Masons manuel


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How to make precast roofs, arch panel technology

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Masons manuel

  1. 1. Making of an Arch panel roof - step by step guide
  2. 2. Some of the tiles which can be used in the panels, Compressed earth tile, water proofing tile and table moulded tile. The criteria in seclection is that the tile chosen should have a minimum compressive strength of 35 Kgs/cm2.
  3. 3. The tile used should be soaked for sometime, for better adhesion to cement.
  4. 4. A casting mould needs to be prepared on the ground. The panels are made on this mould. The size of the panels should be determined such that it is of a dimension and weight that can be carried easily by one person.
  5. 5. Preparation of the mould- as per the size of the panel, a brick edge is laid on all four sides and the center filled with sand. The steel template is then dragged along the length of the mould so that the sand gets the required curvature and then the surface is plastered with cement mortar of 1:10 ratio.
  6. 6. The steel template is needed, to place the tiles in proper position. It also is a guide for the G.I wires(5mm dia or 8 gauge ), which is the reinforcement for the panel.
  7. 7. A thin layer of sand is poured in between the tiles to prevent the cement mortar from sticking to the mould. Then cement Mortar is poured till half the tile height, after which the G.I. wire is inserted. The rest of the joint is then packed tightly with cement mortar.
  8. 8. The joints are filled with cement mortar (1:3). Note the newspapers between the mould and panel, to prevent mortar sticking to the casting mould. The panel is to be left on the mould for a day, after which it can be moved.
  9. 9. The panel is to be left on the mould for a day, after which it can be moved to the stacking area.
  10. 10. Finished panels are stacked like this, joints are finished. The panel is cured for fifteen days. One mason and two helpers make twenty five panels in a day.
  11. 11. Concrete beams are also cast on the ground, in a brick or steel or a wooden template.
  12. 12. Cured beams, ready to be assembled on the roof.
  13. 13. First time makers of panel should test the panels on ground to check for errors and for confidence building in the masons. The Panel has to be installed on ground, in a similar situation as on roof. i.e. same bearing and end conditions. Please note that in the picture, the bearing is too much. Sand bags can be kept at the edge of the panels to provide a restraint like a beam would, when installed on the roof. After this it can be loaded by sand bags or people standing on the panel. The panel in the picture supported 7 men before it failed.
  14. 14. Progressive loading
  15. 15. Final load
  16. 16. Assembly on the roof
  17. 17. The beams are lifted and placed on the wall. The G.I wire of the arch panel is tied to the reinforcement of the beam. Note the concrete tie beam on which the beams are placed.
  18. 18. Lifting of beams
  19. 19. Beams in place
  20. 20. Lifting of panels on to the beams
  21. 21. Temporary props The beam is a “partially-cast” beam, which will not have its designed strength till the roof is cast and cured. So temporary props, like those shown in the picture need to be provided at every third length of the beam.
  22. 22. Packing of joints, A continuous G.I. wire is inserted in joints between two panels, all thorough the width of the roof. The joints are then packed with cement mortar, both from the top as well as the bottom.
  23. 23. The joints between the panels are packed with cement mortar. Note- the provisions for electrical points and conduiting are to made. On top of this reinforcement of 8mm at .45m c/c is laid and 50mm thk concrete is laid. This completes the making of an arch panel roof.
  24. 24. Finished arch panel roof.
  25. 25. Thank you