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Internal Medicine Board Review - Nephrology Flashcards - by Knowmedge


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Internal Medicine Board Review Flashcards - This eBook contains 50 Nephrology / Urology Flashcards. The Flashcards are review questions and can be used to study for medical board exams including the USMLE Step Exams and the ABIM Internal Medicine Exam. More questions can be found at

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Internal Medicine Board Review - Nephrology Flashcards - by Knowmedge

  1. 1. Nephrology/Urology Includes 50 Flashcards for Board Exam prep INTERNAL MEDICINE BOARD REVIEW FLASHCARDS
  2. 2. K N O W M E D G E INTERNALMEDICINEBOARDREVIEWFLASHCARDS Nephrology/Urology Email: Website: Facebook: Twitter: YouTube: Google+: Pinterest: Copyright © 2015 Knowmedge ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means–graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution–without the prior written permission of Knowmedge
  3. 3. Dear Reader, Thank you for downloading a copy of this eBook. If you are searching for study materials for your medical board exam, you are on the verge of a significant milestone in your professional journey. Knowmedge is a medical education learning platform that was launched in April 2013. It features over 900 Internal Medicine questions, 4,000+ flashcards, 1,500+ medical mnemonics… all designed to help you learn and reinforce the key concepts covered on the exam. In addition, each of the Knowmedge Internal Medicine questions features a highly interactive audio visual explanation, in which our content experts walk you through the principles underlying each question to methodically arrive at the correct answer. This book contains 50 quick review Nephrology/Urology flashcards written by the team of Knowmedge doctors. We hope you find the questions in this book to be a valuable asset as you prepare for your upcoming exam. If you are interested in learning more about Knowmedge, please visit us at If you have any questions about the contents of this eBook, send me a note at Best of luck in your preparations! Sincerely, Ravi Ravi Bhatia, MD Co-founder, Chief Editor Knowmedge
  4. 4. What are 5 major causes of tubulointersitial kidney disease? Question 1 Medications, Infections, Immunologic, Malignancy, Obstructive Answer 1
  5. 5. Significant fluid volume depletion is a clinical clue for what renal process? Question 2 Pre-renal azotemia Answer 2
  6. 6. What kidney stone is most likely to precipitate in alkaline urine? Question 3 Magnesium ammonium phosphate Answer 3
  7. 7. Arrange the order of blood flow: arteries, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole Question 4 The order of blood flow is: arteries-- >afferent arteriole-->glomerulus--> efferent arteriole Answer 4
  8. 8. True or False: HIV infection is often cited as a complication of hemodialysis. Question 5 False, unlike Hepatitis B and C, HIV is not an oft-cited complication of hemodialysis. Answer 5
  9. 9. What protein:creatinine ratio would you expect for patients with nephrotic syndrome? Question 6 Greater than 3.5 Answer 6
  10. 10. What is the initial treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? Question 7 Alpha antagonists followed by 5-alpha reductase inhibitors Answer 7
  11. 11. What are 4 examples of of alpha antagonists? Question 8 Examples of alpha antagonists are doxazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, and alfuzosin Answer 8
  12. 12. True or False: Renal cell carcinoma occurs most often in females between 30 and 50 years of age. Question 9 False; Renal cell carcinoma occurs more often in males than females and usually arises between 50 and 70 years of age. Answer 9
  13. 13. What is the phosphorous level (high, low, normal) in primary hyperparathyroidism? Question 10 Low Answer 10
  14. 14. What effect does citrate found in transfused blood have on ionized calcium? Question 11 Citrate lowers ionized calcium levels Answer 11
  15. 15. What are 3 main symptoms that the change in calcium levels due to citrate causes? Question 12 Convulsions, Arrhythmia, and Tetany Answer 12
  16. 16. Metoprolol is a beta blocker that (elevates/lowers) potassium levels. Question 13 Elevates Answer 13
  17. 17. Any medication that causes vasodilation of the afferent arteriole would (increase or decrease?) flow down to the glomerulus and (increase or decrease?) upstream arterial pressure. Question 14 Increase; Decrease Answer 14
  18. 18. Multiple myeloma is generally associated with which type of RTA (Renal Tubular Acidosis)? Question 15 RTA Type 2 Answer 15
  19. 19. What Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA) will cause hyperkalemia? Question 16 RTA Type 4 Answer 16
  20. 20. Muddy brown casts in a urinalysis is a clue towards which renal process? Question 17 Acute tubular necrosis Answer 17
  21. 21. Hyaline casts in a urinalysis is a clue towards which renal process? Question 18 Pre-renal azotemia Answer 18
  22. 22. Fractional excretion of sodium greater than 1% is usually an indication of what renal process? Question 19 Acute tubular necrosis Answer 19
  23. 23. Kidney stones that are less than __ mm in diameter usually pass spontaneously. Question 20 5 Answer 20
  24. 24. What is the most common type of kidney stone? Question 21 Calcium oxalate stones make up around 65% of all stones. Answer 21
  25. 25. What nephrotic syndrome is most often associated with Hepatitis C and Cryoglobulinemia? Question 22 Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Answer 22
  26. 26. What nephrotic syndrome is most often associated with heroin use, obesity, sickle cell disease, African-Americans Question 23 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis Answer 23
  27. 27. What nephrotic syndrome is most often associated with Hepatitis B, Gold, Penicillamine, Solid tumors, NSAID use, Syphilis? Question 24 Membranous nephropathy Answer 24
  28. 28. What is the gold standard for the diagnosis of kidney stones? Question 25 Noncontrast helical abdominal CT Answer 25
  29. 29. In patients with chronic kidney disease, severe arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome can result because of deposition of what substance in the joints? Question 26 β2 microglobulin Answer 26
  30. 30. What is the GFR level for Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease? Question 27 15-29 ml/min/1.73m2 Answer 27
  31. 31. What condition can occur in patients with CKD who receive gadolinium? Question 28 Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) Answer 28
  32. 32. What are the two main kinds of bone problems that can occur with Stage 3 CKD? Question 29 Renal osteodystrophy and adynamic bone Answer 29
  33. 33. In a patient who is hyperventilating, what would you expect pH, CO2, and ionized calcium levels to be (low, normal, high)? Question 30 High pH; Low CO2; Low ionized calcium Answer 30
  34. 34. In management of Chronic Kidney Disease, ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril, should be discontinued if they cause a rise in creatinine by more than what pecentage Question 31 0.3 Answer 31
  35. 35. In CKD, erythropoietin should be given to bring the hemoglobin up to a goal of what level? Question 32 11-12g/dL Answer 32
  36. 36. True or False: Taking hydrochlorothiazide is an effective way to decrease urine calcium Question 33 True Answer 33
  37. 37. Bumpy contours of renal pelvis suggests what condition? Question 34 Analgesic nephropathy Answer 34
  38. 38. What would you expect the BUN:Creatinine ratio to be for patients with pre-renal azotemia? Question 35 Greater than 20:1 Answer 35
  39. 39. In pre-renal azotemia, what would you expect the urine sediment to show? Question 36 Hyaline casts Answer 36
  40. 40. What are the 3 main causes of hematuria without RBCs in the urine? Question 37 Rhabdomyolysis, Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), Excessive vitamin C intake Answer 37
  41. 41. How long after giving contrast does Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy usually occur? Question 38 Within 48 hours Answer 38
  42. 42. For a post-prostatectomy patient experiencing back pain, if the prostate serum antigen (PSA) level comes back less than ________, a bone scan would not be recommended. Question 39 10ng/mL Answer 39
  43. 43. In (Central or Nephrogenic) Diabetes Insipidus, there is decreased production of vasopressin that can arise in patients after experiencing trauma or neurosurgery Question 40 Central Answer 40
  44. 44. In (Central or Nephrogenic) Diabetes Insipidus, there is decreased responsiveness of the renal tubules to vasopressin. Question 41 Nephrogenic Answer 41
  45. 45. True or False: RBC Casts in Urine are seen in both IgA Nephropathy and Post- Infectious GN Question 42 True Answer 42
  46. 46. For patients vomitting, urine sodium will generally be less than what value? Question 43 Urine sodium will generally be less than 20mEq/L for patients that are vomiting as the body is trying to compensate and hold onto sodium. Answer 43
  47. 47. What test is needed to determine the cause of metabolic alkalosis? Question 44 Need to obtain a urine chloride sample Answer 44
  48. 48. 24-hour urine protein level greater than what level corresponds to nephrotic syndrome Question 45 3.5g Answer 45
  49. 49. In the setting of metabolic alkalosis in which renal related causes are suspected, what value is looked at next to determine the precise cause? Question 46 Blood pressure level Answer 46
  50. 50. For a patient with metabolic alkalosis, a urine chroide value greater than what indicates renal related causes? Question 47 Greater than 20 mEq/L Answer 47
  51. 51. What will the complement level be in IgA Nephropathy? Question 48 Normal Answer 48
  52. 52. What will the complement level be in Post-Infectious GN? Question 49 Low Answer 49
  53. 53. True or False: Hypokalemia and hypercalcemia can also cause nephrogenic DI Question 50 True Answer 50
  54. 54. Want more flashcards? Sign up today @ Over 4,000 IM Flashcards designed to help you learn and retain knowledge for the boards!
  55. 55. Ultimate Internal Medicine Learning Platform! 900+ questions 4,000+ flashcards 1,500+ mnemonics Video explanations Printable explanations