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DISCUSSION PAPER
Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries                                                               12 AUGUST 2011



dISCUSSION PAPER: What is the Investment Framework
for HIV/AIDS and what does it mean for the Alliance?




© Gideon Mendel for the Alliance



Introduction
What is the investment framework for HIV/AIDS?
This discussion paper provides a short introduction to an important new development in global HIV
policy. A new model, an investment framework for HIV/AIDS,1 was published in The Lancet in June 2011
to guide the global response to HIV. The Investment Framework for HIV/AIDS sets out a model for HIV
investment and HIV programming for the next decade.

It is a framework that projects an increase in spending on HIV/AIDS leading up to 2015, followed by a
decline in spending from 2015 to 2020.

For the first time, a model has been developed that can show a decline in the need for HIV programmes
and services, as the effect of current and future targeted investments reach a tipping point. HIV
investments, and HIV rates, decline.

Is this the prediction of the end of AIDS?
The framework has proven to be influential and topical already. It was developed by international experts
from a range of agencies, including UNAIDS, the Global Fund, WHO and the US Government.2

This discussion paper describes some of most important features of the investment framework for the
Alliance, along with some actions for us all in making it work for communities affected by HIV/AIDS.


1. “Towards an improved investment approach for an effective response to HIV/AIDS” The Lancet Vol. 377 Issue 9782 pp 2031-2041, 11 June 2011
2. Dr Bernhard Schwartländer MD, John Stover MA, Timothy Hallett PhD, Prof Rifat Atun FFPHM, Carlos Avila MD, Eleanor Gouws PhD, Michael
Bartos MEd, Peter D Ghys MD, Marjorie Opuni PhD, David Barr JD, Ramzi Alsallaq PhD, Lori Bollinger PhD, Marcelo de Freitas MD, Prof Geoffrey
Garnett PhD, Charles Holmes MD, Ken Legins MPH, Yogan Pillay PhD, Anderson Eduardo Stanciole PhD, Craig McClure PGCE, Gottfried Hirn-
schall MD, Prof Marie Laga MD, Nancy Padian PhD, on behalf of the Investment Framework Study Group.
a Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Geneva, Switzerland
b Futures Institute, Glastonbury, CT, USA
c School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
d Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, UK
e The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland
f International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, New York, NY, USA
g International Clinical Research Center, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
h National AIDS Programme, Brasilia, Brazil
i Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Washington, DC, USA
j The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA
k UNICEF, New York, NY, USA
l Strategic Health Programmes, Department of Health, Johannesburg, South Africa
m Global HIV/AIDS Unit, Health, Nutrition, and Population, The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA
n World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
o Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium


                                                                                                                                   Page 1
© Jenny Mathews for the Alliance




                                                              DISCUSSION PAPER
Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries



 Why does the investment framework
 matter for the Alliance?
 For four main reasons:

 1. It sets out an investment plan that is not primarily
 aspirational, like the Universal Access by 		
 2010 and 3 by 5 calls were. The difference here is
 that this plan refers to a specific and scientifically
 produced calculation of the investment required in
 order to create a reduction in the trajectory of
 HIV – both spending, and in terms of HIV/AIDS
 epidemic dynamics. It is a model, or a calculation,
 that says that if you invest in these specific ways, then
 the human and financial costs of AIDS will reduce
 dramatically by 2020. It provides a model for a highly




                                                                                                               © Jenny Matthews for the Alliance
 targeted response.

 2. It articulates an approach to the implementation
 of HIV programmes that reflects and supports our
 programming. The prioritisation of specific HIV
 programmes is accompanied by the concept of
 ‘critical enablers’ that make these programmes
 work. It endorses working with key populations where they are most affected by HIV/AIDS, there is
 prominent support for community mobilisation, and for a range of other evidence based interventions
 that we are implementing, such as HIV testing and counselling, treatment adherence, behaviour change
 communication, needle and syringe programming, stigma reduction and advocacy.

 3. It positions human rights-based programming such as advocacy, stigma reduction and efforts
 towards supportive laws and practices as critical to the model, not optional or additional but ‘critical’.
 For example, advocacy to end the criminalisation of sex between men is critical to the implementation of
 behaviour change communication that reaches a sufficient number of men who have sex with men.

 4. It responds to the increasing amounts of new evidence of the significant health improvement and
 HIV/TB prevention potential of ART. Increases in ART provision are a cornerstone of this model.
 There are four important features of the way increases in ART provision is conceptualised in this model.

          •	 Firstly, increased provision leads to improved health, reduced illness and death as more people
             living with HIV and tuberculosis receive ART.

          •	 Secondly as reduced viral load prevents increased levels of onward HIV transmission.

          •	 Thirdly, prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) is a priority intervention.

          •	 And finally, from a different perspective, increases in ART provision are conceptualised as
             producing cost reductions as ART programmes shift from high cost specialist provision to primary
             care and ‘community-led approaches to delivery’.



                                                                                                        Page 2
DISCUSSION PAPER
Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries


                                                                       Figure 1: Investment framework

The investment
The model calculates the
increase in investment
required – such as a
$12.9 billion increase
to $22 billion by 2015
followed by a decrease
to $10.6 billion by 2020
– in order to avert 12.2
million new infections
and to prevent 7.4
million deaths due to
AIDS.

The decrease in
investment after 2015
results from the impact
of reaching optimal HIV
programme coverage
levels, along with
cost efficiencies, and
importantly, the declines
in illness and death that
are predicted because
larger numbers of people
are receiving ART.                                                       Figure 2: Resources required


So our calls for more
investment in HIV (What’s
Preventing Prevention?)
for the first time, can
be accompanied by
a scientific, modelled
prediction of a decline in
HIV/AIDS by the end of
this decade.




                                                                                            Page 3
DISCUSSION PAPER
Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries



The investment framework in more detail

HIV programming priorities in the                               Critical enablers
framework
                                                                The framework articulates a very important
What is new is that the framework provides an                   concept for the Alliance, critical enablers. In
evidence based and costed case for doing more                   this framework, critical enablers are defined
of what we do already in order to reach a critical              in two categories – social enablers such as
point where the need for programmes and services                community mobilisation, changing laws and stigma
will decline. It argues for, and calculates, the                reduction. The second category of critical enablers
value and potential impact of good quality HIV                  are programme enablers, or efforts to make
programming. Developments in our understanding                  programmes work, such as community centred
of the potential of ART feature here as well - the              design and delivery, communication, management,
potential of ART to prevent HIV transmission,                   procurement and research and innovation. These
and to prevent tuberculosis amongst people                      are important and familiar concepts in the Alliance.
living with HIV.
                                                                The framework gives prominence to the concept
The six programme areas that are emphasised are:                of community mobilisation – a concept very
•	 	
   PMTCT                                                        close to the Alliance’s heart. We understand how
                                                                important the mobilisation of communities is to HIV
•	 Condom promotion and distribution
                                                                programming, but this has rarely been described
•	 Key populations (sex work, MSM, IDU 			                      (and described as ‘critical’) in other models. It will
   programmes)                                                  be important to use this opportunity to intensify
•	 Treatment, care and support to people living with            efforts at the community level.
   HIV/AIDS (including facility-based testing)
•	 Male circumcision                                            Looking at the HIV programming priorities, and
•	 Behaviour change programmes.                                 analysing them alongside the critical enablers,
                                                                essential work at the community level is clear.
Male circumcision is specified as being applicable              For example, PMTCT is the first of the six HIV
in generalised epidemics with a low prevalence of               programme priorities outlined. What are the critical
male circumcision. This is not a blueprint for male             enablers for PMTCT? They might include some or
circumcision in every country.                                  all of the following:

                                                                •	   advocacy for political commitment to a national
           How does this list match with HIV                         PMTCT programme
          programme efforts in your country?                    •	   change in practices such as discrimination by
                                                                     health care providers towards women living with
           How is progress on each of these                          HIV, in particular, in the area of family planning
             programmes in your country?                             and provision of sexual reproductive health
                                                                     services
      Does this list of priorities miss something               •	   community mobilisation for PMTCT so that
                          important?                                 local communities know about PMTCT and HIV
                                                                     testing, and can access PMTCT services
    If funding follows this list, what does it mean             •	   local efforts to incentivise PMTCT programmes
                   for our current work?                        •	   design of services so that they meet the needs
                                                                     of communities
                                                                •	   research on the best models of delivery.

                                                                                                                Page 4
DISCUSSION PAPER
Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries


These are examples of potential efforts we might                How can we use the framework?
highlight in order to make PMTCT more effective.
Much of this effort lies outside the clinic and in              In our advocacy and resource mobilisation.
communities. Using this framework, we can                       Instead of asking for more money for AIDS with
articulate the need for work at the community level,            an implied ever-increasing need, our advocacy for
with community organisations, in order to make the              more resources for HIV has more precise goals –
investment in PMTCT clinics work optimally.                     coverage goals that will need to be set nationally
                                                                and locally – in order to reach a point where the
‘Synergies with development sectors’                            need for this investment declines. Optimal coverage
                                                                will be reached, efficiency gains will be realised
Another area of focus for the Investment Framework
                                                                and the decrease in new HIV infections will result in
is broader development sectors and their links to
                                                                decreased need for services.
HIV programmes and critical enablers. The sectors
referenced include ‘social protection, education,               In our planning. In order to understand the
legal reform, gender equality, poverty reduction ,              implications of this framework for HIV programming
gender-based violence, health systems, community                at a country level, we need to answer a set of critical
systems, and employer practices.’                               programming questions:

     How does the list of development sector
  synergies match with HIV programme efforts in                     What are the communities/populations that
                 your country?                                       are most critical to the dynamics of HIV
                                                                         transmission in each country?
  Is there clarity on what each of these synergies
   involves? (for example, what are the overlaps                  What are the critical enablers and how do they
     between HIV programmes and education?)                         influence or affect the sexual and injecting
                                                                 practice or health seeking practice of the priority
   How is progress on each of these synergies in                             communities/populations?
                  your country?
                                                                  What are the most critical HIV interventions for
  Does this list of priorities miss something impor-                 the priority communities/populations?
                           tant?
                                                                   What are the optimal coverage levels for key
  If funding follows this list, what does it mean for                HIV/TB interventions in each country?
                  our current work?
                                                                   What are the critical programmatic enablers?
                                                                    What are our programmes contributing to
Thinking through the meaning of each aspect of                    meeting coverage targets in each country? And
these three areas (programme activities, critical                             what is their potential?
enablers and development sector synergies) at a
country level is important work. This might lead to                 What is our work in civil society to address
a re-programming of HIV efforts, and we will need                    the critical enablers? What is the role of
to ensure that we can point to where our HIV/TB                                     government?
programming efforts, and our advocacy efforts, are
                                                                 What are the most important synergies for these
supported in the framework. For many of us, we
                                                                 populations, targets? Social protection? Human
will need to advocate for changing the investments
                                                                  rights protections? Poverty reduction? Health
in HIV at the national or local level. We might be
                                                                   systems? Community systems? Education?
advocating for re-programming, or for the need to
build capacity in different sectors to make this happen.

                                                                                                               Page 5
DISCUSSION PAPER
Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries


Some of us will have the answers to these                       know about ART and can see the benefit of it for
questions, some of us will need to work with others             themselves and their families? Increased support for
to seek or calculate the answers. The answers to                community health workers and caregivers to deliver
these questions, and the assumptions contained in               ART and support adherence?
the framework, should increasingly form the basis of
national HIV plans, including Global Fund proposals.            Left solely to public health planners, some of these
These questions and their answers are critical for              types of questions may not be asked. Increasing
our strategic planning and fundraising efforts. We              ART provision is a goal for all of us, but getting
are contributing a lot to this national and global              the right actions in place in order to achieve this is
effort, but we need to be clearer in defining the HIV           more complex. Community activists and community
impact of this work, and in forecasting the potential           based programmers must be part of this analysis
of this work to achieve the point, in each country,             to ensure that plans go well beyond the provision
where HIV is in decline.                                        of more clinical services. And when the goal is
                                                                to shift more aspects of ART service provision to
Articulating the role we play in supporting the                 communities and their organisations, that this effort
critical enablers will be important work for Alliance           is costed and funded properly, not undermined by
Linking Organisations – both the social enablers                ‘doing it cheaply’, dependent on volunteer labour,
and programme enablers. What are our theories                   unpaid care and the under-funding of community
of change for each critical enabler? It is widely               organisations and their staff.
acknowledged that defining, planning and costing
efforts to address the critical enablers is the weakest         Limitations of the framework
part of this model. We have to focus attention to
this, and help shape this work. Defining, planning              As described above, the ‘critical enablers’ described
and costing the vital pieces of the model such as               in the framework are poorly defined, costed and
community mobilisation; changing laws, policies                 tested. They are not universally agreed either, and
and practices; stigma reduction; changing risk                  rest uneasily on an unstable body of evidence.
environments; capacity building, management,                    Further work is required to understand the barriers
procurement, research and innovation.                           and enablers to effective HIV responses in every
                                                                context, and to define and demonstrate the value for
Testing the assumptions inherent in the model                   money of key interventions that are enabling.
will be important in each country. For example,
the model depends heavily on increases in ART                   The daily struggles to ensure access to HIV
provision. Is that assumption realistic and feasible            services to and to protect the human rights of very
from the perspective of very marginalised people?               marginalised and poor people are well understood
And if not, what are the changes, what are the                  by community organisations. Sometimes a list of
critical enablers, in order to reach and increase               clinical and health promotion interventions fails to
the uptake of ART amongst marginalised people?
                                                                ‘get at’ the range of needs, struggles and problems
Improved drug procurement and distribution
                                                                shaping the lives of people who are detained,
systems? Reduced discrimination towards key
                                                                denied services, who are subject to violence,
populations in health care settings? ART more
                                                                breaches of privacy, hate crime, discrimination and
accessible in a wider range of settings? Improved
access to opiate substitution treatment for                     other violations, who live far from health services,
injecting drug users? Changes in policy so that                 who have uncertain immigration status or who
people without identity cards, or people in prison              are poor, young, old or socially isolated. Social
or detention, can access ART? More intensive                    and behavioural research, political science and
community mobilisation so that more people                      operations research can define HIV and other

                                                                                                               Page 6

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6 discussion-paper-investment-framework

  • 1. DISCUSSION PAPER Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries 12 AUGUST 2011 dISCUSSION PAPER: What is the Investment Framework for HIV/AIDS and what does it mean for the Alliance? © Gideon Mendel for the Alliance Introduction What is the investment framework for HIV/AIDS? This discussion paper provides a short introduction to an important new development in global HIV policy. A new model, an investment framework for HIV/AIDS,1 was published in The Lancet in June 2011 to guide the global response to HIV. The Investment Framework for HIV/AIDS sets out a model for HIV investment and HIV programming for the next decade. It is a framework that projects an increase in spending on HIV/AIDS leading up to 2015, followed by a decline in spending from 2015 to 2020. For the first time, a model has been developed that can show a decline in the need for HIV programmes and services, as the effect of current and future targeted investments reach a tipping point. HIV investments, and HIV rates, decline. Is this the prediction of the end of AIDS? The framework has proven to be influential and topical already. It was developed by international experts from a range of agencies, including UNAIDS, the Global Fund, WHO and the US Government.2 This discussion paper describes some of most important features of the investment framework for the Alliance, along with some actions for us all in making it work for communities affected by HIV/AIDS. 1. “Towards an improved investment approach for an effective response to HIV/AIDS” The Lancet Vol. 377 Issue 9782 pp 2031-2041, 11 June 2011 2. Dr Bernhard Schwartländer MD, John Stover MA, Timothy Hallett PhD, Prof Rifat Atun FFPHM, Carlos Avila MD, Eleanor Gouws PhD, Michael Bartos MEd, Peter D Ghys MD, Marjorie Opuni PhD, David Barr JD, Ramzi Alsallaq PhD, Lori Bollinger PhD, Marcelo de Freitas MD, Prof Geoffrey Garnett PhD, Charles Holmes MD, Ken Legins MPH, Yogan Pillay PhD, Anderson Eduardo Stanciole PhD, Craig McClure PGCE, Gottfried Hirn- schall MD, Prof Marie Laga MD, Nancy Padian PhD, on behalf of the Investment Framework Study Group. a Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Geneva, Switzerland b Futures Institute, Glastonbury, CT, USA c School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK d Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, UK e The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland f International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, New York, NY, USA g International Clinical Research Center, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA h National AIDS Programme, Brasilia, Brazil i Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Washington, DC, USA j The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA k UNICEF, New York, NY, USA l Strategic Health Programmes, Department of Health, Johannesburg, South Africa m Global HIV/AIDS Unit, Health, Nutrition, and Population, The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA n World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland o Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Page 1
  • 2. © Jenny Mathews for the Alliance DISCUSSION PAPER Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries Why does the investment framework matter for the Alliance? For four main reasons: 1. It sets out an investment plan that is not primarily aspirational, like the Universal Access by 2010 and 3 by 5 calls were. The difference here is that this plan refers to a specific and scientifically produced calculation of the investment required in order to create a reduction in the trajectory of HIV – both spending, and in terms of HIV/AIDS epidemic dynamics. It is a model, or a calculation, that says that if you invest in these specific ways, then the human and financial costs of AIDS will reduce dramatically by 2020. It provides a model for a highly © Jenny Matthews for the Alliance targeted response. 2. It articulates an approach to the implementation of HIV programmes that reflects and supports our programming. The prioritisation of specific HIV programmes is accompanied by the concept of ‘critical enablers’ that make these programmes work. It endorses working with key populations where they are most affected by HIV/AIDS, there is prominent support for community mobilisation, and for a range of other evidence based interventions that we are implementing, such as HIV testing and counselling, treatment adherence, behaviour change communication, needle and syringe programming, stigma reduction and advocacy. 3. It positions human rights-based programming such as advocacy, stigma reduction and efforts towards supportive laws and practices as critical to the model, not optional or additional but ‘critical’. For example, advocacy to end the criminalisation of sex between men is critical to the implementation of behaviour change communication that reaches a sufficient number of men who have sex with men. 4. It responds to the increasing amounts of new evidence of the significant health improvement and HIV/TB prevention potential of ART. Increases in ART provision are a cornerstone of this model. There are four important features of the way increases in ART provision is conceptualised in this model. • Firstly, increased provision leads to improved health, reduced illness and death as more people living with HIV and tuberculosis receive ART. • Secondly as reduced viral load prevents increased levels of onward HIV transmission. • Thirdly, prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) is a priority intervention. • And finally, from a different perspective, increases in ART provision are conceptualised as producing cost reductions as ART programmes shift from high cost specialist provision to primary care and ‘community-led approaches to delivery’. Page 2
  • 3. DISCUSSION PAPER Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries Figure 1: Investment framework The investment The model calculates the increase in investment required – such as a $12.9 billion increase to $22 billion by 2015 followed by a decrease to $10.6 billion by 2020 – in order to avert 12.2 million new infections and to prevent 7.4 million deaths due to AIDS. The decrease in investment after 2015 results from the impact of reaching optimal HIV programme coverage levels, along with cost efficiencies, and importantly, the declines in illness and death that are predicted because larger numbers of people are receiving ART. Figure 2: Resources required So our calls for more investment in HIV (What’s Preventing Prevention?) for the first time, can be accompanied by a scientific, modelled prediction of a decline in HIV/AIDS by the end of this decade. Page 3
  • 4. DISCUSSION PAPER Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries The investment framework in more detail HIV programming priorities in the Critical enablers framework The framework articulates a very important What is new is that the framework provides an concept for the Alliance, critical enablers. In evidence based and costed case for doing more this framework, critical enablers are defined of what we do already in order to reach a critical in two categories – social enablers such as point where the need for programmes and services community mobilisation, changing laws and stigma will decline. It argues for, and calculates, the reduction. The second category of critical enablers value and potential impact of good quality HIV are programme enablers, or efforts to make programming. Developments in our understanding programmes work, such as community centred of the potential of ART feature here as well - the design and delivery, communication, management, potential of ART to prevent HIV transmission, procurement and research and innovation. These and to prevent tuberculosis amongst people are important and familiar concepts in the Alliance. living with HIV. The framework gives prominence to the concept The six programme areas that are emphasised are: of community mobilisation – a concept very • PMTCT close to the Alliance’s heart. We understand how important the mobilisation of communities is to HIV • Condom promotion and distribution programming, but this has rarely been described • Key populations (sex work, MSM, IDU (and described as ‘critical’) in other models. It will programmes) be important to use this opportunity to intensify • Treatment, care and support to people living with efforts at the community level. HIV/AIDS (including facility-based testing) • Male circumcision Looking at the HIV programming priorities, and • Behaviour change programmes. analysing them alongside the critical enablers, essential work at the community level is clear. Male circumcision is specified as being applicable For example, PMTCT is the first of the six HIV in generalised epidemics with a low prevalence of programme priorities outlined. What are the critical male circumcision. This is not a blueprint for male enablers for PMTCT? They might include some or circumcision in every country. all of the following: • advocacy for political commitment to a national How does this list match with HIV PMTCT programme programme efforts in your country? • change in practices such as discrimination by health care providers towards women living with How is progress on each of these HIV, in particular, in the area of family planning programmes in your country? and provision of sexual reproductive health services Does this list of priorities miss something • community mobilisation for PMTCT so that important? local communities know about PMTCT and HIV testing, and can access PMTCT services If funding follows this list, what does it mean • local efforts to incentivise PMTCT programmes for our current work? • design of services so that they meet the needs of communities • research on the best models of delivery. Page 4
  • 5. DISCUSSION PAPER Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries These are examples of potential efforts we might How can we use the framework? highlight in order to make PMTCT more effective. Much of this effort lies outside the clinic and in In our advocacy and resource mobilisation. communities. Using this framework, we can Instead of asking for more money for AIDS with articulate the need for work at the community level, an implied ever-increasing need, our advocacy for with community organisations, in order to make the more resources for HIV has more precise goals – investment in PMTCT clinics work optimally. coverage goals that will need to be set nationally and locally – in order to reach a point where the ‘Synergies with development sectors’ need for this investment declines. Optimal coverage will be reached, efficiency gains will be realised Another area of focus for the Investment Framework and the decrease in new HIV infections will result in is broader development sectors and their links to decreased need for services. HIV programmes and critical enablers. The sectors referenced include ‘social protection, education, In our planning. In order to understand the legal reform, gender equality, poverty reduction , implications of this framework for HIV programming gender-based violence, health systems, community at a country level, we need to answer a set of critical systems, and employer practices.’ programming questions: How does the list of development sector synergies match with HIV programme efforts in What are the communities/populations that your country? are most critical to the dynamics of HIV transmission in each country? Is there clarity on what each of these synergies involves? (for example, what are the overlaps What are the critical enablers and how do they between HIV programmes and education?) influence or affect the sexual and injecting practice or health seeking practice of the priority How is progress on each of these synergies in communities/populations? your country? What are the most critical HIV interventions for Does this list of priorities miss something impor- the priority communities/populations? tant? What are the optimal coverage levels for key If funding follows this list, what does it mean for HIV/TB interventions in each country? our current work? What are the critical programmatic enablers? What are our programmes contributing to Thinking through the meaning of each aspect of meeting coverage targets in each country? And these three areas (programme activities, critical what is their potential? enablers and development sector synergies) at a country level is important work. This might lead to What is our work in civil society to address a re-programming of HIV efforts, and we will need the critical enablers? What is the role of to ensure that we can point to where our HIV/TB government? programming efforts, and our advocacy efforts, are What are the most important synergies for these supported in the framework. For many of us, we populations, targets? Social protection? Human will need to advocate for changing the investments rights protections? Poverty reduction? Health in HIV at the national or local level. We might be systems? Community systems? Education? advocating for re-programming, or for the need to build capacity in different sectors to make this happen. Page 5
  • 6. DISCUSSION PAPER Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries Some of us will have the answers to these know about ART and can see the benefit of it for questions, some of us will need to work with others themselves and their families? Increased support for to seek or calculate the answers. The answers to community health workers and caregivers to deliver these questions, and the assumptions contained in ART and support adherence? the framework, should increasingly form the basis of national HIV plans, including Global Fund proposals. Left solely to public health planners, some of these These questions and their answers are critical for types of questions may not be asked. Increasing our strategic planning and fundraising efforts. We ART provision is a goal for all of us, but getting are contributing a lot to this national and global the right actions in place in order to achieve this is effort, but we need to be clearer in defining the HIV more complex. Community activists and community impact of this work, and in forecasting the potential based programmers must be part of this analysis of this work to achieve the point, in each country, to ensure that plans go well beyond the provision where HIV is in decline. of more clinical services. And when the goal is to shift more aspects of ART service provision to Articulating the role we play in supporting the communities and their organisations, that this effort critical enablers will be important work for Alliance is costed and funded properly, not undermined by Linking Organisations – both the social enablers ‘doing it cheaply’, dependent on volunteer labour, and programme enablers. What are our theories unpaid care and the under-funding of community of change for each critical enabler? It is widely organisations and their staff. acknowledged that defining, planning and costing efforts to address the critical enablers is the weakest Limitations of the framework part of this model. We have to focus attention to this, and help shape this work. Defining, planning As described above, the ‘critical enablers’ described and costing the vital pieces of the model such as in the framework are poorly defined, costed and community mobilisation; changing laws, policies tested. They are not universally agreed either, and and practices; stigma reduction; changing risk rest uneasily on an unstable body of evidence. environments; capacity building, management, Further work is required to understand the barriers procurement, research and innovation. and enablers to effective HIV responses in every context, and to define and demonstrate the value for Testing the assumptions inherent in the model money of key interventions that are enabling. will be important in each country. For example, the model depends heavily on increases in ART The daily struggles to ensure access to HIV provision. Is that assumption realistic and feasible services to and to protect the human rights of very from the perspective of very marginalised people? marginalised and poor people are well understood And if not, what are the changes, what are the by community organisations. Sometimes a list of critical enablers, in order to reach and increase clinical and health promotion interventions fails to the uptake of ART amongst marginalised people? ‘get at’ the range of needs, struggles and problems Improved drug procurement and distribution shaping the lives of people who are detained, systems? Reduced discrimination towards key denied services, who are subject to violence, populations in health care settings? ART more breaches of privacy, hate crime, discrimination and accessible in a wider range of settings? Improved access to opiate substitution treatment for other violations, who live far from health services, injecting drug users? Changes in policy so that who have uncertain immigration status or who people without identity cards, or people in prison are poor, young, old or socially isolated. Social or detention, can access ART? More intensive and behavioural research, political science and community mobilisation so that more people operations research can define HIV and other Page 6
  • 7. DISCUSSION PAPER Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries needs more deeply. They can help to build a bridge populations, programmes and investments. Analyse between our understanding of the complexity and how these programmes and critical enablers extent of social and personal needs, and a set of are synergising with other development sectors. health programmes that can stop HIV. The science Identify the most important critical enablers that we bring to the model needs more social to ensure the programmes are of high quality science, and more implementation science. and are reaching sufficient numbers of people from specifically targeted populations. Seek The critical programmatic enablers need to address endorsement for your analysis, including from corruption, capacity building, building social government. Analyse the assumptions in the capital, strengthening community systems and model for your country. What interventions will strengthening health systems so that health systems make increases in ART most feasible? How do better serve all people with HIV needs, including behaviour change communication and condom those who are criminalised and marginalised. promotion interventions change as a result of increased evidence for treatment as prevention, Acting on the investment framework and male circumcision? What will be the effects on sexual and injecting practice, and how will We need to act on this investment framework to behaviour change communication respond? What more directly promote effective and community are the community mobilisation efforts for the six driven responses to HIV in each country where the programme areas? Alliance operates. There is some critical thinking to be done. We can use this framework to intensify Advocate for a more high impact, precisely and improve national planning for HIV. Informed by targeted and costed national HIV programme. the investment framework, some immediate tasks Use this framework to advocate for more precision arise: in targeting and for a more expanded and nuanced role for communities and their organisations. It will Ensure the framework is on the national agenda. help to analyse current investments in HIV to ensure Do your national planning institutions (NACs, that our best efforts focus on high impact – the CCMs) know about it? Get this framework onto potential to prevent 12.2 million new HIV infections the agenda of these committees. Foster debate and prevent 7.4 million deaths due to AIDS by 2020. about the model. Brief government, civil society and relevant professional agencies about it. With ABOUT THE ALLIANCE UNAIDS and WHO colleagues, form a working Established in 1993, the International HIV/AIDS group made up of relevant specialists to examine Alliance is a global partnership of nationally- the meaning of the framework in your country: based linking organisations working in over 40 national HIV government/public health planners, countries, to support community action on AIDS HIV civil society organisations – both key population in developing countries. representatives and HIV programme implementers, International HIV/AIDS Alliance HIV/TB clinicians and social/care providers, HIV (International secretariat) technical agencies, clinical researchers, HIV/TB/ 91-101 Davigdor Road SRH epidemiologists, HIV social scientists, HIV Hove, East Sussex social care experts, HIV human rights specialists. BN3 1RE United Kingdom Identify the key populations, programmes and Tel: +44 1273 718 900 Fax: +44 1273 718 901 coverage levels in your country, and analyse Email: mail@aidsalliance.org assumptions. Work with other experts to identify the most important Registered charity no. 1038860 Page 7