Managing Change & Conflict


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A guide on Managing Change & Conflict.

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Managing Change & Conflict

  1. 1. Managing Change and Conflict Chapter 14 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Identify and describe four types of organizational change according to the Nadler-Tushman model. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how people tend to respond differently to changes they like and those they dislike. </li></ul><ul><li>List a least six reasons why employees resist changes and discuss what management can do about resistance to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the unfreezing-change-refreezing analogy applies to organization development (OD). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Describe tempered radicals and identify the 5Ps in the checklist for grassroots change agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast competitive and cooperative conflict styles, and identify five conflict resolution techniques. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Change: Organizational and Individual Perspectives <ul><li>Types of Organizational Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipatory changes: planned changes based on expected situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive changes: changes made in response to unexpected situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental changes: subsystem adjustments required to keep the organization on course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic changes: altering the overall shape or direction of the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Change: Organizational and Individual Perspectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Tuning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common, least intense, and least risky type of change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as preventive maintenance and kaizen (continuous improvement). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key is to actively anticipate and avoid problems rather than waiting for something to go wrong. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental changes that are in reaction to external problems, events, or pressures. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Re-Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change that is anticipatory and strategic in scope and causes the organization to be significantly redirected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “frame bending” (Nadler and Tushman). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Re-Creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense and risky decisive change that reinvents the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “frame breaking” (Nadler and Tushman). </li></ul></ul></ul>Change: Organizational and Individual Perspectives (cont’d)
  7. 7. Individual Reactions to Change <ul><li>How People Respond to Changes They Like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-stage process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealistic optimism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reality shock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive direction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Individual Reactions to Change (cont’d) <ul><li>How People Respond to Changes They Fear and Dislike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting off on the wrong track </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laughing it off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing self-doubt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buying in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive direction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Why Do Employees Resist Change? <ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unannounced significant changes threaten employees’ sense of balance in the workplace. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inertia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees have a desire to maintain a safe, secure, and predictable status quo. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding and lack of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without introductory or remedial training, change may be perceived negatively. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Why Do Employees Resist Change? (cont’d) <ul><li>Emotional Side Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced acceptance of change can create a sense of powerlessness, anger, and passive resistance to change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promises of improvement mean nothing if employees do not trust management. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear of Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees are intimidated by change and doubt their abilities to meet new challenges. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Personality Conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers who are disliked by their managers are poor conduits for change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor Timing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other events can conspire to create resentment about a particular change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of Tact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No showing sensitivity to feelings can create resistance to change. </li></ul></ul>Why Do Employees Resist Change? (cont’d)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Threat to Job Status/Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees worry that any change may threaten their job or security. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breakup of Work Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes can tear apart established on-the-job social relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competing Commitments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change can disrupt employees in their pursuit of other goals. </li></ul></ul>Why Do Employees Resist Change? (cont’d)
  13. 13. Overcoming Resistance to Change <ul><li>Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation and involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation and agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation and co-optation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit and implicit coercion </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Making Change Happen <ul><li>Two Approaches to Organization Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization Development (OD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal top-down approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassroots Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An unofficial and informal bottom-up approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Agent Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foresight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Planned Change Through Organization Development (OD) <ul><li>Organization development (OD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned change programs intended to help people and organizations function more effectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applying behavioral science principles, methods, and theories to create and cope with change. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OD creates fundamental change in the organization, as opposed to fixing a problem or improving a procedure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OD programs generally are facilitated by hired consultants, </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Planned Change Through Organization Development (OD) (cont’d) <ul><li>Objectives of OD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepen the sense of organizational purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen interpersonal trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage problem solving rather than avoidance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a satisfying work experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement formal authority with knowledge and skill-based authority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase personal responsibility for planning and implementing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage willingness to change. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Planned Change Through Organization Development (OD) (cont’d) <ul><li>The OD Process (Kurt Lewin) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing social systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfreezing: neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing: implementing the planned change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refreezing: systematically following a change program for lasting results. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Unofficial and Informal Grassroots Change <ul><li>Grassroots Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change that is spontaneous, informal, experimental, and driven from within. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tempered Radicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who quietly try to change the dominant organizational culture in line with their convictions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines for tempered radicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think small for big results. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be authentic. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translate. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t go it alone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Managing Conflict <ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatible behaviors that make another person less effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the Two Faces of Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive conflict: parties are pursuing directly opposite (win-lose) goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative conflict: a mutually reinforcing experience (win-win) that serves the best interests of both parties. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Managing Conflict (cont’d) <ul><li>Conflict Triggers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict trigger: any factor that increases the chances of conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of triggers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous or overlapping jurisdictions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for scarce resources. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication breakdowns. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time pressure. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unreasonable standards, rule, policies, or procedures. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality clashes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status differentials. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealized expectations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Managing Conflict (cont’d) <ul><li>Resolving Conflict: Conflict Resolution Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superordinate goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoothing </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Career Advancement Behaviors <ul><li>Best Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worst Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winning at all costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demeaning others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retaliating </li></ul></ul>