The Effect Of Weathering On Climbing Sling Strength Steven Clench Loughborough University
Contents <ul><li>What is a climbing sling? </li></ul><ul><li>Abseil anchors </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul><ul><li...
What Is a Climbing Sling <ul><li>A climbing sling is a loop of material usually Nylon cloth tapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Sling...
Abseil Anchors <ul><li>Anchors are used as a method of securing a rope to allow a descent. </li></ul><ul><li>Preferable an...
Abseiling Anchors Cont. <ul><li>Anchors are often sacrificed. </li></ul><ul><li>This means they are left of the rock face ...
Example of an abseil anchor
Nylon Structure <ul><li>Nylon is a form of polyamide. A polyamide is a polymer that contains an amide group -[CO-NH]-as a ...
Nylon Structure Cont. <ul><li>In type AABB nylons (polyamide n,m) the amount of hydrocarbons between the amide </li></ul><...
Weathering <ul><li>Definition :- Weathering causes the disintegration of a material through the action of wind, rain and s...
Ultraviolet Degradation <ul><li>Nylons are greatly affected by ultraviolet light. This is done through the attack of the r...
Ultraviolet Degradation Cont. <ul><li>These unpaired electrons are usually highly reactive. These free radicals then react...
Water Infiltration <ul><li>The infiltration of water will affect the strength of the nylon slings by reversing the binding...
Measurements To Be Taken <ul><li>The measurements that are going to be taken are: </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength </li>...
Hypothesis <ul><li>It is believed that the strength of the nylon slings will reduce with increased exposure to environment...
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the affect of weathering on climbing sling strength.

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dissertation interim Presentation

  1. 1. The Effect Of Weathering On Climbing Sling Strength Steven Clench Loughborough University
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>What is a climbing sling? </li></ul><ul><li>Abseil anchors </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements to be taken </li></ul><ul><li>What results are expected to show </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is a Climbing Sling <ul><li>A climbing sling is a loop of material usually Nylon cloth tapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Slings are carried by climbers as safety equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a method to attach themselves to the rock face. </li></ul><ul><li>Also used as a base/anchor for descending (abseiling) down the rock face. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Abseil Anchors <ul><li>Anchors are used as a method of securing a rope to allow a descent. </li></ul><ul><li>Preferable anchor sites are trees or spikes of rock. </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of slings and Karabiners are used to provide a sturdy base for abseiling. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Abseiling Anchors Cont. <ul><li>Anchors are often sacrificed. </li></ul><ul><li>This means they are left of the rock face open to the elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Reckless climbers may then choose to use this anchor not knowing what state the sling is in. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example of an abseil anchor
  7. 7. Nylon Structure <ul><li>Nylon is a form of polyamide. A polyamide is a polymer that contains an amide group -[CO-NH]-as a recurring unit of a chain of hydrocarbons –[CH2]-. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types of repeat units these are AB units or AABB units. </li></ul><ul><li>In type AB nylons the number of hydrocarbons between the amide groups is a constant e.g. Nylon 6 has the form –[NH(CH2)(n-1)CO]- where n=6. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nylon Structure Cont. <ul><li>In type AABB nylons (polyamide n,m) the amount of hydrocarbons between the amide </li></ul><ul><li>Type AABB nylons have the form: –[NH(CH2)nNHCO(CH2)m-2C)]- . Nylon 6,6 is an example of this type of nylon. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Weathering <ul><li>Definition :- Weathering causes the disintegration of a material through the action of wind, rain and sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion, hydrolysis and ultraviolet light are all constituents of the elements mentioned above. </li></ul><ul><li>These all have an adverse effect on the strength of a sling. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ultraviolet Degradation <ul><li>Nylons are greatly affected by ultraviolet light. This is done through the attack of the repeat units giving rise to the production of free radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Free radicals are atoms, molecules or ions with unpaired electrons on the outside shell, every atom has a number of electrons within it, these electrons sit within shells in the atom and each shell has a different amount within it. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ultraviolet Degradation Cont. <ul><li>These unpaired electrons are usually highly reactive. These free radicals then react with oxygen in the atmosphere and form carbonyl groups (C=O) in the main polymer chain which in turn weakens the chain. This weakness can be manifested as discolouration </li></ul>
  12. 12. Water Infiltration <ul><li>The infiltration of water will affect the strength of the nylon slings by reversing the binding reaction between the repeat units in the nylon chains . </li></ul><ul><li>This un-bonding reduces the molecular weight of the nylon and means that cracks can form in the material with greater ease and are affected by the environment to a greater extent. This infiltration is known as hydrolysis. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Measurements To Be Taken <ul><li>The measurements that are going to be taken are: </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength </li></ul><ul><li>Hours of daylight </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) </li></ul><ul><li>Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical microscopy of the fracture surface. </li></ul><ul><li>SEM for high resolution images of fracture surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs of the samples </li></ul>To monitor the possible chemical changes in the slings
  14. 14. Hypothesis <ul><li>It is believed that the strength of the nylon slings will reduce with increased exposure to environmental degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is expected the longer the exposure then the greater the degradation effects. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Thanks for listening Any questions?

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