Zara Case Study


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Zara Case Study

  1. 1. MIS HBS ZARA CASE STUDY IT for fast fashion - Axelle GRANGIER - Moïse ELMAALEM - Tiphaine GABREAU - Sarah KHEMISS - Samuel BERHMANI 12/2/2009
  2. 2. 1 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY SUMMARY Table of Contents Identify the general characteristics of the sector and the constraints ................................................... 2 Inditex business model ........................................................................................................................ 2 Sectorial constraints ............................................................................................................................ 3 Model the value chain and how IS supports it ........................................................................................ 5 How exposed the company to technology risk ....................................................................................... 8 Should the project to revenge the IS be fully or practically externalize ................................................. 9 Which solution would you recommend and why. ................................................................................ 10 BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  3. 3. 2 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Identify the general characteristics of the sector and the constraints Inditex business model Zara is the most profitable brand of Inditex. It has opened his first store in 1975 in La Coruna in Spain. Today, it has become the central headquarters for Zara. The group is present in all continents: Europe, America, Asia and Africa. Zara has developed a business model based on short deadlines, decrease quantities and a great choice of style and clothes. The company succeeds to make moderate prices with a large choice of new clothes every time. The success of ZARA is based on two principals: follow the trend to be able to sell garments at a moment where people want this kind of style, without using any advertisements as the concurrence does. They don’t want to convince people to buy their clothes but give the public what they desire at the moment. Secondly, the trust that had been given to employees allowed the company to delegate. They decide what clothes should be in stores, the designed the garments by pairs for a specific collection. Their role is to create clothes not to be sold for a long time but only for a short period in appropriateness with the current trend. The goal: of the firm is to convince the consumer to buy their clothes. Their bid: they propose and deliver all fashion style at the moment and they don’t want to make marketing for old or past fashion collections. The infrastructure: Zara only works with stores. They don’t make merchandising in internet. The stores are based in the strategic place of towns. The design and the organization of the stores are changed every four years behind the indications and orders of La Coruna in order to be creative and innovative all the time. So, in the beginning of 2003, they have 1158 stores in 45 countries. To precise, their principal market is principally in France and in Spain. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  4. 4. 3 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Their strategy: What qualify the best Zara is reactive and creative. They adapt to their environment. They mix secret and popular takings: The commercials don’t reveal what clothes will be produced. It’s not an elite team who draws and makes the design of clothes: the collections are modified all the time, divided in 3 sections “men”, “women”, and “children” and into different groups (“sports”). There are 2 designers and 2 commercials and managers who imagine and realize the clothes. It is adapted to the client desire: it is the concrete application of the “marketing d’étude”. The clothes have to be worn about 10 times. For that, Zara don’t receive a lot of return of clothes from the clients. Organizations: Zara firms use a system of decentralization. - Every unit or groups of work have his autonomy. - Furthermore, employees have much more responsibilities than those other clothing chains. They trust in the judgment of their employees and they take care of it. - Commercials and products are much closed, very linked into the chain: in fact, commercials travel all around the world to pick up new desires or tendencies of people; for example, they look for what clothes Zara would sell if Zara made it. Distribution and diffusion: Managers decide where set the clothes in the store. They set its in order they want the clothes to be bought. At the difference with other firms, there are not the headquarters who decide. The prices are decided for all stores. So, Zara has demonstrated how her business model could be very successful. Her capabilities to focus on one strategy wish is to change and be innovative all the time made of her one of the best profitable clothing firm. In the future, they will have to continue to adapt their marketing and strategic development using new information and communication technologies to make better and better exploitation operations. Sectorial constraints Our study is about “the clothing industry sector”. We have to pick up the constraints of this sector. First, we can notify that this sector is really influenced by the taste of customers. On top of that, their tastes change all the time and very quickly, so it is difficult to forecast the new clothing trends. Their feelings are very hard to predict and even more to influence. It is a superficial sector; a new fashion trend can appear suddenly because of a small event. A trend can be popular and just a moment later fade. It is difficult to be coherent with the taste of the customers. It is all the more difficult for manufacturing than they don’t be in touch with the client. Therefore, we can also declare that there is a lack of link between manufacturing and retailing. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  5. 5. 4 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Manufacturing have to forecast the demand to avoid risks in their inventory. Often, manufacturing should have to reduce the production of a kind of clothing because it has a small demand, and they can’t because they don’t know properly that there is no result. In fact, the production depends on the area where clothing will be sold and the taste of customers. It is a problem to understand the environment of this sector. Manufacturing have to understand, to meet quickly customers’ needs and they have to adapt their production to the new trend properly. Moreover, they handle a lot of stocks, so they have a lot of inventory risks. There are a lot of constraints too for the retailing as regards their providers. They have to receive quickly the merchandise, they have to reduce the transport costs and finally, they have to find the best value for money concerning the material. Eventually, international clothing companies have to deal with information and employees from all over the world. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  6. 6. 5 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Model the value chain and how IS supports it First, the value chain framework: MIS PRODUCTION MARKETING OBJECTIVE S DESIGN Indeed, we will see that the head office is the nervous center of the system. It is linked to the creation studio, suppliers, undertraiting, shipment centers, and stores. Every day, the information is transmitted at the head office (the turnover, the unsold, the orders, etc...). All this system allows the direction to have more visibility, and know what the good or bad products are. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  7. 7. 6 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY The value chain of ZARA: I.S Creation : Production : designers and 11000 items a purchase materials commercial teams year production order set Fulfillment prices Unsold Twice a week Suppliers Store Store Store Undertraiting Store Store Store s s CUSTOMERS s Commercials decide which clothes will be designed and produced. The team usually consists of two designers and two managers, who purchase material, place production orders with factories, and set prices. Another group of commercials called store product managers sit in close proximity to the product teams and serve as Zara main interface with Zara stores around the world. They can initiate store to store transfers if some products are not popular in some areas. Zara produces short life clothes. Zara decided not to sell cloths over the internet, because the returns rates are too high. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  8. 8. 7 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Moreover, we can observe that Zara established 3 cyclical processes ordering, fulfillment, and design and manufacturing. Ordering: Every major section of a Zara store (man, women, children) placed order (quantities,) to headquarter twice a week with hard deadline. But there is no inventory in store computer so managers have to check the stock. Managers can see the newly available garments by consulting a handled computer that are linked each night via dial up modem to IS. Fulfillment: Fulfillment or shipping clothes to stores involve other commercials. They determine which store has to be supplied if there were not enough stock. They work with product manager to determine future production for each SKU. They can ship items that stores didn’t order. Design and manufacturing Zara introduces approximately 11 000 new items each year much more than its competitors. Zara manufacturing is vertically integrated. There is a network with specialized facilities that quickly produces and delivers the required goods. Zara owns a group of factories in and around La Coruna to do the capital intensive initial production steps dyeing and cutting cloth. (small local workshop in Galicia and northern Portugal that guarantee quick turnaround times). All finished garments are sent to Zara facility where they are ironed, inspected, given a machine readable tag, and sent to a DC. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  9. 9. 8 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY How exposed the company to technology risk The project proposed by Salgado would be a revolution for the IS of Zara. It would change everything and can be considered as a big step in Zara’s framework. Update the POS operating system is expensive and irreversible. If the project mess it would black out the global sale system and would cost bunch of dollars. That’s why an IS improvement has to but taken very seriously. Zara has been keeping its POS OS (which is Microsoft DOS) because it is stable, easy to use and cheap. The main risk is that their POS supplier drops them. Actually Zara is the only customer of their supplier running on DOS. This would involve incapacity to open new stores – without POS it is impossible. We can quickly calculate how much it would cost: The average store sales is about €2million a year, with 80 new stores every year: €160m a year. Much more than the price needed to put into this investment. To sum up the current IS system is a drawback to the future development. The second main risk is that Zara has to keep up to date its information flow to foresee as much as possible the future trends. With an effective IS they will be able to stay ahead the curve and keep their leadership. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  10. 10. 9 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Should the project to revenge the IS be fully or practically externalize According to the point of view of Salgado, Zara is getting bigger and bigger and its operating system is getting more and more obsolete. Thus, it gives Zara to have a competitive advantage because for a strategic perspective. Although Zara’s advantage over its competitors is not so much a result of IT leverage, the sustainability of its competitive edge might be at risk due to a lack in IT investment. The current assumption for the IT investment states about 18,000 hours for this project. The Zara’s staff devoted to IT contains about 50 people divided in several departments (store solutions, logistic support, and administrative system). So we can suppose that only 10 people are devoted to POS software and so 10 people are able to handle this project. With a brief calculation we can figure that it would take too much time to set up this project with an internal team (about 7 months for a 10 people task team working 8 hours a day.) Furthermore nothing notices that they have the skill to handle perfectly that project. That is why we are prone to think that externalize would provide a more efficient solution, completely handle by an outsourced professional team. It could be a little more expensive at short and long term that is why if we choose this option we have to integrate a training system of our staff to lower the outsourced fees. An important point is that Zara has always developed its own IT solutions and if we make it through subcontractors we are not sure that it would match with Zara values or way of doing. Zara has been used to make it alone. Thus we think that some member of the IT staff could work with subcontractors in order to lower these expenses and help them to create an It solution which fit in Zara’s practices. BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  11. 11. 10 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Which solution would you recommend and why. The analysis of Zara’s activity reveals that its main strategy is the ability to give a quick answer to target customers’ demand and its capacity to anticipate the customers’ trends. Zara is able to identify new trends and to satisfy the demand of customers with its value chain system that is really effective and its structure very organized. The system that they have worked with has been easy to maintain and very effective. Thanks to that, the company decided to continue with this system without changing anything. Nevertheless Zara is now confronted with a problem: their POS system (Point Of Sale) runs on DOS and Microsoft doesn’t support this system and also the POS terminal won’t be compatible with the current POS software. But, change is inevitable because even if changing the system don’t urgent, the company needs and it has to invest in IT infrastructures because MS Dos is an obsolete technology and their POS terminal doesn’t guarantee that they will continue to supply the same terminal without any changes in the present hardware. PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) which are used in all Zara stores and POS terminals are not connected with Zara’s headquarters or with other stores, moreover there is no in-store connection to link employees’ information like daily sales and the employees have to copy this information on a disk. Changing the system should fill this weakness of intra- communication. Finally the main needs of the company are an actualization of the IT and the improvement of the in-store connection and the connection with the company’s headquarters. So, we can say that change is unavoidable because such a company cannot continue to run with obsolete and unconnected technologies. So, it is clear that the improvement is necessary. With have to choose now between the different options that are available with this solution. We have to forecast the different cost of each solution (Windows, UNIX or Linux). At 5 years, globally costs of investing are reasonably close and not significant. (Please check the exhibits). The main difference is the annual fees generated by this investment. The cheapest is the UNIX’s solution. WITH THIS SOLUTION Assumptions for Zara upgrade decision Store's number 1558 Avg computer per store 5 Number of new store a year 80 Hours worked a day 8 Cost per new store 34 230,00 Annual fees per store 365,00 BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  12. 12. 11 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY UNIX Solution Object Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Global Store's 1558 1638 1798 1878 1958 number Cost due to new 62 049 090,00 € 67 525 890,00 € 70 264 290,00 € 73 002 690,00 € 75 741 090,00 € stores (investments) (cumulus) Annual fees 568 670,00 € 597 870,00 € 656 270,00 € 685 470,00 € 714 670,00 € Fee cumulus 568 670,00 € 1 166 540,00 € 1 822 810,00 € 2 508 280,00 € 3 222 950,00 € Revenue 4 000 000 000,00 4 120 000 000,00 4 243 600 000,00 4 370 908 000,00 4 502 035 240,00 € € € € € Revenue Growth 3% 3% 3% 3% Investment/Revenu 1,55% e BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  13. 13. 12 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Exhibits Exhibit 1 Operating System for POS terminals (cost per compuer/CPU) Windows Value One time license cost 140€ Annual maintenance fee 30€ Cost per store 850,00 € Unix Value One time license cost 160€ Annual maintenance fee 25€ Cost per store 925,00 € Linux Value One time license cost 0€ Service contract (10-150) 60€ Cost per store 300,00 € Hardware (per store, avg 5 terminals needed per store) Value POS Terminals 5000€ Wireless router 1 per store 180€ Wireless ethernet one per POS terminal 50€ Connectivity HS Internet connection 240€ Hardware cost per store 5 670,00 € Overall programming time required to A. Port existing POS application to new OS 150000h Expand POS aplication to include B. Look up of same-store theorical inventory 3000h C. Look up of other-store theorical inventory 1000h D. Inventory Transfers 1000h Cost per day of programming time 450€ Total A 8437500€ Total B 168750€ Total C 56250€ Total D 56250€ Total A + B + C + D 8 718 750,00 € Time required per store to Install new POS terminals with new POS application 16 Establish wireless network 8 BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  14. 14. 13 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Train Staff on new POS application 8 Cost per day of installation/ training time 2 000,00 € Total cost per store 8 000,00 € Exhibit 2 Cost for the Windows solution Cost per new store 34 130,00 Annual fees per store 390,00 Initial investment (without fees) 61 893 290,00 Maintenance fees (for the first year) 607 620,00 Object Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Global Store's number 1558 1638 1798 1878 1958 Cost due to new stores 61 893 290,00 € 67 354 090,00 € 70 084 490,00 € 72 814 890,00 € 75 545 290,00 € (investments) max (cumulus) Annual fees 607 620,00 € 638 820,00 € 701 220,00 € 732 420,00 € 763 620,00 € Fee cumulus 607 620,00 € 1 246 440,00 € 1 947 660,00 € 2 680 080,00 € 3 443 700,00 € Revenue 4 000 000 4 120 000 4 243 600 4 370 908 4 502 035 000,00 € 000,00 € 000,00 € 000,00 € 240,00 € Revenue Growth 3% 3% 3% 3% Investment/Revenue 1,55% BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  15. 15. 14 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Exhibit 3 Cost for the UNIX Solution solution Cost per new store 34 230,00 Annual fees per store 365,00 Initial investment (without fees) 62 049 090,00 Maintenance fees 568 670,00 Object Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Global Store's 1558 1638 1798 1878 1958 number Cost due to new 62 049 090,00 € 67 525 890,00 € 70 264 290,00 € 73 002 690,00 € 75 741 090,00 € stores (investments) max (cumulus) Annual fees 568 670,00 € 597 870,00 € 656 270,00 € 685 470,00 € 714 670,00 € Fee cumulus 568 670,00 € 1 166 540,00 € 1 822 810,00 € 2 508 280,00 € 3 222 950,00 € BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS
  16. 16. 15 HBS ZARA CASE STUDY Exhibit 4 Cost for the Linux solution. Fees are 150 the first year, 80 the second, 40 the third, 20 the fourth and 10 the fifth. (So it is an average of 60 over 5 years) Cost per new store 33 430,00 Annual fees per store 540,00 Initial investment (without fees) 60 802 690,00 Maintenance fees 841 320,00 Object Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Global Store's number 1558 1638 1798 1878 1958 Cost due to new stores 60 802 690,00 € 66 151 490,00 € 68 825 890,00 € 71 500 290,00 € 74 174 690,00 € (investments) max (cumulus) Annual fees 841 320,00 € 884 520,00 € 970 920,00 € 1 014 120,00 € 1 057 320,00 € Fee cumulus 841 320,00 € 1 725 840,00 € 2 696 760,00 € 3 710 880,00 € 4 768 200,00 € Revenue 4 000 000 4 120 000 4 243 600 4 370 908 4 502 035 000,00 € 000,00 € 000,00 € 000,00 € 240,00 € Revenue Growth 3% 3% 3% 3% Investment/Revenue 1,52% BERHMANI ELMAALEM GABREAU GRANGIER KHEMISS