Team Write Stuff Final ReportProject ReportTeam Write Stuff: Katie Rollins, Leslie Bussey, Kayla Smith, and Erin SchneiderExecutive Summary This report contains information regarding the Bookbuilder project created by theTeam Write Stuff. In this report, the team uses the ADDIE process to analyze, design,develop, implement, and evaluate instruction of the 6+1 Writing Traits. The project that wedeveloped to use for instruction and implement with elementary level students is an onlinebook created within Bookbuilder. The goals for the book are for students to be able toexplain, determine and apply the traits within their writing. The team determined there was aneed for this instructional aid based on state-testing research and classroom observations.The content was created to engage students in the writing process, encourage positiveattitudes towards writing, and to teach the important steps of the 6+1 traits. In designing anddeveloping the book, the team determined how teachers should implement the book in theclassroom, what instructional activities should be available, and how to assess the studentsbased on the 6+1 Writing Traits. The team conducted a survey and gathered information onthe effectiveness of the book. As a result of the feedback from peers and mentors, the teammodified the book to create a more successful classroom resource.AnalysisObjectives As students begin elementary school, they most often lack the knowledge and skillsnecessary to write with content/development, organization, voice, word choice andconventions, all of which create interest and fluency in their writings. The problem wefocused on is the fore mentioned base components of writing in an elementary setting. If astudent fails to gain the appropriate knowledge and skills in an elementary setting, the skillstend to remain lacking as they progress through middle and high school. Some students findwriting to be “a chore.” Teaching students the 6+1 traits is a way of offering support andencouragement to young writers which will hopefully help to create positive attitudes aboutwriting. The book discusses and illustrates each of the 6+1 traits of writing, which are Ideas,Organization, Word Choice, Sentence Fluency, Voice and Conventions. The 6+1 traits teacheseducators, as well as students, a common language to communicate about the characteristicsof writing. The traits give a clear vision of how students can achieve “effective” writing.The goals of our book are: For students to explain each of the 6+1 Writing Traits For students to determine effective writing by analyzing writing samples For students to apply the 6+1 traits in their own writings
Process Used For This Analysis The cycle graph above illustrates the steps that the team followed in the creation of the6+1 Writing Traits book. At each step of the ADDIE process, there were specific goals thatneeded to be accomplished in order to reach the desired outcome. This graphic organizershows exactly what steps the team followed in each phase and what tasks will be repeatedwhen the book is used as an instructional resource. The graphic organizer is depicted as acycle because of the continuous nature of the ADDIE process. Teachers are continuouslyanalyzing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating the ways in which they teach.For this project, the team completed the analysis phase of the process using South CarolinaState Standards as well as South Carolina State writing test scores. Both the standards andthe test scores reflected a need for writing improvement. As a result, learning objectives werecreated in order to address this need. During the production of this book, the team designed,developed, implemented, and evaluated the product. Formative assessments occurredthroughout the process. Once we reached the evaluation phase, the team collected data andmade necessary revisions. The team will continue to analyze the data and make necessarychanges while working through the cycle of the ADDIE process.
Needs Analysis According to the South Carolina State Standards, second grade students should be ableto “create writing that includes a clear focus, coherent organization, sufficient elaboration,effective voice, and appropriate use of conventions.” Standard 2-4 (Writing: DevelopingWritten Communication). With this knowledge, our team determined there was a need toteach the 6+1 Writing Traits using many different methods. We conducted research on thewriting scores of elementary students in South Carolina. The team researched PASS writingscores and decided to focus on second and third grade students. The writing scoresconfirmed that there was a deficit in student writing scores and that deficit continues to growas students move through elementary and middle school. This verified that there was a needto teach the 6+1 Writing Traits to students at a young age. As a result of the survey data(noted below) and with suggestions from mentors and peers, our team determined that weshould expand the book to students in upper elementary grades (4th and 5th). The book wasintended to be used as a whole group teaching tool with students in second grade. The surveyresults concluded that the language used in our book combined with the amount of text andcontent that we should switch our focus and include the upper elementary grades since theycould read it independently as well. Each team member is a teacher in an elementary school setting. Among the team, wediscussed the problems we see with students’ writings in the classroom. Each membercollected student writing samples. The team then analyzed the writing samples andcompared them to the 6+1 traits and also to the state writing scores. Using the statestandards, state test scores, writing samples and our personal knowledge of the writingstruggles of elementary students, the team decided there was a clear and urgent need for aclassroom resource to support student learning and application of the 6+1 Writing Traits.Content Analysis To ensure that the content was complete and accurate, the team constructed a chartbased upon research and readings from professional literature. This chart lists each of thecomponents for the 6+1 Writing Traits. In the chart, the team analyzed the content thatneeded to be included in the book. The content is divided into categories according to the 6+1Writing Traits. When designing the book, the team used this chart to ensure that all contentwas addressed. We decided to separate each writing trait into three pages. The first page foreach trait in the book included the definition of the trait. The second page for each traitshowed an example of the trait being used by the main character in our book. The third pageencouraged students to create their own writings, using that specific trait, and also included achecklist with questions to make sure that they addressed the trait properly. After our surveywas conducted, we received feedback from peers that suggested the content of our book waslengthy and extensive for a second grader to read independently so we adjusted to includestudents through the upper elementary level.
Learner Analysis To begin the analysis of our learners, the team researched the Palmetto Assessment ofState Standards (PASS) scores. The PASS scores showed that there was a need for teachingthe 6+1 Writing Traits. State testing results prove that writing suffers as students’ progressthroughout their educational career. The state test is given beginning in third grade andaccording to the scores, 25% of the students in South Carolina did not meet the statestandards in writing when given a prompt and evaluated on the 6+1 traits. By the time theytake the test in eighth grade, the number of students not meeting the standard rises to 30%.After determining there was a need, we chose second grade because students exhibit morewriting independence during this developmental year. If students begin learning how to writeusing the 6+1 traits and continue using the traits through elementary school, they will bemore successful throughout the rest of their educational career. Upon completing the book and gathering results from the survey, the groupdetermined that the book would not only be beneficial to second grade but also to all studentsin elementary school from grades second through fifth. The book can help students’ at all
elementary grade levels to be able to remember, understand, and apply the 6+1 WritingTraits.Context Analysis Our book is intended to be used in an elementary classroom during a writing lesson.Teachers are given a certain amount of time in their day for a writing block, and this book canbe divided into multiple days or even weeks to teach the 6+1 Writing Traits. In second andthird grade classrooms, teachers can utilize this book to introduce and explain the 6+1Writing Traits to their class during whole group instruction. Teachers may also separatestudents into small groups based on their needs and use the book for small group instruction.Students can be provided with a copy of the book so that they can follow along and have theguidelines to look at during independent writing. While in upper elementary grades, studentswho are struggling in a certain area can be given a section of the book, and they can use it to
focus their writing on a particular trait. Although the original intent was to focus simply onthe teacher using this book with whole group instruction, it was determined after theevaluation of the book that it could be divided into several parts and given to upperelementary students in a more independent way.Design and DevelopmentDescription Of The InstructionSetting, Activities, and Sequence The setting of the instruction for our book on the 6+1 Writing Traits is in anelementary self-contained classroom. The book was intended to teach second grade studentsthe 6+1 traits; however, it can also be used to teach third through fifth grade students aboutthe traits. This book is not intended to be used for only one day of instruction, but should bedivided and taught over a period of time. This will allow the students to learn each traitthoroughly and display the traits in a writing of their own by focusing on one trait at a time.By the end of instruction on the 6+1 Writing Traits, students will be able to create a cohesivepiece of writing using all six traits. (1) Before the teacher begins instruction on the 6+1 Writing Traits, the teacher willcollect writing samples and determine areas of student weakness. (2) The initial introduction of the book and the 6+1 Writing Traits will include readingabout and discussing the traits with the whole class. The teacher will use the Bookbuilderwriting samples to exemplify how the character’s writing changed throughout the book. Theteacher will also allow students to determine which writing they feel best represents a cohesivepiece of writing using the 6+1 Writing Traits. (3) The teacher will divide students into small groups based upon areas of weaknessreflected in the pre-assessment. Some students may show more than one weak area and may,therefore, be assigned to more than one group. (4) The teacher will then work in a small group setting with different students to focuson the area(s) of writing causing them the most difficulty. The teacher will use theBookbuilder book as an instructional model to teach the students about the 6+1 WritingTraits. (5) Once the teacher has worked with students in small groups and each trait has beenreviewed, the teacher will again use the book to teach and review the 6+1 Writing Traits withthe whole class. The teacher will use the book to teach the students that each writing sampleneeds to contain each of the 6+1 Writing Traits. (6) The teacher will give the students writing samples to analyze. Students will identifyany information that may be missing in regards to the traits, as well as provide examples ofthe traits that are executed well within the writing samples. The teacher will also ask thestudents to explain the information that needs revising within the writing samples to make itmore effective, following the 6+1 Writing Trait expectations. (7) The teacher will then model a writing sample with the students using the 6+1Writing Traits. The teacher will use the SMARTboard to write about a familiar topic. Forexample, the writing topic modeled by the teacher might be about the different seasons.Students will use a graphic organizer (such as a web that was modeled in the book) tobrainstorm their ideas about the topic. (8) The teacher will then allow the students to work in groups to create a writingsample of their own that reflects the 6+1 Writing Traits. The groups will work best if theteacher assigns students to each group with varying abilities and strengths in the 6+1 traits.
In other words, do not put all students who struggle with voice in one group. (9) The teacher will use the writing samples from each group to assess and determinehow well the students understand the 6+1 traits. The teacher will use this information toidentify the students that require more small group instruction. (10) The teacher will assign the students a writing assignment that they will completeindependently. The teacher will remind the students of the 6+1 Writing Traits and stress theimportance of including each trait within their writings. The teacher will use the writings torevise the instruction, help the students better understand the traits and determine whichstudents need further small group assistance with the 6+1 Writing Traits. While differentiating within each group, the teacher will use the coaches as well asauditory information from the book to meet varying learning needs. These tools will offersupport, which a regular book cannot. This is especially helpful for the students that requiredifferent ways of learning and processing information. The coaches included in the book,Tina Trait and Reminder Rob, are used as audio and visual reminders on each page. Thisway, if a student does not understand the information that is taking place on a certain page,then they can rely on the coaches for extra help or a hint while they are writing. A student inan upper elementary grade can use these coaches for quick reminders while they read thebook independently.Development Process Supporting The Instructional Approach During the development stage of our project, we decided to design the book using astory line that focuses on the main character, Ivana, as she learns the traits and displays eachof them in a writing of her own. The graphics were created to assist the students using thebook and involve them in their learning about the 6+1 Writing Traits. The book serves as amodel for young students as the main character engages in the writing process and attemptsto demonstrate each trait in her writing as she develops a story about going to the fair.Ultimately, the team decided that developing a story with a meaningful message would bemore beneficial and educational for the students rather than a book with solely informationaltext.
Major ComponentsTesting and Evaluation Plans The teacher will collect writing samples from the students and grade them based uponthe 6+1 Writing Trait rubric. Writing samples will be used to gather pre-assessment data.This data will be used to divide the students into small groups for instruction on the 6+1traits. Within the small groups, students will focus on a specific trait and create additionalwritings using that particular trait. For example, if the student does not stay on topic withinhis/her writing, the teacher will work with the student about eliminating ideas that are not onthe topic. This will allow the students to gain experience with the 6+1 Writing Traits, withguidance and support from the teacher. The teacher will give the students a final writingassignment, in which they will be evaluated using the 6+1 Writing Traits. The teacher will usethis assignment to determine if any further steps need to be taken in regards to instructionand/or remediation.Grading Rubric 6+1 Writing Traits Rubric Does Not Meet Needs Improvement Acceptable Meets Standards 4 points 8 points 12 points 16 pointsName, Date, None: 1 out of 3: 2 out of 3: 3 out of 3: and Title Name Name Name Name Date Date Date Date Title Title Title Intriguing Title 0 points 1 point 2 points 4 points Ideas No clear Central idea is Presents a Presents a clear central idea unclear central idea central idea Sentences Focus shifts Details are about the topic do not tell from one idea to general and not Uses specific, about the another specific to the relevant details idea Details need central idea Focus is on No details more Focus is central idea about the elaboration generally throughout the idea sustained, but writing may shift slightlyOrganization Information Provides simple, Writing has a Information is is random repetitive, or logical in a well and in no random progression of organized logical progression of ideas pattern with order ideas Provides a sequence and Attempts a throughout the strong flow throughout beginning, writing beginning, the writing middle and Attempts a middle and end. Writing has a end, but beginning, bold beginning, components middle and end, a mighty middle, are missing but components and an excellent or are weak or ending confusing ineffective Voice Reading is Shows little Show some Personal style of monotone personal style personal style writing is clear Little to no Shows some Awareness of throughout the awareness awareness of audience writing of audience audience Tone is Uses clear voice Tone is consistent to show feeling inappropria throughout most and emotions in te of the writing writing Tone is consistent and appropriateWord Choice Has simple Has mostly Vocabulary is Uses precise and vocabulary general and precise and vivid vocabulary
Word some vocabulary consistent Vocabulary is choice is on students level throughout most appropriate for not on of the writing topic students Writing contains Writing is full of level descriptive descriptive words words Sentence Phrases are Phrases are not Sentence Varies sentence Fluency repetitive effective structure seems structure to Shows little Phrases may be to have variety promote or no predictable Majority of rhythmic sentence Sentences seem sentences begin reading variety to all begin the in a variety of Sentences begin same way. different ways in a variety of different waysConventions Little or no evidence Limited evidence of Adequate use of grade- Consistent and strong of grade- level grade- level conventions level conventions grade- level conventions conventions (Grammar, Capitalization, (Grammar, Capitalization, (Grammar, Capitalization, (Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling) Punctuation, Spelling) Punctuation, Spelling) Capitalization, Punctuation, Spelling)Comments:Practice Activities The students will practice using the 6+1 Writing Traits in small groups with guidedinstruction from the teacher. During the small groups, the students will practice applying thetraits in which they are having difficulty. The students will also analyze writing samples todetermine the traits that are sufficient and the traits that require more attention. Finally, thestudents will work in groups to create writing samples that meet all of the 6+1 Writing Traitexpectations.Feedback Mechanisms The teacher will provide feedback to the students as they learn about the 6+1 traits.The teacher will use the data from the pre-assessment to divide the students into smallgroups. In these groups, the teacher will be able to provide immediate feedback to thestudents. While working within a group to create a writing piece, the students will be able tohelp each other and offer advice and feedback when appropriate. Since the students will beworking in groups, the teacher will be able to monitor and provide each group with guidance.The teacher will also use the rubric to provide feedback to the students when grading theirwriting samples.Motivational Strategies The teacher will have to keep the students motivated and interested in learning aboutthe 6+1 Writing Traits. The book was written as a story line to help accomplish this. Theteacher will also need to keep in mind that students are more willing to write about topics thatinterest them. The teacher will prepare several group related activities to keep the studentsinteracting with one another and engaged in the writing assignment. The teacher will also setup a reward system in which the students can display some of their best writing on the 6+1Writing Wall.
EvaluationKey Development Decisions And Justification During the development of the project, the team made many decisions in hopes ofallowing the book to be used as an effective resource for teaching the 6+1 Writing Traits. (1) Storyline - The team decided to create a story line to teach the 6+1 traits toelementary students. We decided to make the book a fictional tale instead of a non-fictionresource to appeal to elementary students. The story follows a student who is struggling tounderstand writing as a fairy guides her through the 6+1 traits. Many students also strugglewith writing and can relate to the story line of the book. (2) Book Layout - In the book, each trait follows the same format. The first page foreach trait explains what the trait is and how it improves writing. The second page of eachtrait provides an example of how to use the trait in writing, and the third page gives thestudents an opportunity to use the trait in their own writing and self-assess. (3) Coaches - There are two coaches that are used in the book. These coaches,Reminder Rob and Tina Trait are there to provide instructional information and helpful hintsto the students as they are engaged in the book. (4) Audio - The auditory information in the book is provided as additional support tomeet the varying ages and learning needs of the users. While we chose not to read the bookword for word, the audio provided helps move the storybook along and give the characters avoice. (5) Graphics - The graphics in the book are kid friendly and help the book have astorybook feel. Students love reading “stories” with fictional characters. By giving a non-fiction subject the storybook twist, students will relate and remember the informationpresented. Graphics were also used to explain the various writing traits. For example, amicrophone graphic was chosen to describe the trait, Voice, since it is how the students soundwhen writing a story of their own. This can help the students relate to the pictures instead ofthe words. In the development stage of the project, the team made several key decisions to ensureease of use by students and teachers, allowing the book to be used as an effective source forteaching the 6+1 Writing Traits. (1) Dividing the Content into Sections - The content for each of the 6+1 Writing Traitsis divided into three sections. The first section contains a description of the specific trait. Thesecond section gives an example of the trait to help the students see the trait being usedproperly. The third section allows the students to use a checklist as they develop their ownwriting samples. (2) Simple Wording - While some of the wording may look overwhelming, we usedlower level sight words while creating this book. This allows for the lower elementarystudents to be able to read it independently, if given that particular task by the teacher. (3) Providing Guidelines - The last page of each trait provides guidelines for not onlythe teachers, but also the students to follow. These few simple questions show exactly whatthe rubric is looking for and therefore what the students should be looking for as they includeeach trait in their writing. Teachers can use this as a quick assessment tool when reviewingthe students’ writings. This will keep the teacher on track while they are teaching the lessonsas well.
Evaluation During the evaluation phase, our team decided to develop a survey, using SurveyMonkey, in order to collect data on the effectiveness of the components in our book. The goalwas to receive feedback from our peers and mentors and to revise aspects of the book basedon those suggestions. Most of the feedback was positive; however, we received a fewresponses regarding elements we could change in our book. One aspect that we revised wasthe grade level. Originally, our team decided to focus on second grade students; however, weexpanded through fifth grade based upon survey feedback. The suggestions that we receivedrelating to the grade level stated that the language may be rather difficult for a second graderand the content may be too much for young students to understand. Another aspect that wechanged was the height and width of our pages, including the graphics and text. This is toensure that the viewer can see all of the information as well as the coaches on one screenwithout scrolling down the page. The formative evaluation affected our overall project byproviding constructive suggestions that improved the appearance and user age range of ourproduct in Bookbuilder.Survey Results 9 Survey Results 8 10 9 7 8 Unsatisfactory 7 6 6 5 Needs Improvement 5 # of Choice A Neutral 4 4 People 3 Choice B 3 Satisfactory 2 1 Choice C 2 Excellent 0 Choice D 1 Question 3 Question 4 Question 5 Question 6 Question 7 Question 9 Question 2 Question 8 0 Question 1 Question Number1. How would you rate our book in terms of effectiveness and educational value? 1 – Unsatisfactory – 0% 2 – Needs Improvement – 0% 3 – Neutral – 0% 4 – Satisfactory – 11.1% (1) 5 – Excellent – 89.5% (8)2. Do you think that the graphics in our book work well with the text? Yes – 100% (9) No – 0% Some of the graphics work well with the text and others don’t. – 0%
3. Would the graphics in our book help a student to better understand thecontent? Yes – 100% (9) No – 0% Some of the graphics would help a student better understand the content. – 0%4. Do you think the graphics in our book are helpful or distracting? Would achild be distracted while reading the book? The graphics are helpful. – 88.9% (8) The graphics are distracting. – 0% Some of the graphics are helpful while others are distracting. – 11.1% (1)5. Do you think that the content in our book is explained in a clear and thoroughmanner? Yes – 100% (9) No – 0% Some of the content is explained in a clear and thorough manner. – 0%6. Would the content in our book help a student to apply the 6+1 Writing Traitsto his/her writings? Yes – 88.9% (8) No – 0% Some of the content would help a student to apply the 6+1 Writing Traits to his/her writings. – 11.1% (1)7. By viewing our book, do you think a student could effectively explain the 6+1Writing Traits to someone else? Yes – 77.8% (7) No – 0% A student would be able to explain some of the traits to someone else, but not all of them. – 22.2% (2)8. By viewing our book, do you think a student would be able to determine if apiece of writing displays the 6+1 Writing Traits? Yes – 66.7% (6) No – 0% A student would be able to determine if a piece of writing displays some aspects of the 6+1 Writing Traits. – 33.3% (3)9. Do you think that the content in our book is appropriate for second gradestudents? Yes – 66.7% (6) No – 0% Some parts are appropriate for second grade students. – 22.2% (2) The content in the book should be used with older elementary students (grades 3- 5). – 33.3% (3)10. In your opinion, what needs to be improved or changed in our book? Whataspects (if any) need to be revised? Do you think anything should be added orremoved from our book? If you’re an educator, would you use this book in yourclassroom to teach the 6+1 Writing Traits?Responses: None I would definitely use this book! I really like it. The only thing you may want to add is an introduction to the coaches, letting readers know to look for them at the
bottom of each page AND show them down there on or after the introduction page instead of the very first page. I would suggest using both auditory and visual material. I really like the graphics in this book. They are simple but cute. One thing I would say is too much wording. If this book is for a second grader, you will probably need to think about the language. Are they able to read so much and understand all of these? I think the book is great in terms of content and images. CAW: The book is great and just make sure that each page seems to be about the same width/height for the screen. I think the way you worded the questions limits the information you can get from the survey with yes/no answers. Overall, I think you can make sure that the book would stand by itself for 2nd through 5th graders and given the range of students some might need more assistance in writing. I would like to use this book to introduce the special education majors to the 6+1 Writing Traits. I had never heard of the 6+1 Writing Traits and this book was very informative! Great Job! Want to make sure the coaches are visible without scrolling on each page. This book would be useful in the classroom. Great book with a wealth of information. It explains in depth the way to write a paper. Although I am thinking it is a bit advanced for a second grader. I am not an educator though so it may be on target. As I stated, I am not an educator but if I were, I would certainly use this book. The team created a rubric for teachers to use in the classroom as a form of summativeevaluation for the 6+1 Writing Traits. The rubric displays the information that the studentsare expected to include within their writings. This tool is based upon a point system scoringrubric that describes the varying degrees of mastery for the expected skill. Students whoscore a “Does Not Meet” on the rubric did not follow the guidelines that were addressed in thebook. The rubric contains six criteria included in the 6+1 Writing Traits with scoring optionsof four, eight, twelve, and sixteen points for each trait. A student that exhibits mastery withall of the 6+1 Writing Traits would receive a score of a sixteen, or “Meets Standards”.Expected Maintenance And Distribution Requirements In order to maintain and distribute our instruction in the future, we anticipate thefollowing. In times of budget decrease, we did not anticipate printing the book to be theprimary means of use. We anticipated that most users would display the book for the wholeclass to view, using a product like a SMARTboard. With this in mind, we tried to make thevisuals exciting and stimulating to the viewer and the text easy to read. We may not, however,have given much consideration to the users without expansive classroom technologyresources, such as classroom computers or a SMARTboard... or to those with limited printingbudgets. The large graphics will require a lot of expensive ink to print. However, one bookcould be printed to use as a whole group and/or small group resource if needed. This wouldnot be ideal; nevertheless, we expect that well funded districts will be able to best use ourresource for whole group and small group instructional purposes. We believe that mosteducators have access to SMARTboards and/or computers; therefore, we constructed ourproduct with the majority in mind. We feel our product is complete and maintains apredictable pattern that proves to be effective for writing instruction. For a more permanent
display of our product, we recommend displaying the Bookbuilder on a class website, blog orwiki.
References(2011, November). [Graphic]. Retrieved from http://elderly.com/new_instruments/items/images/MIK/PG58_microphone.jpgAllied Distributing, Inc. (2011, November). Wurlitzer Jukebox Game Page. [Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.arcadegamesuperstore.com/wurlitzer-jukebox.htmBrown, A. & Green, T. (2011). The Essentials of Instructional Design: Connecting Fundamental Principals with Process and Practice. (2nd ed.). New Jersey; Pearson Education, Inc.CAST UDL Book Builder. (2011, December 1). Retrieved from http://bookbuilder.cast.org/Clipart of LLC. (2011, November). [Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.clipartof.com/gallery/clipart/fair.htmlCulham, Ruth. (2008). 6+1 Traits of Writing: The Complete Guide for the Primary Grades.McCulloch, Ashley. (2011, November). Thistle Girl Designs. Retrieved from http://www.thistlegirldesigns.com/shop/index.php?cPath=26McGrath, Christopher. (2011, November). The Virtual Red Pen. [Graphic]. Retrieved from http://digitalmcgrath.com/the-virtual-red-pen/Microsoft Corporation, (2011, November). Microsoft Office Clip Art Gallery. [Graphic]. Retrieved from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/images/Mobley, Daniel. (2011, November). The Mysteries of Laminate/Hardwood Flooring.[Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.mobleyscarpetcleaning.com/Hardwood%20Floor%20Cleaning.htmSouth Carolina English Language Arts Academic Standards. (2011 November). [PDF File]. (page 55-02-29)Retrieved from http://eoc.sc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/B8522F55-D9E8- 4081-B73A-01693F3F61FD/0/ELAStandards.pdfStore 51. (2011, November). [Graphic]. Retrieved from http://bedding.store51.com/storefrontprofiles/DeluxeSFItemDetail.aspx?sfid=87970 &c=676893&i=155907146