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Human enhancements 
Redefining what it means 
to be human 
Character Education for a Challenging Century 
Geneva 
22 October 2014
Introduction
Education is concerned 
with developing the 
person
Character education is 
centred in the human 
! 
Character resides in 
individual humans
Character education 
fosters particularly 
human traits: courage, 
mindfulness, ethics
So a firm notion of what 
it means to be human is 
a vital foundation for 
character education.
But what it means to 
be human is changing
New technologies can 
augment our existing 
cognitive and physical 
capacities in novel ways
Traditional limits to 
perception and 
performance may no 
longer hold
What does that mean for 
our idea of what it is to 
be human?
What does it mean for 
character education?
History
Long history of 
augmenting human 
capacities with 
technology
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Equally long history of 
developing prosthetics 
to compensate for 
reduced function
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Enhancing human 
capabilities is a well-established 
human 
endeavour 
(perhaps a defining 
characteristic).
It hasn’t stopped us 
developing moral codes 
or striving to be more 
courageous.
So the changes 
described here don’t 
mean the end of 
character
But they do change how 
it will be demanded of 
people
and that needs a 
response from you.
Cosmetic pharmacology 
Prosthetics 
Genetic enhancement 
Networked minds
Cosmetic pharmacology
Use of drugs by people 
without disease to 
enhance cognitive and 
physiological 
performance
‘smart drugs’
‘nootropics’
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Ritalin 
Modafinil (Provigil) 
Adderall 
Beta-blockers 
Nutraceuticals
Improving alertness and 
mental function
Improving affect and 
mood
Used by professionals 
and students
1 in 5 Nature readers 
used drugs for focus 
and concentration 
(Nature survey, 2008)
Around a quarter of UK 
students at Oxford, 
Newcastle & Leeds have 
used Modafinil (The Tab, 
2014)
Culture of medication
Global access to cheap 
pharmaceuticals online
History of presenting 
enhancements as 
treatments 
Fen-Phen 
Estrogen replacement
Demands of a 
knowledge economy 
Intellectual labour 
Emotional labour
Demonstration of 
character might be 
made possible through 
taking a drug
Or the capacity for 
demonstrating character 
might be enabled 
through 
pharmacological 
intervention
If students use these 
drugs, are they 
cheating?
If using smart drugs 
becomes common 
practice, will all students 
have equal access?
What sort of pressure 
will students face from 
schools or parents?
How can the dangers of 
unregulated 
pharmaceuticals be 
made clearer?
If doctors and 
firefighters can function 
better, shouldn’t they?
Genetic enhancement
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Inserting genes into 
cells
Mitigating ageing 
damage, improving 
physical stamina, 
reducing risk of disease
Interaction between 
genetic and 
environmental factors is 
complex
Stem cell treatment for 
macular degeneration 
Injecting human 
embryonic stem cells 
behind retina 
Improved visual acuity
Preventing loss of muscle 
mass 
Mechano-growth factor 
and IGF-I gene 
Potential sports doping
Treatments for Type-1 
diabetes in development 
Growing insulin-producing 
β cells 
Teams at Harvard, ViaCyte
Different forms of 5-HTTPLR 
associated with happiness, 
moral choices 
“carriers of the short (S) allele 
showed particular reluctance to 
endorse utilitarian actions 
resulting in foreseen harm to an 
innocent individual.” Marsh et al. 
(2011)
More effective than 
simply managing long-term 
health issues
Technological barriers 
falling
Ageing populations 
mean new markets for 
biotech firms
Risk of profiling and 
discrimination by 
insurers and employers
Potential for sports 
doping, improving 
stamina and endurance.
Can you just ‘turn on’ 
loyalty or courage? 
Should you?
Shouldn’t we try to 
improve life? Don’t we 
do that already?
Prosthetics
Making good the loss of 
body function
i-limb 
Individually articulated 
fingers with variable 
force library of gestures 
managed via 
smartphone app
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Nerve-controlled robot 
leg 
Connecting with the 
central nervous system 
to co-ordinate 
movements
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Augmenting existing 
capabilities
Exoskeletons 
Giving shipyard workers 
the capacity to lift large 
weights
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Google Glass
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Moving from a deficit 
model to a sense of 
enlarging human 
capabilities
Frontiers: biohacking, 
performance art 
Stelarc 
Orlan
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Perhaps today we need 
character to live with a 
prosthetic
Perhaps tomorrow we’ll 
need character to live 
without them
Networked minds
Idea of ‘network’ 
established in sociology 
Castells’ ‘network 
society’ 
Latour/Callon/Law 
‘actor-network theory’
But ‘network’ more than 
a metaphor now
The web and internet 
have made us all nodes 
in a real network
(Most of us still use 
keyboards or glass 
screens to join in)
Using patterns of brain 
activity to directly 
control computers
Reading 
electroencephalograms 
and sending signals to 
software or hardware
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Implants can affect more 
than motor function
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
“The pain, fear, anxiety 
and depression are 
pretty much completely 
gone”
Unpredictable effects in 
neurotypical or ‘healthy’ 
people
Commercial brain-computer 
interfaces also 
available 
NeuroSky 
Emotiv
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
From minds in networks 
to minds of networks
Algorithmic machine 
intelligence 
Amazon 
recommendations 
Contextual advertising
‘Strong AI’ won’t be like 
the movies
But some version of it 
might care for you when 
you’re older
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
How can we develop 
new norms for online 
behaviour?
What new forms of 
agency are there?
How do networked 
prosthetics change our 
idea of the body?
How do we recognise 
machines as moral 
actors?
Implications
Tempting to ask, “what 
demands are made of 
character when 
everyone has 
superpowers?”
Our culture has some 
suggestions
‘use my powers for 
good, not evil’
Human enhancement: redefining what it means to be human
‘with great power comes 
great responsibility’
But we won’t be a 
society of superheroes
Different augmentations 
will be chosen by (or 
imposed on) different 
people for different 
reasons
The effect of widespread 
technological 
augmentation will be to 
increase diversity
People will have a 
greater range of 
capabilities
There will be greater 
differences between 
people’s experience and 
perception
So people will need to 
be:
Sensitive to the 
differences between 
them and other people
Aware that they can’t tell 
what sort of capabilities 
other people have
Prepared for life with 
different powers, or 
none
Potential to give people 
the moral framework 
needed to adapt 
positively to an 
augmented world
But failure means letting 
technological 
capabilities lead the way 
“if we can do it, we 
should do it”
So there’s more need for 
character education than 
ever before
And more need to be 
clear what we mean by 
‘character’
Thank you 
! 
richard.sandford@bristol.ac.uk

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