capital, more than goods and services To make a profit • Don’t want to use profit to buy goods and services – true profit is used to BUY MORE CAPITAL – reinvest. • We want the capitalists to keep making goods and services – drives the prices down. Cycle of reinvestment - expansion • Start off with capital (ie factories and mines, shipyards, machine shops, railroad yards) • You need to hire workers – more capital you have, the more jobs •   you produce When you hire more workers, wages increase. o Supply and demand – high demand drives the price up  
  55. 55. • • • •   o Demand for workers increases, the cost of the workers must increase. o The nightmare for capitalism is that the vast majority of people on earth are agrarian workers. o Since you’re mechanizing agriculture, you need less peasants/workers  But they’re all moving to cities  Surplus of peasants to fill the jobs  Keeps the wages down  The US brought in other peoples peasants  The wages didn’t increase like they were supposed to  The US outsources to get cheap workers  Third-world countries – haven’t been modernized/industrial revolution  To get capitalism to work the way it’s supposed to, all countries must undergo industrial revolution. When you have wages increase, workers, and capital  gives you more goods and services o Workers have increased wages to purchase goods and services o Cannot let supply exceed demand o Wages and goods and services must stay balanced o More wages = more demand, can buy more o Supply must increase too o Wages create the demand o If supply doesn’t increase, inflation occurs o Prices of supplies = wages The capitalists get profit which they then use to buy more capital Back to beginning of the cycle Keeps going until it doesn’t  cycle of recession  
  56. 56. 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • •   NEVER mix up the Great Depression and post-war depression • Post-war depression o They were in a war economy therefore the entire country was producing war material and when the war ended, everything stopped.  Loss of capital = loss of jobs, loss of production of goods and services o All the nations were in debt, Britain and France in debt to the US and themselves. o Private capitalists got all the war profit (the money that the country spent on goods & services) which they reinvest into capital for consumer goods and services. o 1919 – everyone’s unemployed and there are no goods. o 5 years to recover – Roaring Twenties (Locarno period) 1924 – Everything’s back to normal, rapid expansion. • At Locarno all the economists told them to drop the reparations and the war debt that Britain and France owed them. o The war debt would drag the cycle down. o Forgiving debt and reparations would generate more money in the long run. o Came up with the Dawes plan instead – fund Germany’s cycle that would pay back Britain and France who would pay back the US.  Temporarily allowed the expansion to take place for 5 years.  Roaring German twenties hehe. • Agriculture never recovered after the war – the beginning of the end of the family farm. o Because everything was being mechanized. o During the war, the farms started to grow cash crops – overproduced and post war the prices dropped. o Could not afford the machinery they needed to make a profit. o Didn’t hurt too badly… everyone was industrialized, urban. What went wrong  
  57. 57. • • • • Wages weren’t high enough – didn’t increase according to the cycle of capitalism. o Assembly lines used in factories – used unskilled labor. o Didn’t have to raise wages. o With innovation – able to manufacture more goods and services with less labor o Everything is expanding and increasing except for wages. Prices should go down – so that people can buy stuff. o Stop making so much profit. o Halts cycle  recession Starts to function on credit o Start borrowing to expand – BAD IDEA o Now have a false expansion, creating a house of cards. o Based on the law of supply and demand, the price of borrowing money goes up – interest. o The federal reserve should have decreased the money supply to make it harder to borrow – stopping the false expansion. o Should stop the borrowing which would stop the false expansion and lead us to the correct recession (capitalism is a system of expansion and contraction) o Federal reserve increases money supply, fuels the false expansion. o In an economic boom but it’s a false one… o Cannot continue indefinitely, must collapse at some point. By 1929 credit was running out – entered what should’ve been a major corrective recession o Didn’t want a harsh recession – a depression o Government should have loosened the money supply a little so that it was a soft landing when we go down – and we will go down. o The government tightened the money supply – leads directly to the stock market crash o Why the stock market crashed    Everything was on paper - $100k in stocks is NOT equal to $100k…  
  58. 58. The value of the stock is based on what people pay for it.  People bid for the stock – increases the price but has nothing to do with the company or its profit.  A stock is worth $100 because the last guy bought it for $100.  People would form fake companies – and people would invest in it  Bidding forces stock prices to rise – over inflation  Everybody was buying on margin – put down 10% of the stock and borrow 90%  Prices rising 10x faster than should have  All the money suddenly disappeared.  Absolute collapse – people lost everything overnight o All the money that was borrowed from banks couldn’t be paid back – banks went under  Savings accounts disappeared – banks closed their doors o When the banks go under, the capitalists can’t borrow any more and when the capitalists go under, the capital is gone and the workers lose their jobs and stop buying goods and services. Complete halt of the cycle. o Should’ve been a moderate spiral, and the government should have tightened the supply but they didn’t. o 1929 they should have loosened it for a soft landing but they tightened it and we crashed down into a downward spiral. Arch conservative Republicans go to Hoover and said to make the Smoot-Hawley tariff. o Huge tariff on imports, force Americans to buy American goods o In turn, other countries tariff us overnight. o Complete halt of international trade  • •     Collapse of the world economy Collapse of the Dawes plan, German unemployment rises from 650k to 3mil in 6 months  
  59. 59. • •   People wanted Hoover to intervene and save the banks but he believed firmly in private enterprise Roosevelt elected in 1932 o Roosevelt’s new deal – 1932 o Made America socialist o Government came in and saved everyone.  
  60. 60. 12/17/13 9:28 AM Arch enemy of communism • Because communism has collectives • Fascism wants class harmony, not warfare. • Whole idea of the collective is you exist for the collective and it exists for you Fascism you exist for the state. • Under communism there is no state. Fascism is pure nationalism – only the state Fascism glorifies war, believes that war is good. Communists brought the fascists into existence. Harsh polarization.    
  61. 61. Mussolini Video Notes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •   12/17/13 9:28 AM Mussolini and Hitler had a dangerous relationship. Mussolini believed he was a young Julius Caesar. Benito Mussolini grew up on the countryside, his father was a dedicated socialist and took him to meetings. When he was 8, he was sent off to catholic boarding school. He was taught to be rebellious by his socialist father. In July 1902 he went into Switzerland to escape military service (something he would later execute people for) Joins the socialist party – quickly rises in its ranks, put him in the far left of the party. Was arrested many times for his activities. He ran a socialist newspaper – found his calling in print. Gave him the power to not only publish lies but to make himself known. Appointed editor of Italy’s top newspaper. When WWI started, Italians did not want to enter (along with Mussolini) but he quickly turned around and signed up for combat and started his own newspaper. Feb 1917 – Mussolini was injured and used it to his advantage. By 1919 Italy was in chaos, on the brink of civil war. Italian middle classes feared the rise of communism and he took advantage of that, promised to restore order for the middle class. 1919 he formed the fascist party to stop the communists. Formed the Blackshirts squad to crush the communist uprising. His party was unbeatable, called for himself to be named dictator. Believed he could bring back the glory days of the Roman Empire. Postwar discontent allowed Mussolini to mount a campaign to overthrow the government. March on Rome  make the King rule him premier (Prime Minister) He was just GIVEN power but he still went with the March on Rome to convince people he got power through force. He was deeply insecure – hey me too! #twinsies Mussolini was a good speaker, could win over anyone He wanted complete control – prime minster job wasn’t enough. He won control over every aspect of the government – built his own cabinet.  
  62. 62. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • He ruled through violence and in 1924 he was almost brought down. A socialist blasted the fascist party and he was murdered – turned the public against him. • VERY controversial. Disbands all other political parties – totalitarian one party state under the Fascist party. Was able to win the people back with his orator skills. He know he needed the popularity of the church, in 1929 he won the Vatican’s approval. Made sure people knew he was responsible for the modernism in Italy – made the trains run on time whooooo. His propaganda machine won over the masses – CUTE TIGER PLAY. Although he used to condemn censorship, it was his great rise to power. Edited all newspaper publishing. The Mussolini’s were equivalent to a royal family. He believed he was a modern Julius Caesar Attracted the attention of Hitler – he asked for an autograph awwww Mussolini was the most powerful dictator for 10 years when Hitler took power. Sent his congrats to Hitler. Hitler greatly admired Hitler – Nazis modeled after Fascists. Mussolini never liked Hitler hahahaha. Hitler ordered the murder of Mussolini’s ally – chancellor of Austria. Mussolini wanted to protect Austria – took it as a threat. Mussolini did not want Austria to join with Germany. Mussolini ordered mandatory military instruction for every Italian – preparing for war with Germany. During 1935 and 1936 he did not trust Hitler, assured the Allies that he was on his side. 1935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia. • Because Italy tried in 1896 and was beaten by Ethiopia LMAO. • Made secret pact with Britain and France but the public was outraged – deal fell through •   League of Nations failed to protect Ethiopia – league now dead.  
  63. 63. • • • • •   Mussolini is now with Hitler. Told Hitler that he was anti semitic - outrageous to Jews back in Italy. 1938 - stripped Italian Jews of their freedom. 1938 he had no formal alliance with Germany but Italy did not want this war. Mussolini knew Hitler was about to invade Poland but he signed the Pact of Steel with Hitler.  
  64. 64. Hitler Rise to Power 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • • He was a psychopath! Background information on Hitler Purely for interest – not to be put on the exam • • • Dad was named Alois – born a bastard, took his mother’s name. Was a peasant, gained a minor administrative job with the customs office Alois Schicklgruber was married three times • With his 3rd wife an 80 year old man came into town and said that he was his father “Son, I’m your daddy!” • He used the name “Hitler” • Alois was legitimized under the name Hitler • April 20, 1889 Adolf Hitler was born to Alois and his 3rd wife 1905 he was an orphan – financed by orphan’s benefits Liked art!  • • • • • • • • • 1908 moves to Vienna – greatest city in Europe at the time Tries to get into art school – is rejected lol. Moved with his best friend but suddenly he left and went to a homeless shelter – had no money Painted watercolor postcards and sold them, cuteeee. Hitler began to hate the rich and the nobles Began to hate the Jews also • Beyond normal disdain of Jews that white Christians had • Began to hate the slavs o Hitler is most likely part Czech :o o Psychotic image that Jews were destroying Europe • Wiesner’s theory was the main governing drive of Hitler was hate which drove his desire for power. o Sacrifice both ideology and power to act upon his hatred. o Developed when he was a starving artist in Vienna 1919 – 1923 • Postwar depression throughout Europe and the US • Russia •   o 1919 civil war raging o 1922 – 23 establishment of the Soviet Union Italy  
  65. 65. • • • • 1924 • • • 1930 • • • •   o Mussolini’s rise to power – march on Rome 1922  Hitler asked for autograph, awwww. Germany o Weimar Republic – rise of Communists and Freikorps to crush the Communist uprising  Civil War in Germany between commis and freikorps o Great inflation wiped their money supply out Hitler part of a gang that had marches – no big activity but would counter march the communists – 1929 Locarno period/Roaring Twenties Dawes plan in Germany – unemployment 650k (incredibly low) Lenin died, Stalin established totalitarian state. – 1934 Great Depression Hitler’s rise to power – January 30, 1933 – legally appointed chancellor August 2nd 1934 NEVER FORGET – HITLER WAS BAD.  
  66. 66. Hitler • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12/17/13 9:28 AM Hitler was on the fringe until 1930 Think of the Nazi party as a gang “street agitators” • Unknown to the general public Communism brought the “street agitators” into existence – Germany being polarized • People realizing the merchants of death profited off war while the workers kept dying in the war • Believed capitalism caused WWI WWI caused by the big 3 – imperialism, nationalism, and the arms race 1919-1923 Germany is in chaos • Civil war – communists and freikorps (extreme wanted the monarchy back) Hitler was an observer (like a spy) to listen in on the German Worker’s Party (not really a party… more like a discussion group) The army was supporting all right wing groups Hitler made a speech at the German Worker’s Party and they were super impressed – he ends up joining the group. 1920 on Hitler’s 31st birthday – he leaves the army to take over the German Worker’s Party which he now expands into basically a group of street agitators. Most people didn’t know about the little groups. Hitler gets support from the army – main guy who helps him is Capt. Ernst Rohm. Has to convince the other groups to join him. What is National Socialism? Summarized (from Hitler with Anton Drexler) in his 25 points – used ideas already existing though • Main idea – Communism is international, it destroys the state, creates a world of soviets • Kills the true idea of history – no state to serve (point of existence) • People turn communist because they know that the capitalists are exploiting them. o Capitalists are screwing the workers over.    
  67. 67. • • • National Socialists agree with hatred of capitalism but it’s a mix of fascism (working for the state) and communism (hatred of exploitation from capitalists) Sits with Drexler for months decided how to come up with the 25 points. Mixes in Folkish (Volkische) ideas (racism) • Believes in the superior Aryan race (blonde hair, blue eyes) 1. Greater Germany – uses Self-Determination a. Lost great parts of land – Germans living in those areas b. Believes (by self-determination) that those areas should be German 2. Demand equal rights – revocation of Treaty of Versailles and St. Germain 3. Demand “breathing space” (Lebensraum) – colonies basically 4. Aryan can only be member of the nation (and therefore a citizen of the state) – no Jews. a. Jewish people were both the communists (Trostky etc.) and the capitalists (department store owners, bankers) 5. Non-Citizens (Jews) may live in Germany only as guests and must be subject to laws for aliens. 6. The state is duteous to give everyone a job (NOTE only citizens… no Jews!) 7. Every citizen must be able to work 8. “The abolition of incomes unearned by work” – capitalists, people who live off stocks, investments, landlords, etc. 9. Nationalization of all businesses – extreme socialism 10. Profit sharing with large industries 11. Extensive development of insurance for old age – social security basically! • 1923 – France occupies the Ruhr and GREAT inflation! • Hitler tries to pull off the Beer Hall Putsch – imitate the march on Rome • Herman Goering • Number 2 to the Red Bearing • Head of the SA – storm troopers • Julius Streicher •   • Number 1 anti semetic • Der Strumer – pornographic antisemetic newspaper Dr. Joseph Gobbels  
  68. 68. • •   • Head of Nazi propaganda • Blindly follows Nazism Rudolph Hess • Seen as second in command – in charge of the Nazi party • Believed Hitler to be a god Heinrich Himmler • Head of a group within the SA (the SS) which he grew into the main group to replace the SA • Ultimately in charge of the Holocaust – headed all the concentration camps • In charge of the Gestapo (secret police)  
  69. 69. 12/17/13 9:28 AM • • July 1932 • Did not want to have an election – did not need to. • General Kurt Von Schleicher was operating as head behind the scenes. o Has a lot of influence on the civilian government. o German army traditionally stayed out of government. o He did not want an election – unemployment up to 5 million. o Knew people were turning to National Socialism out of fear and desperation for a messiah (not just a leader or dictator, someone to save them) o Lower middle class voted for Hitler – got money from upper middle class • Should’ve become a constitutional monarchy – have a monarch in control. o Big money industrialists didn’t want to give money to Hitler because the 25-points were anti-capitalist. • Two of the top Nazis (Ernst Roehm (heads the SA) and Gregor Strasson) o Want a left-wing fascist movement – the 25 points. STRONGLY national socialist. o Hitler is meeting with the upper middle class and claims the 25 points is only propaganda to get support of the workers and soldiers. Says he will support the upper middle class after gaining power. o Talks about the “big lie” in Mein Kampf  If you tell a big lie over and over, people will believe it. o Hitler tells the top 2 Nazis that he’s lying to the upper middle class to get the money. o They do NOT fully trust Hitler. Dilemma after July 1932 election • There is NO majority to form a coalition. • Nazi’s need to appeal to either the Nationalists or the Commis •   Need a coalition to choose a Chancellor and a cabinet – NO GOVERNMENT  
  70. 70. Offer Hitler Vice-Chancellorship to unite with Democratic to form 3/5 majority. o Vice Chancellorship is an independent position – not succeeding the Chancellor (not like Vice President)  Vice Chancellor has power – votes and has power.  Is a real cabinet minister, NOT a successor.  If the Chancellor dies, the Reichstag elects another o 2/11 ministries offered to Nazis • Hitler declines – angering the top Nazis. • Hitler should automatically be chancellor – has the largest party, but HE’S CRAZY! • Hindenburg is 83 years old and president – is he mentally competent? LOL, he’s semi-senile. o But he knows that he would NOT allow Hitler to have a position in the government. • But what to do? General Schleicher steps in • Hindenburg can appoint ministers without Reichstag approval. o But they have no legal power – not ratified by the Reichstag. o Everything is collapsing! • Goes farther – picks Franz Von Papen. o Papen is a joke, not taken seriously. o Has backing from upper middle classes, he’s a monarchist. • Schleicher (leans to the left…) forces Papen to resign. • Back to having no government. • Unemployment continuing to rise. • Hold another National Election o Nazi support fell because Hitler didn’t accept Vice Chancellor • Schleicher makes himself Chancellor – another illegally appointed government. o Lasts 54 days. • Knows Hitler won’t accept Vice Chancellor. • • •   Offers it to Gregor Strassor – true National Socialist. o Could’ve marginalized Hitler.  
  71. 71. • • o Strassor goes home, quits the party, and takes a vacation to Italy. January 30, 1933 • If the army was 500,000 – could have a military dictator but army isn’t big enough. • No monarch. • Hindenburg is semi-senile. • Brink of the abyss. • Papen comes up with a “brilliant” idea – works out a deal with Hitler. • Make Hitler Chancellor BUT Papen will be vice chancellor – control hitler. • 8/11 ministries non-Nazi – 3/11 Nazi • Hindenburg reluctantly agrees. • Hitler legally – with Reichstag backing, becomes the Chancellor of Germany. (WAY TO GO GERMANY…) August 2, 1934 – Hitler consolidating power • Both Papen and Schleicher wanted Hitler because he had 230 seats in the Reichstag. • The reason they took the gamble: o Polarized o Needed the 230 seats o Thought they could control Hitler #lolnope • Everybody believes that Hitler is only temporary – and he knows it, knows they’re just using him. o NO intention of being controlled • Hitler has one major advantage o There were many people in Germany against the Weimar republic. o Hitler knows upper class hate the Weimar republic and want to get rid of it. o The upper class think he will be an expedient to dismantle the Weimar republic o They think he’ll do that then get rid of him o Grossly underestimated Adolf Hitler    
  72. 72. Hitler has the backing of the German Army General Blumberg (Schleicher out) comes in Schleicher secretly remilitarizing but Sekt took credit Hitler calls a new election – which he can control, NOT TRULY A LEGAL ELECTION. • The Reichstag Fire (almost certain it’s Herman Goering) • Communists + Socialists still get ~200 seats. March 23, 1933 – locks the Communists out • The Enabling Act – MAKES HIM DICTATOR (NOT LEGAL/SEMILEGAL) • All the monarchists are loving this • Hitler knows he needs to make himself permanent. April 1st • Hitler announces national boycott against the Jews o Because they’re the bankers and the communists • Hitler needs to keep the army, high nobility, and the upper class industrialists on his side. May 2 • Dismantles trade unions – strength of the workers • Nobody knows why they don’t fight back… • Hitler is trying to give the Germans a feeling of wellbeing by holding well-planned marches July 14 • Eliminates the other parties (all within 3 months!) • 1 party – the Nazi party • Now the 8/11 non-Nazi parties mean NOTHING, no parties • Initiated programs to put people back to work though had existed prior to Hitler (like the New Deal!) o Mussolini was the first to use those (Roosevelt took inspiration from him) • Start secretly making weapons – secret remilitarization • Everyone feels appeased, why replace him? • Those against him just gave up • • • • • • • • •   January 30, 1934 (anniversary of appointment of Chancellor) • Eliminates state governments – slipping into totalitarianism. • Upper class and industrialists are loving it.  
  73. 73. No major moves against the Jews yet (boycott was sort of ineffective) • 4 million man SA – to keep him in power (under Ernst Rohm) o Believed the SA would become the new people’s army o Ultimate true National Socialist o Regular army saying get rid of Rohm and the SA • Schleicher is trying to get back in, working a compromise between the SA and the army. • Ernst Rohm has always been independent – ignores requests to disband the SA Hindenburg is dying.. who will be above Hitler? • Will NOT let Hitler rule alone with his SA so Hitler makes a deal with the army. • Get rid of SA and then when Hindenburg dies, Hitler becomes both President and Chancellor • Begins to plan Night of the Long Knives (Rohm putsch!) Plans with the SS, lead by Himmler • June 29, 1934 – begins the putsch • June 30 – SA disbanded • Only couple hundred guys killed… including Gregor Strassor (OP.) • Hitler will not give the order to kill Rohm, gives the option for Rohm to commit suicide. • Finally after a few days he gives the order (unlike Stalin who doesn’t hesitate at all) • The SA has gone bye-bye, replaced by SS. Army keeps its word, in July Hindenburg dies. August 2nd, 1934 – Hitler is made President of Germany. • Now combined Chancellor and President • NO ONE is above him. • Blumberg has the army swear a personal oath of allegiance to Hitler • Hitler is the dictator of Germany. • Only group that could remove him is the army, but he takes care of it in 4 years. • • • • • • •   German people are now having marches and sing-alongs and organized activities for young people Gives the feeling of togetherness  
  74. 74. •   How can this be bad? (Well Hitler’s a psychopath…)  
  75. 75. 12/17/13 9:28 AM    
  76. 76. 12/17/13 9:28 AM