550 Final Paper


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • For my final paper I decided to research to use of virtual reference services in libraries and their impact on the reference interview. I am interested in a career in reference librarianship, so I decided to learn about the technologies used to communicate with library users in a virtual context.
  • These statistics show that many Americans, especially the younger generation, is using the Internet as a source of communication.
  • Librarians need to learn how to transfer their FtF reference skills to the virtual context to reach people searching for information on the Internet and that are not able or prefer not to visit the librarian at the reference desk for help.
  • Stepping off point from which librarians can learn how to transfer their reference skills to a virtual context.
  • The following are a list of general benefits and drawbacks to incorporating chat widgets into a library’s virtual reference services.
  • 550 Final Paper

    1. 1. Libraries: Reference Services in a Virtual Context Jennifer M. Pettigrew Professor Jose Sanchez LIS 17:610:550:02 December 10, 2009 [email_address]
    2. 2. Generations Online in 2009 , Pew Internet & American Life Project (p. 5) Population Internet Use Instant Messaging Ages 12 to 17 93 percent 68 percent Ages 18 and older 74 percent 38 percent
    3. 3. How do these statistics impact libraries?
    4. 4. What is VRS? <ul><li>As defined by the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) (2004), VRS is: </li></ul><ul><li>[… ] reference service initiated electronically, often in real-time, where patrons employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff, without being physically present. (para. 1.1). </li></ul>
    5. 5. Common Types of VRS <ul><li>E-mail address reference </li></ul><ul><li>Web form reference </li></ul><ul><li>Chat reference </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging (IM) </li></ul><ul><li>Text Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Chat Reference (aka: Chat Widgets) </li></ul>
    6. 6. What are Chat Widgets? <ul><li>HTML code that is embedded into a Web page </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a chat window </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for synchronous communication </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to IM, but does not require the visitor to create IM accounts, buddy names, or passwords in order to initiate communication </li></ul><ul><li>Requires JavaScript or Flash installation </li></ul>
    7. 7. Types of Chat Widgets <ul><li>AIM Wimzi Widget by AOL </li></ul><ul><li>Google Talk chatback badge by Google </li></ul><ul><li>Meebo Me by Meebo </li></ul><ul><li>Plugoo Widget by Plugoo </li></ul><ul><li>Minichat/Webchat 2 by Userplane </li></ul><ul><li>Pingbox by Yahoo! Messenger </li></ul>
    8. 8. Meebo Me AIM WIMZI
    9. 9. Plugoo Widget Pingbox
    10. 10. Benefits Drawbacks Live interaction with user (synchronous communication) Lack of visual and non-verbal cues to aid reference interaction Basic versions are Free! Only one person can log on to an account at one time Interact with multiple users in different chat windows (5 to 100 private interactions) Overwhelming/difficult to manage, esp. for individual librarian new to technology Customize widget (name, size, color) Does not automatically archive transcripts for future analysis or track usage patterns Displays status availability (online/offline) Cannot store messages if offline Users do not need to download IM software, create IM accounts, etc. (ease of use & convenience)
    11. 11. Rutgers, “Ask a Librarian”
    12. 12. Yale University Libraries, “Asklive”
    13. 13. California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) <ul><li>What : implemented Meebo Me in spring of 2008 to supplement QuestionPoint’s chat reference service </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : increase VRS usage </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted User Population : commuter students familiar with using traditional IM </li></ul><ul><li>How : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>librarians created individual accounts and embedded widgets into their Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Libstats, an open source reference statistics program, to track statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing Campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Training </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. CSUF: Results Meebo Me QuestionPoint Number of Questions 833 531 Most Common Question Type Research Assistance (40.02 percent) N/A Transaction Time 10 minutes of less (83.19 percent) 20+ minutes (66.63 percent)
    15. 15. Library Staff Feedback : <ul><li>90 percent positively responded to Meebo Me </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty multi-tasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer FtF reference transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty transferring users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate notification of a new user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Pilot Study : Library31p </li></ul>
    16. 16. CSUF: Libraryh31p
    17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>VRS are important additions to library’s reference services because many people use Web-based technologies to find information and communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>IM & Chat Widgets can attract younger generations to use libraries’ services. </li></ul><ul><li>VRS pose new challenges as well as opportunities for librarians to broaden their reference skills. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Questions or Comments?
    19. 19. References About Adium. (Updated 2009). Retrieved December 9, 2009 from Adium Wiki: http://trac.adium.im/wiki/AboutAdium About Google Talk chatback badges. (2009). Google. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://www.google.com/support/talk/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=86171 About MSN Messenger. (2009). MSN-WindowsMessenger.com. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://www.msn- windowsmessenger.com/index.htm About Pidgin. (nd). Pidgin. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://pidgin.im/about/ About Plugoo. (2008). Plugoo. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from, http://www.plugoo.com/faq.php AIM. (2009). AOL LLC. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://dashboard.aim.com/aim AIM WIMZI Widget. (2007). AOL LLC. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://wimzi.aim.com/ AOL Mail. (nd). AOL LLC. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://webmail.aol.com/Welcome.aspx?sitedomain=sns.webmail.aol.com&lang=en&locale=us&authLev=0&siteState=ver%3a4|r t%3aSTANDARD|at%3aSNS|ld%3awebmail.aol.com|uv%3aAOL|lc%3aen- us|mt%3aAOL|snt%3aScreenName|sid%3aa8bd558c-ec21-466c-86af-dec77efa8c90&offerId=mail-first-en-us&seamless=novl Arnold, J. & Kaske, N. (2005). Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service. Libraries and the Academy, 5 (2), 177-193. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v005/5.2arnold.html Bell, S.J. & DeVoe, K.M. (2008). Chat Widgets: Placing Your Reference Services at Your User’s Point(s) of Need. The Reference Librarian, 49 (1), 99-101. doi:10.1080/02763870802103936 Breitbach, W., Mallard, M., & Sage, R. (2009). Using Meembo’s embedded IM for academic reference services. Reference Services Review, 37 (1), 83-98. doi: 10.1108/00907320910935011 Cummings, J., Cummings, L., & Frederiksen. (2007). User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries. Libraries and the Academy, 7 (1), 81-96. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/portal_libraries_and_the_academy/v007/7.1cummings.html
    20. 20. <ul><li>References (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Curtis, D. & Greene, A. (2004). A university-wide, library-based chat service. Reference Services Review, 32 (3), 220-233. doi: 10.1108/00907320410553632 </li></ul><ul><li>Desai, C.M. & Graves, S.J. (2008). Cyberspace or Face-to-Face: The Teachable Moment and Changing Reference Mediums. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 47 (3), 242-254. Retrieved from https://login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=32147096&site=ehost-live </li></ul><ul><li>Desai, C.M. & Graves, S.J. (2006). Instruction via Instant Messaging reference: what’s happening? The Electronic Library, 24 (2), 174-189. doi: 10.1108/02640470610660369 </li></ul><ul><li>Gmail. (2009). Google. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, https://www.google.com/accounts/ServiceLogin?service=mail&passive=true&rm=false&continue=http%3A%2F%2Fmail.google.com%2Fmail%2F%3Fui%3Dhtml%26zy%3Dl&bsv=zpwhtygjntrz&scc=1&ltmpl=default&ltmplcache=2&hl=en </li></ul><ul><li>Google Talk. (2009). Google. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://www.google.com/talk/ </li></ul><ul><li>Graves, S.J. & Desai, C.M. (2006). Instruction via chat reference: does co-browse help? Reference Services Review, 34 (3), 340-356. doi:10.1108/00907320610685300 </li></ul><ul><li>Hodges, A.R. & Meiman, M. (2009). IM is for Instant Millenials: Developing Staffing Models and Best Practices for Instant Messaging. Technical Services Quarterly, 26 (3), 199-206. doi: 10.1080/07317130802520203 </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet Public Library. (2009). Ask a IPL Librarian Question Form. Drexel University . Retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://www.ipl.org/div/askus/ </li></ul><ul><li>Janes, J. (2003). Introduction to Reference Work in the Digital Age . New York, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>References (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, S. & Fox, S. (2009, January 28). Generations Online in 2009. Retrieved from the Pew Internet & American Life Project http://www.pewinternet.org/Experts/~/link.aspx?_id=258EE0426A7A487C9BEDAEF9286AD10E&_z=z </li></ul><ul><li>Kipnis, D.G. & Kaplan, G.E. (2008). Analysis and Lessons Learned Instituting an Instant Messaging Reference Service at an Academic Health Sciences Library. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 27 (1), 33-51. doi:10.1300/J115v27n01_03 </li></ul><ul><li>Lapidus, M. & Bond, I. (2009). Virtual Reference: Chat with Us! Medical Reference Services Quarterly,28 (2), p. 133-142. doi:10.1080/02763860902816735 </li></ul><ul><li>Leykam, A. & Perkins, C. (2007). Is This the Right Tool for Our Library? A Look at E-mail Virtual Reference Use Patterns. The Reference Librarian, 48 (1), 1-17. doi:10.1300?J120v48n99_01 </li></ul><ul><li>Meebo Me. (2009). Meebo, Inc. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from, http://www.meebo.com/meebome/ </li></ul><ul><li>Meebome. (Updated 2009, March 23). Retrieved December 7, 2009 from Meebowiki: http://wiki.meebo.com/doku.php?id=meebome </li></ul><ul><li>Meier, J. (2008). Chat Widgets on the Library Website: Help at the Point of Need. Computers in Libraries, 28 (6), 10-13, 48. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/getResults.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.33 </li></ul><ul><li>The New York Public Library. (2009). Chat with a Librarian. The New York Public Library . Retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://www.nypl.org/questions/chat.html </li></ul><ul><li>Northrup, L. (2008). MeeboMe! For Embedded Chat Preference: Patron-Initiated Encounters Without Downloads or Accounts. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 15 (3), 357-363. doi: 10.1080/10691310802262424 </li></ul><ul><li>Pomerantz, J. & Luo, L. (2006). Motivations and uses: Evaluating virtual reference service from the users’ perspective. Library & Information Science Research, 28 (3), 350-373. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2006.06.001 </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>References (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Princeton Public Library. (nd). Ask us . Princeton Public Library. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://www.princetonlibrary.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Princeton University Library Staff Directory. (Updated 2005, September 26). The Trustees of Princeton University. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://libweb5.princeton.edu/staff/search_zd.asp </li></ul><ul><li>QuestionPoint. (2009). OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://questionpoint.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Radford, M.L. & Kern, M.K. (2006). A multiple-case study investigation of the discontinuation of nine chat reference services. Library & Information Science Research, 28 (4), 521-547. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2006.10.001 </li></ul><ul><li>Radford, M.L. (2006). Encountering Virtual Users: A Qualitative Investigation of Interpersonal Communication in Chat Reference. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57 (8), 1046-1059. doi: 10.1002/asi.20374 </li></ul><ul><li>Reference and User Services Association. (rev. June 2004). Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers . Retrieved on December 2, 2009 from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/rusa/resources/guidelines/guidelinesbehavioral. </li></ul><ul><li>Rutgers University Libraries. (2009). Ask a Librarian . Rutgers University Libraries. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Sekyere, K. (2009). Embedding an IM Widget in Research Databases: Helping Users at their Point-of-Need. Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Libraries, 10 (2). Retrieved from http://southernlibrarianship.icaap.org/content/v10n02/sekyere_k01.html </li></ul><ul><li>Shui, E. & Lenhart, A. (2004, September 1). How Americans Use Instant Messaging . Retrieved from the Pew Internet & American Life Project http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2004/How-Americans-Use-Instant-Messaging.aspx </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>References (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Stacy-Bates, K. (2003). E-mail Reference Responses from Academic ARL Libraries: An Unobtrusive Study, Reference & User Services Quarterly, 43 (1), 59-70. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/getResults.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.33 </li></ul><ul><li>Stephens, M. (2006). Instant Messaging. Library Technology Reports , 42 (4), 45-51. Retrieved from https://login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=23317359&site=ehost-live </li></ul><ul><li>Trillian Astra. (2009). Cerulean Studios. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://www.trillian.im/learn/ </li></ul><ul><li>Tuttle, B.D. (2008). Meebo [Software Review]. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 96 (4), 395-397. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.96.4.024 </li></ul><ul><li>University Libraries, UNLV. (2009). Instant Messaging Reference Service . University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://www.library.unlv.edu/ask/chat.html </li></ul><ul><li>Ward, D. & Kern, M.K. (2006). Combining IM and Vendor-based Chat: A Report from the Frontlines of an Integrated Service. Libraries and the Academy, 6 (4), 417-429. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790ef1c842b51c5cf5a401e2afcc33f82c0c2665886a58d789f8b18992cd9abfa117&fmt=C </li></ul><ul><li>Ward, D. (2006). Instant Messaging and Chat Reference. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11 (1), 103-106. doi: 10.1300/J136v11n01_08 </li></ul><ul><li>Ward, D. (2005). Why Users Choose Chat. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 10 (1), 9-46. doi: 10.1300/J136v10n01_03 </li></ul><ul><li>Ward, D. (2004). Measuring the Completeness of Reference Transactions in Online Chats: Results of an Unobtrusive Study. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 44 (1), 46-58. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/getResults.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.33 </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>References (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Webchat2. (2009). Userplane. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://www.userplane.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=apps.webchat </li></ul><ul><li>Woodward, B.S. (2005). One-on-One Instruction: From the Reference Desk to Online Chat. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 44 (3), 203-9. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790ef1c842b51c5cf5a4ef49fa7b647a54803f375c6c79c9b7aa9ecbead37c7f16c0&fmt=P </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Mail. (2009). Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, https://login.yahoo.com/config/login_verify2?&.src=ym </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Messenger. (2009). Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://messenger.yahoo.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Messenger Pingbox. (2009). Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://messenger.yahoo.com/pingbox/moreinfo/ </li></ul><ul><li>Yale University Library. (Updated 2009, August 25). Ask! a Librarian Services . Yale University Library. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from, http://www.library.yale.edu/reference/asklive/ </li></ul>