Intellectaul property right

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Intellectaul property right

  1. 1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT<br />Presented By : <br />Kamran Khan<br />3rd October 2011<br />Shri Ramdeobaba College Of Engineering & Management , Nagpur<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Intellectual Property<br /><ul><li> It Is A Creation Or Invention.
  3. 3. It Is An Intangible Asset.
  4. 4. It Is An Idea.
  5. 5. It Is In Various Form.
  6. 6. It Require High Intellectual Effort.</li></ul>2<br />
  7. 7. Contd…<br /><ul><li> It Can Be Sell Or Buy.
  8. 8. It Can Be Lease Or Rent.
  9. 9. It Can Pass Under Will.
  10. 10. It Can Be Assigned.</li></ul>3<br />
  11. 11. Function Of Intellectual Property<br /><ul><li> Principle Function…
  12. 12. To Incentivize Knowledge (Hence Wealth) Creation.
  13. 13. To Accumulate Knowledge In Culture.
  14. 14. To Protect Distinctive Identity.</li></ul>4<br />
  15. 15. Branches Of Intellectual Property<br />5<br />Intellectual Property<br />Industrial Property<br />Copyright <br />(Related Right)<br />
  16. 16. Industrial Property<br /><ul><li> Principle Of Industrial Property :
  17. 17. To Protect Invention.
  18. 18. To Identify Ownership.
  19. 19. To Realize Possession.
  20. 20. To Restrict The Other.
  21. 21. It Includes :
  22. 22. Trademark Or Servicemark.
  23. 23. Patents.
  24. 24. Industrial Design.
  25. 25. Geographical Indication.</li></ul>6<br />
  26. 26. Copyright (Related Right)<br /><ul><li> Principle Of Copyright :
  27. 27. Rights Of Reproduction.
  28. 28. Rights Of Communication.
  29. 29. Adaption Of Creation.
  30. 30. Translation Of Creation.
  31. 31. It Includes :
  32. 32. Original Literary.
  33. 33. Musical Creation.
  34. 34. Artistic Work.
  35. 35. Audio Visual Work.
  36. 36. Computer Program. Etc.</li></ul>7<br />
  37. 37. Contd…<br /><ul><li> Types Of Rights In Copyright :</li></ul>8<br />Rights<br />Moral Right<br />Economic Right<br />
  38. 38. Types Of Intellectual Property In TRIPS <br /><ul><li> Patent.
  39. 39. Industrial Design.
  40. 40. Trademark Or Servicemark.
  41. 41. Copyright Or Related Right.
  42. 42. Geographical Indication.
  43. 43. Trade Secret.</li></ul>9<br />
  44. 44. Patent<br /><ul><li> Patent Refers To :</li></ul> It Grants Owner With Exclusive Rights To Use His Or Her Invention For Limited Period Of Time.<br /><ul><li> It Provides A Tool To Prevent Third Parties From Using , Making , Selling Or Profiting From Invention & Create Incentive In Innovation.
  45. 45. Examples :</li></ul> Telephone.<br /> Telescope. Etc.<br />10<br />
  46. 46. A . Graham Bell’s Patent<br />11<br />
  47. 47. Certificate To A . Graham Bell<br />12<br />
  48. 48. Contd…<br /><ul><li>Types Of Patent :</li></ul>13<br />Patent<br />Design Patent<br />Utility Patent<br />Plant Patent<br />
  49. 49. Contd…<br /><ul><li> Objective Of Patent :
  50. 50. To Provide Protection For Invention.
  51. 51. To Provide Award For New Or Further Development.
  52. 52. To Encourage For New Creativity.
  53. 53. To Provide Legal Ownership For A Period.</li></ul>14<br />
  54. 54. Industrial Design<br /><ul><li>It Is An Idea Or Conception As To The Features Of Shape, Configuration, Pattern Or Composition Of Lines Or Colors Applied To Any Article, Two Or Three-Dimensional Or both, By Any Industrial Process
  55. 55. Design Must Relate To Appearance Of The Object , Which Is Not Determined By Technical Or Functional Necessity.
  56. 56. Design Must Be New & Original.
  57. 57. It Is Not Necessarily Distinctive Like Trade Marks.
  58. 58. Notion Of Quality May Vary From Country To Country.
  59. 59. Examples : IPods , Cars , Televisions , Shoes , Etc.</li></ul>15<br />
  60. 60. Industrial Design Of Apple’s IPod<br />16<br />
  61. 61. Contd…<br /><ul><li> Objective Of Industrial Design :
  62. 62. To Enhance Aesthetics Of Products.
  63. 63. To Create Differentiation For Ones.
  64. 64. To Avoid Unfair Trade Practices.
  65. 65. To Benefits Ones From Its Creation.</li></ul>17<br />
  66. 66. Trademark Or Servicemark <br /><ul><li>It Is A Distinctive Symbol , Sign , Logos That Helps The Consumer To Distinguish Among Competing Goods & Service.
  67. 67. It Is A Sign That Is Used To Distinguish The Goods Or Services Offered By One Undertaking From Those Offered By Another.
  68. 68. It Is Usually Ensure A Level Of Quality – Be It Good Or Bad.
  69. 69. It Is Not Necessary To Meet The Quality Standards.
  70. 70. It Must Be Distinctive But Not Deceptive.</li></ul>18<br />
  71. 71. Trademark Or Servicemark<br />19<br />
  72. 72. Contd…<br /><ul><li> Objective Of Trademarks Or Servicemark :
  73. 73. To Provide Distinct Image Of Products Or Services.
  74. 74. To Provide Distinct Image In The Eyes Of Customer.
  75. 75. To Restrict Unfair Business Competition.
  76. 76. To Provide Glance To Quality Of Product Or Services.</li></ul>20<br />
  77. 77. Different Types Of Marks In IP<br />21<br />
  78. 78. Geographical Indication<br /><ul><li>It Is An Indication Or Name On Goods That Have Specific Geographical Origin Or Posses Qualities Or Reputation That Are Due Solely To The Place Of Origin.
  79. 79. Its Specific Climate , Soil , Method Of Production.
  80. 80. Indication Of Source On A Product Merely Indicates That The Product Originates In The Place Indicated.
  81. 81. Appellation Of Origin Indicates Not Only The Place Of Origin But Also The Essential Quality Link Between The Product & The Area Of Its Origin.
  82. 82. Examples : French Champagne , Tea From Darjeeling , Etc.</li></ul>22<br />
  83. 83. French Champagne <br />23<br />
  84. 84. Trade Secrete<br /><ul><li>It Is An Information Which Is Crucial For Individual Or Firm To Perform Its Operation & Administration For Trade Practices.
  85. 85. It Can Be A Method , Knowledge , Steps , Data , Recipe Etc.
  86. 86. It Can Be Confidential Or Public.
  87. 87. It Can Be Physical Present Or Intellectually.
  88. 88. An Owner Has Right To Keep It Privately Or Publicly.
  89. 89. Example : “McDonald’s Food Recipe. </li></ul>24<br />
  90. 90. Different IP In One Object<br />Trademark: <br />Brand Name.<br />Copyright:<br />Arts Work.<br />Industrial Design:<br />Shape Of Body & Chassis<br />Patent :<br />M-Hawk Technology.<br />25<br />
  91. 91. Ethical Aspects Of Intellectual Property<br /><ul><li> Lockean’s Aspects : ( John Locke )
  92. 92. There Is No Property In The State Of Nature.</li></ul> If There Is A Property On Which No One Has Possession Than It Is Equally Claimed By Individual.<br /><ul><li> If Human Improves /Creates A Property Or Resources Than They Can Possess For Fruit Of Themselves Or Their Family.
  93. 93. One Can Sell & One Can Acquired Possession.
  94. 94. One Can Acquired Property Without Creating It.
  95. 95. One Can Make It Unavailable For Others People.
  96. 96. Conclusion :
  97. 97. Lockean’s Statement “Restriction Other People To Use It”</li></ul> Doesn't Seem Relevant To IP.<br /><ul><li> Lockean’s Theory Opposed The “Common Use Of Property’ After Possession. </li></ul>26<br />
  98. 98. Contd…<br /><ul><li>Kantian Aspects : (Immanuel Kant )
  99. 99. One Can Act Only If One Has Freedom To Choose One’s Action.
  100. 100. To Deny This Kind Of Freedom Is To Deny Agency &</li></ul> Therefore It Is Immoral.<br /><ul><li>One Mechanism For Ensuring Control Is The Right To Exclusive Or At Least Uninterrupted Use Of Artifacts One Needs To Carry Out One’s Purposes.
  101. 101. A Right To a Reasonable Amount Of Property Can Be Grounded In The Right To Agency.
  102. 102. Conclusion :
  103. 103. Kantian Arguments “One Doesn’t Need Excusive Right Of IP” </li></ul>Since Other Can Use It Simultaneously.<br /><ul><li> This Argument Can Not Apply In Some Categories Of Intellectual </li></ul> Property.<br />27<br />
  104. 104. Contd…<br /><ul><li>Utilitarian Aspects : (John Stuart Mill )
  105. 105. There May Be Utilitarian Obligation To Respect IP Rights.
  106. 106. There May Be Limit On How Long One Can Own The </li></ul>The Intellectual Property.<br /><ul><li>There May Be Fewer Limit On Who Can Use It (Trade Secret).
  107. 107. It Provide Incentive To Develop New Ideas & Overall Utility.
  108. 108. Patent Law Allows Free Discussion & Exchange Of Ideas Despite IP Rights.
  109. 109. Conclusion :
  110. 110. Utilitarian Aspects Summarized That “ IP Rights Are Not </li></ul>Right To Exclusive Use Of IP “ But Right To Make Profit From It.<br /><ul><li>IP Rights Must Be Inherited & Justified In Terms Of Consequences To Society.</li></ul>28<br />
  111. 111. Legal Aspect Of Intellectual Property<br /><ul><li>TRIPS Agreement : </li></ul>(Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Right) <br /><ul><li>It Is An International Agreement Among The Countries.
  112. 112. It Is Created & Administered By The “World Trade Organization.
  113. 113. This Regulation Is Applied To All Countries Which Are Member Of “WTO”.
  114. 114. This Agreement Is Drafted & Negotiated In 1994.
  115. 115. It Is Amended In 2001 At Ministerial Conference “Doha”.
  116. 116. It Is Most Important & Multilateral Regulation For The Globalization Of Intellectual Property.
  117. 117. It Extends The Scope Of Intellectual Property In Collaboration Of Member Countries.
  118. 118. It Offers The Automatic Grant For Copyright Without Following The Traditional Procedure.
  119. 119. It Identifies The Excusive Right In Case Patent In Exception Cases.
  120. 120. It Makes A Compulsory Licensing for Each & Every Intellectual Property Which Is Beyond The Scope Of Its Categories.
  121. 121. It further Introduce The “Anti Circumvention Law” To Protect Digital Rights Management. </li></ul>29<br />
  122. 122. Laws In India Related To IP Rights<br /><ul><li> Patent Act 1970 (1999).
  123. 123. Design Act 1911 (2000).
  124. 124. Trade & Merchandise Mark Act 1958 (1999).
  125. 125. Copyright Act 1957 (1999).
  126. 126. Geographical Indication Of Goods Act 1999 (2002).
  127. 127. Trade Secret Section 27 Of Indian Contract Act 1872.</li></ul>30<br />
  128. 128. Ethics Adding Values In Intellectual Property<br /><ul><li> The Following Factors Adding Values In Intellectual Property :
  129. 129. Barriers To Entry.
  130. 130. Legal Protection.
  131. 131. Economic Life.
  132. 132. Profit Or Benefit From IP.
  133. 133. Unique Identity.
  134. 134. Growth Projection.
  135. 135. New Technology.</li></ul>31<br />
  136. 136. Benefits From Ethical Practices In Intellectual Property<br /><ul><li> Benefits To Corporate :
  137. 137. Maintain Competitive Advantage.
  138. 138. Helps To Raise Fund.
  139. 139. Enjoy Fruitful Advantage.
  140. 140. Benefit To Consumer :
  141. 141. Confidence Of Quality.
  142. 142. Reduce Ambiguity.
  143. 143. Get Innovative Products Or Services.</li></ul>32<br />
  144. 144. Contd…<br /><ul><li> Benefits To Individual Or Entrepreneur :
  145. 145. Encourage To Develop Innovative Ideas.
  146. 146. Financial Rewards From Ideas.
  147. 147. Opportunities To Fulfill Personal Needs.
  148. 148. Benefits To Society :
  149. 149. Growth In Enterprises & Creativity.
  150. 150. Innovation & Vibrancy.
  151. 151. Enhance Image Of Society.</li></ul>33<br />
  152. 152. Case Study<br />Vs<br />34<br />
  153. 153. Contd…<br /><ul><li>A & M Records Inc Vs Napster Inc :
  154. 154. Introduction :
  155. 155. “Shawn Fanning” A 19 Years Old Student At Northeastern University , Boston Created P2P Music File Sharing Service.
  156. 156. P2P Technology Means That Individual User Can Connect With Each Other Directly Without Any Center Point Management.
  157. 157. The Purpose Of This Service Was Enable To People Copy & Distribute Music Files With Each Other.
  158. 158. “Napster” Was Released In June 1999 & Operated In This Format Till July 2001.
  159. 159. Napster Had To Face Legal Challenges Related To Intellectual Property & Copyright.
  160. 160. Napster Is Hybrid P2P Network It Uses Central Server , But User Have The Responsibility For Hosting Information & Sharing & Downloading Music Files.
  161. 161. Napster Was A Search Engine That Was Able To Find Only MP3 Files.
  162. 162. The MP3 Search Engine Had Ability To Trade MP3 Files Directly Without The Use Of Centralized Server For Storage.</li></ul>35<br />
  163. 163. Contd…<br />36<br />
  164. 164. Contd…<br /><ul><li>Un-Ethical Steps Taken By Napster :
  165. 165. Napster Index & Directory Were Uploaded On Napster’s Servers , All The MP3 Files Were Transferred Across The Internet Using several Internet Protocols Directly From One User To Other.
  166. 166. After One Year Release Of Services , Napster Claimed More Than 20 Million Unique Users Account.
  167. 167. Steps Taken In Against Of Napster’s Un-ethical Practices :
  168. 168. In 2000 , A & M Records Along With 18 Other Records Companies Sued Napster.
  169. 169. Under The US Digital Millennium Act Of 1998 , </li></ul> A & M Accused Napster For Contributing & Vicarious Copyrights Infringement.<br /><ul><li> Under DM Act Of 1998 , A & M Accused Napster For Three Major Infringement :</li></ul>Its Users Directly Infringing Plaintiff’s copyright.<br />Napster Was Liable For Contributing Infringement Of Plaintiff’s Copyright.<br /> Napster Was Also Liable for Vicarious Infringement Of Plaintiff’s Copy Right.<br /><ul><li> In Simple Words A & M Accused Napster Not Only For Violating Copyright But Also For Contributing & Facilitating Other Peoples Infringement.</li></ul>37<br />
  170. 170. Contd…<br /><ul><li>Steps Taken By Napster :
  171. 171. The Defense Of Napster Is Depend On Following Three :</li></ul>The Audio Home Recording Act Of 1992.<br />The Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998.<br /> Misuse Of Copyright & Implied Licenses.<br /><ul><li>Napster Stated That It Was A Service To Be Used For “Space Shifting” Of Sound Recording.
  172. 172. However Napster Did Not Only Move Content Into More Usable Format But Also Holds Copies So That Files Could Be Shared Among The Users Of Napster.
  173. 173. Although The District Court stated That If Napster Was Used Only Sample Music Files , It Would Require Limited Usage Of Songs & Not Entire Album. Thus Giving Capability To Users To Download The MP3 Files.
  174. 174. Further More , Napster Stated That Since Launch Of Napster , Music Sales Were Increased.</li></ul>38<br />
  175. 175. Contd…<br /><ul><li>Conclude By District Court :
  176. 176. The District Court Stated That Napster Did Not Provide Enough Evidence To Support That Notion & Plaintiff Present An Incredible Amount Of Evidence Indicating That Napster Actually Harmed Overall Music Sales.
  177. 177. In July 2000, The District Court For The Northern District Of California Decided That Napster Was Guilty For The Above Three Infringement.
  178. 178. In February 2001, The Ninth Circuit Court Of Appeals Confirmed The District Courts Decision.
  179. 179. In 2001, The Napster Case Were Settled, It Has To Pay $26 Million To Creators & Copyrighters For Using Their Music Without Authorization.
  180. 180. Another $10 Million For Further Licensing Royalties.
  181. 181. Consequences To Napster Inc. For Its Un-Ethical Practices :
  182. 182. In April 2001, Napster Had Assets Of $8 Million & Liabilities Over $100 Million.
  183. 183. In June 2002, Napster Filed for Bankruptcy.
  184. 184. Napster Still Exist But It Operates Under New Structure & Policy.
  185. 185. Now Napster’s Operation Is Legal & Ethical.
  186. 186. In September 2008, Napster Inc & Best Buy Co. Informed Public That They Agreed To Merge.</li></ul>39<br />
  187. 187. Contd…<br /><ul><li>Origin Of Unethical Practices :
  188. 188. Shawn Fanning’s Ideas For creating This Software Was Innovative & Highly Creative But It Lacked In The Legal & Ethical Base In Order To Protect Intellectual Property Rights Of Creators.</li></ul>40<br />
  189. 189. 41<br />If You Are In Rules !<br />You Will Rule !<br />Thank You<br />

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