ENGLISH 8 LEARNING MODULE
QUARTER III (OVERCOMING CHALLENGES)
LESSON NO. 2: Burmese/Myanmar Literature-
Faith in Times of Challenges
1. INTRODUCTION AND FOCUS QUESTIONS:
Have you ever felt so down that you almost wanted to give up? How did
you cope with the challenges that came into your life? Have you ever wondered
how others overcome challenges? You are not alone. Everybody goes through
difficulties. And, it is possible to overcome these from the literary selections of
Burma or Myanmar.
In this lesson, Burmese Literature-Faith in Times of Challenges, you
will find out how critical understanding and appreciation of Afro-Asian literary
selections can help recognize the temperaments (prevailing or dominant quality
of mind that characterizes somebody) and psyche (human spirit or soul and
mind) of your Asian and African neighbors in their response to the challenges of
Hence, remember to search the answers for the following focus questions:
2. What does literature reveal about Asian and African character?
3. How do Asians and Africans respond to the challenges of modernity as
reflected in their literary selections?
LESSON AND COVERAGE:
Here, you will examine the focus questions when you take the following lesson:
LESSON TITLE: The Temperaments and Psyche of the Burmese People
in Response to the Challenges of Modernity
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
*Determine the persons being addressed in an informative
talk, the objectives of the speaker and his/her attitudes
*Note clues and links to show the speakers stand and
*Listen for clues and links to reveal the speakers’ train of
*Determine the stand of the speaker on a given issue
*Use appropriate turn-taking strategies (topic nomination,
topic development, topic shift, turn-getting, etc.) in extended
*Use communication strategies (paraphrase, translations,
and circumlocution) to repair breakdown in communication
*Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and
ambiguous sentence structures and discourse
*Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking
*Utilize varied reading strategies (covert dialogue with the
writer and the sectional approach) to process information in
*Identify propaganda strategies used in advertisements
(bandwagon, testimonial, transfer, repetition, emotional
words) and consider these in formulating hypothesis
*Note expressions that signal opinions (seems, to me, as I
*Analyze the elements that make up reality and fantasy from
a program viewed
Literature *Discover Philippine and Afro Asian literature as a means of
expanding experiences and outlook and enhancing
worthwhile universal human values
*Assess the Asian and African identity as reflected in their
literature and oneself in the light of what makes one an
Asian or African (through the different genres)
*Use specific cohesive and literary devices to construct
integrative literary and expository reviews, critiques,
research reports, and scripts for broadcast communication
texts, including screenplays
*Expand ideas in well-constructed paragraphs observing
cohesion, coherence and appropriate modes of paragraph
development (expository, descriptive, narrative, persuasive,
*Use varied adjective complementation
*Use appropriate idioms, collocations, and fixed expressions
Study Strategies *Derive information from various text types and sources
using the card catalog, vertical file, index, microfiche
(microfilm), CD ROM, Internet, etc.
Attitude *Express a different opinion without being offensive
Here is a simple map of the above lesson you will cover:
ACTIVITIES FOR MAKING
• Guess Who?/
Snapshots (I, Group)
• CSI Form /Character
Study of an Individual
• Featuring: Aung San
Suu Kyi (I)
• Inbox (map of
conceptual change) (I)
• Welcome to Burma aka
• Introducing, the
Burmese People (G)
• One’s Vision (complete
• Bull’s I (idiom) (G)
• Odds on Ads
• Listen and be Heard (I)
• Think as a Butterfly
• Meeting You (table)
• Literary Carousel (G)
• Character Analysis
• I Draw (I)
• The Propaganda (G)
• Shout Out (chart) (G)
• Speak Up, Let’s Talk
about it (G)
Word List (I)
REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND
• Your Mission (I) • The F’s (Faith and
Fight for Freedom)
• Frequency Word List
• Character Revelation
• Soldier Simulation/
• 3-2-1 (map of
• PS at your
• Lend me your
• Outbox (I)
• Lesson Closure (I)
• Handing in
• To do well in this lesson, you need to remember and do the following:
• Listening/Writing: Write an editorial article concerning an issue raised by the
speaker listened to
• Speaking/Reading: Engage in a conversation based from a selection or text read
using communication strategies and expressions that signal opinions
• Reading/Literature/Vocabulary/Study Strategies: Produce a frequency word list and
Construct a paragraph containing impressions from a text or passage read
• Viewing/Writing: Write an evaluation paper of a program viewed
• Grammar/Reading/Literature: Write a précis/summary regarding a text or passage
LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:
For your expectations, write your own possible goals and targets for this lesson in the box below.
Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you know so far about
Asian and African literature, in particular, Burmese literature.
• Activity 1: GUESS WHO?/SNAPSHOTS
To start the lesson, look at these pictures.
Now, answer the following questions:
1. Do you know any of the people in the pictures? Give the names of those whom you
2. What did they contribute in their countries? Provide examples.
3. Specifically, why are they considered as heroes or icons?
• Activity 2: FEATURING: AUNG SAN SUU KYI
Since you are already somewhat familiar with the above mentioned persons,
wherein one is Aung San Suu Kyi, study more information about her from this short essay.
Your teacher can read it through storytelling while you read silently and follow.
Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi was born in Rangoon (now named Yangon). Her father, Aung San, founded
the modern Burmese army and negotiated Burma's independence from the British Empire in 1947;
he was assassinated by his rivals in the same year. She grew up with her mother, Khin Kyi , and two
brothers, Aung San Lin and Aung San Oo , in Rangoon. Aung San Lin died at age eight, when he
drowned in an ornamental lake on the grounds of the house. Her elder brother emigrated to San
Diego, California, becoming a United States citizen. After Aung San Lin's death, the family moved to
a house by Inya Lake where Suu Kyi met people of very different backgrounds, political views and
religions. She was educated in Methodist English High School (now Basic Education High School No.
1 Dagon) for much of her childhood in Burma, where she was noted as having a talent for learning
languages. She is a Theravada Buddhist. Suu Kyi's mother, Khin Kyi, gained prominence as a
political figure in the newly formed Burmese government. She was appointed Burmese ambassador
to India and Nepal in 1960, and Aung San Suu Kyi followed her there, she studied in the Convent of
Jesus and Mary School, New Delhi and graduated from Lady Shri Ram College in New Delhi with a
degree in politics in 1964. Suu Kyi continued her education at St Hugh's College, Oxford, obtaining a
B.A. degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1969. After graduating, she lived in New York
City with a family friend and worked at the UN for three years, primarily on budget matters, writing
daily to her future husband, Dr. Michael Aris. In 1972, Aung San Suu Kyi married Aris, a scholar of
Tibetan culture, living abroad in Bhutan. The following year she gave birth to their first son,
Alexander Aris, in London; their second son, Kim, was born in 1977. Subsequently, she earned a PhD
at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London in 1985. She was elected as an
Honorary Fellow in 1990. 
For two years she was a Fellow at the Indian Institute of Advanced
Studies (IIAS) in Shimla, India. She also worked for the government of the Union of Burma.
In 1988 Suu Kyi returned to Burma, at first to tend for her ailing mother but later to lead the
pro-democracy movement. Aris' visit in Christmas 1995 turned out to be the last time that he and
Suu Kyi met, as Suu Kyi remained in Burma and the Burmese dictatorship denied him any further
entry visas. Aris was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1997 which was later found to be terminal.
Despite appeals from prominent figures and organizations, including the United States, UN Secretary
General Kofi Annan and Pope John Paul II , the Burmese government would not grant Aris a visa ,
saying that they did not have the facilities to care for him, and instead urged Aung San Suu Kyi to
leave the country to visit him. She was at that time temporarily free from house arrest but was
unwilling to depart, fearing that she would be refused re-entry if she left, as she did not trust the
military junta 's assurance that she could return.
Aris died on his 53rd birthday on 27 March 1999. Since 1989, when his wife was first placed
under house arrest, he had seen her only five times, the last of which was for Christmas in 1995.
She was also separated from her children, who live in the United Kingdom, but starting in 2011, they
have visited her in Burma.
On 2 May 2008, after Cyclone Nargis hit Burma, Suu Kyi lost the roof of her house and lived
in virtual darkness after losing electricity in her dilapidated lakeside residence. She used candles at
night as she was not provided any generator set. Plans to renovate and repair the house were
announced in August 2009. Suu Kyi was released from house arrest on 13 November 2010.
A short essay on life of Aung San Suu Kyiwww.meritnation.com/discuss/question/2463138 - India
Activity 3: CSI (Character Study of an Individual)
• Then, find a partner and fill out the CSI form based on her background information. Be
ready to share your output, which can be folded in accordion style, in class for interactive discussion.
Name of Character
Illustrations by: Amarjeet Malik
• Relate the previous activities to the focus questions:
1. What does literature (Burmese) reveal about Asian and African character?
2. How do Asians and Africans (Burmese) respond to the challenges of modernity as
reflected in their literary selections?
• Activity 4: INbox The-Box.jpgblog.hiredmyway.com
Now, refer to the map of conceptual change below, wherein you will be giving your
personal ideas and opinions about the focus questions. For this part, you will write on the
“I Think” section of IN THE BOX. Make sure you connect it with the literature of
Burma/Myanmar and Burmese people, for example, Aung San Suu Kyi.
IN THE BOX
Activity 5: ComCon (Comparison Contrast)
• Feel free to exchange information with your classmates and take turns by comparing and
contrasting your ideas using this graphic organizer.
Graphic Organizers Comparison & Contrast
As a review, you gave your initial ideas on the focus questions and
Burmese literature. This time, let us find out how others would answer
the questions and compare their ideas to your own. As you compare,
you will also learn other concepts which will help you complete the
required project. This project is about an evaluation paper of a program
You will go on by doing the next activity.
Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key concepts
regarding Burmese literature focusing on the temperaments and psyche
of the people of Burma in their response to challenges of modernity.
Activity 6: WELCOME TO BURMA AKA MYANMAR!
• Take note of the words used in context that you will encounter in reading the informative
text. Beforehand, do the unlocking of difficulties through wordles. Your teacher can use the manual
way or refer to this website for examples and instructions:
*Wordle Instructionswww.smsd.org/custom/StaffDev/Wordle%20QRG.pdf - United
• Frequency Word List
a. extant specimen
b. dedicatory inscriptions
c. eloquent poems
d. Buddhist piety
e. educated courtiers
f. panegyric odes
g. letter of an abbot
h. foreign literature was transplanted
For the manual way, go over the example given done in acrostic:
Include the said words in your frequency word list.
ty 7: THINK AS A BUTTERFLY
1. Pair up with another partner and fill up the butterfly organizer on main idea with supporting
details based from the same text. Respond also to the enumerated questions and use this as a
basis for group dynamics.
1. What does prose usually contain? How about poetry?
2. What can you say about Burmese literature?
3. What is considered as the first example of Burmese literature?
4. Why is the founding of the University of Rangoon very significant in their literature?
5. How does their literature reveal the character of the Burmese people?
• THE LITERATURE OF MYANMAR
The literature of Myanmar, formerly Burma, has a long history. The
Mayazedi inscription (A.D. 1113) is the earliest extant specimen of Burmese
literature. It narrates the dedication of the Golden Buddha by a prince and
the gift of slave-villages to the image, ending with a prayer for the donor
and his friends. Over a thousand such dedicatory inscriptions were set up in
the next 700 years, containing eloquent poems and prayers of poetic merit.
In the fifteenth century up to the nineteenth century, palm-leaf
(scratched with a stylus) and folded-paper literature became common. Such
works were filled with Buddhist piety and courtly refinement of language.
The authors were monks, educated courtiers, and court poetesses. Prose
works during this period were few, mostly Buddhist scriptures and chronicles
of kings. Poetry was varied: there were historical ballads, panegyric odes,
the pyo (Buddhist story in verse), and the ya-du (poems of love or nature).
The writers also used the “mixed style” or prose and poetry together.
Examples of this are the Yagan, a serio-comic epic, and the Myil-Ta-za, a
letter of an abbot to the king.
Modern fiction began with the novel. An example is Tet-Pon-gyn, a
With the founding of the University of Rangoon in 1920 came an increase
in output of Burmese literature. Foreign literature, especially English works,
was transplanted. With independence in 1948, Burmese has gradually
replaced English as the medium of instruction, and literature has become
English Communication Arts and Skills through Afro-Asian Literature
Make your organizers creative by coloring, designing the edges and the like and
post these on one area of the room or wall/board for English corner.
Activity 8: INTRODUCING, THE BURMESE PEOPLE…
To continue, here is a written copy of a speech for more information about the
Burmese people, including their temperaments and psyche.
For the unlocking of difficulties, look for the functional definitions of the words below, meaning, how
they were used in the text. Your teacher can do this through text twist.
• Activity 9: MEETING YOU
One of your classmates or a representative will read the said speech for you to
follow. Form groups with five (5) members and assign each to identify what are asked
from the table. Be creative in presenting your output.
Evils that Effects on Inevitables How Statements that
Frequency Word List
a. inevitables f. utilitarian
b. fleeting g. exploit
c. transitory h. rampant
d. amass i. inexhaustible
e. insatiable j. wallow
in Life Science
ON THE THREE EVILS
(The people of Myanmar are peace-loving and hardworking. Most of them live in
villages and work as farmers. This speech of then Prime Minister U Nu serves to
remind the Myanmar people to pursue peace and unity among them)
Humanity has been led astray by three evils – greed, hatred and
ignorance. Whether we are Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Animists,
or Atheists, we cannot escape the three inevitables: old age, disease, and
death. Nobody can deny that the five sense objects – pretty sight, delightful
sound, fragrant smell, savory taste, and nice touch – are only fleeting
phenomena. They are neither lasting nor permanent.
Nor can anybody deny that property is transitory: no one can carry away
his property after death. Men have been chasing these transitory pleasures
with a dogged tenacity mainly because they hold false views regarding
property. They forget that this life is not even one millionth part of the
whirlpool of Samsara (the cycles of rebirth), and go on amassing wealth even
though it never brings them full satisfaction.
This insatiable greed for wealth results in the profit motive which is not
directed toward any utilitarian purpose. Once upon a time all commodities
were common property, and everybody had a right to use them for his own
benefit. But with the advent of the profit motive these commodities became
objects of exploitation. They became instruments of wealth and stimulus for
greed. This led to the following phenomena:
1. Human society was split into two classes: Haves and Have-nots.
2. The Have-nots had to depend on the Haves for their living, and thus the
evil system of exploitation of one class by another emerged.
3. With class exploitation, the poor became poorer because they could not
get adequate returns for their work. They had to resort to evil ways like
stealing, looting, and prostitution.
4. The Lord Buddha has taught us that there are four causes of death:
kamma, frame of mind, weather, and food. Under the system of class
exploitation, how can the Have-nots enjoy good food and protect themselves
from extremes of weather? Can there be any sense of happiness or
contentment for them? Can even a good kamma favor one who is cheerless?
Thus one who is born into the class of Have-nots is handicapped in all the
above four factors, and disease is the inevitable result.
5. How can the Have-nots care for education with their hard struggle for a
bare living? Lack of education breeds an ever-increasing band of
ignoramuses and Mr. Zeros.
6. How can a country abounding in ignoramuses and Mr. Zeros ever
It is evident that most of the evils in the world can be traced to the advent
of the profit motive. Do you remember the legend of the Padaythabin (the
tree of fulfillment) we heard as children?
According to the legend, there was once a time when men and women
could get whatever they wanted from the Padaythabin tree. There was no
problem of food or clothes or housing, and there was no crime. Disease was
comparatively unknown. In course of time, however, the people fell victim to
greed and spoiled the tree of fulfillment which eventually disappeared. Then
a class of people who could not afford to eat well, dress well, or live well
appeared, and crime became rampant.
Now I ask you to think of the Padaythabin as the natural wealth of our
country, both above and under the ground. If only this natural wealth is used
for the common good of mankind it will be inexhaustible, besides satisfying
the needs of everybody. But greed comes in the way. The poorest of the poor
wants to become rich; the rich want to become richer, and the process goes
Activity 10: LITERARY CAROUSEL
Likewise, have your own literary circle where each member will take turns in
answering the questions or explaining any of the following statements. Prepare and
present your output through broadcasting.
1. What lesson does the legend of the Padaythabin tree teach the Burmese?
2. What does this excerpt reveal about the temperaments and psyche of the
3. Can you still lead a simple life today even amid the ongoing technological
4. Explain the line, “Live simply so that others may simply live.”
5. If you were a parent, what would you teach your children to make sure that they do
not grow up to be greedy people?
*Questions Adopted from English Communication Arts and Skills through Afro-Asian Literature
Activity 11: ONE’S VISION (Complete Me)
Let us at the same time, have poetry from Burma. Listen to your teacher read the
said poem or its recorded version. You will have the unlocking of difficulties through word
match play. Your teacher will distribute strips of paper, wherein one set includes words to
be defined and the other for definitions. Representatives/Volunteers from your class
match the words with their definitions for extra points.
Frequency Word List
Activity 12: CHARACTER ANALYSIS MODEL
Form triads, read the copy of the poem for the second time and answer the
Character Analysis Model based on the questions. Then, post your output on the board
for checking as each group goes over the work of others.
spaciousvisionconcepts vast lotus
A country of great beauty
People so gentle and kind
There is also ugliness
Fleeing and hiding
And foraging for food
Our people are in pain
Suffering like no hell on earth
Darkness and despair
And freedom is out of reach
Beaten and battered by life
Death and diseases
Of the mind and spirit
Swallowed up by gloominess
How can they carry on?
Each of us has a role to play
To help our countrymen
Not by hatred and blame
Not by giving false hope
But to see the big vision
A vision that’s not small or limited
A vision that’s vast and spacious
So that Burma’s people may rise up
Like a beautiful lotus
From a muddy pond.
Reflect on the activity in relation to the Burmese people in their response to the
challenges of modernity.
Activity 13: BULLS I!
Here is another text, an excerpt from a post/blog. Read orally and take note of the
underlined phrases. What are they called?
he/she say?What does
Bones Will Crow: An Insider's View (An Excerpt)
Posted by Arc, 17th October 2012
Bones will Crow comes from Moe Zaw’s poem Moonless Night. Co-editors ko ko
thett and James Byrne thought the Burmese idiom fitting for their anthology of ‘15
Contemporary Burmese Poets.’ Bones will Crow means chicken comes home to roost
— whatever you give, you get back. The Burmese use it to express their resentment,
the resentment against injustice. To be honest I did not find it very tasteful when I
heard it for the first time. Since then I have acquired a taste for Bones. My ears have
been tamed. My lips got used to saying it.
Bones Will Crow: An Insider's View - Arc Publications Blog
Yes, these are examples of idioms. What are idioms or idiomatic expressions?
Idioms or idiomatic expressions are words, phrases or expressions
which are commonly used in everyday conversation by native
of English and usually figurative.
With this, give at least 10 examples of idioms that you know or use.
Activity 14: I DRAW
As a follow up, your teacher will distribute flash cards with idioms written on it.
Make sense of the one you have, draw or illustrate its meaning at the back and present it
as a pop up. Below are additional examples.
½ Give me a hand
½ Hit the books
½ Keep an eye on you
½ You're pulling my leg
½ Cat's got your tongue
½ Zip your lip
½ Cold turkey
½ Wear your heart on your sleeve
½ In the doghouse
½ When pigs fly
½ Put your foot in your mouth
½ On pins and needles
½ I'll be there with bells on
½ Bite off more than you can chew
½ Toss your cookies
Refer to the sample pop up below.
Activity 15: ODDS ON ADS
Your teacher will show different pictures of products or services and relate to the
images and text below. What are these examples? You are right. The pictures, images
and copy are considered as advertisements. What do you think are applied in advertising
so that consumers will buy products or avail of its services? Why are consumers
persuaded? What words or part of speech made the ads more interesting?
LUXURY PAINT AND PVC PIPING
Celebrities perform a range of different social,
cultural and political functions. In Burma their
social and cultural roles are no different,
though they have the added burden of
maintaining an identity within a politically
repressive and highly media-controlled society. In this environment,
advertising provides celebrities with a short-term financial reward, and an
opportunity to further promote their brand image. Though some actors have
used their fame to voice criticism against junta policies, most see advertising
in practical terms of maintaining a career. Many live near the relatively small
Yangon CBD, in some of the few middle class (by Burmese standards)
suburbs, where they may find it difficult to maintain anonymity. It is not
uncommon see singers and actors in the street, during social encounters or
even whilst they are shooting a new TV commercial. The localness of famous
people in Burma, in this sense, gives their patronage an extra sense of
familiarity in advertising work.
Advertising and Celebrity Endorsement in Burma Andrew King - Flow
Activity 16: THE PROPAGANDA
Well, from the examples, focus your attention on propaganda and propaganda
strategies in advertising. Propaganda can be utilized too, in texts, passages or even
literary selections. On the other hand, adjectives can likewise add appeal to ads.
Answer the following questions:
1. What propaganda strategies were used in the advertisements?
2. How were they integrated in the ad copies?
Glamour and Ordinariness – Actress Htet
Htet Moe Oo singing the praises of ‘EVA
Pipe’ (PVC Piping Suppliers)
Next to that, search for
five other advertisements from
newspapers and magazines,
identify the propaganda devices
and adjective or adjective
examples for drill or exercise. Identify the adjective complements in the sentences.
Adjectives and Complements
i.e. tough-whiskered yanks, heavy tanks, jaws as smooth as
a. Add to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun
b. Can be articles like “a” “an” and “the”, or show possession such as your,
his, my, their, our, or its
c. Tell us more about the noun or pronoun, for instance that, what, those, or
these, or be interrogative, what, where, or why
d. Some modify by comparing, richer, whole or ideal impossible
e. Others are indefinite and include all, many, few, some, or several
f. Also, some give physical descriptions like big, old or brown
g. Others consist of beautiful, Burmese and advertising
Clause or phrase that adds to the meaning of an adjective or modifies it, adjective
complement always follows the adjective it complements and it is a noun clause or
a prepositional phrase
a. Noun clause is simply two or more words that act like a noun, it can be the
subject of a sentence, an object of a verb or preposition, or they can
complement a subject or adjective
i.e. what you see, that he is happy, and where the Burmese went
b. Prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and modifies nouns and verbs
i.e. “It came with the ad”, “I need a ride to Myanmar”
What Is an Adjective Complement?grammar.yourdictionary.com › ... › Adjectives
• Subject Complement
• Adjectives and adjective phrases function as subject complements. A
subject complement is a word, phrase, or clause that follows a linking verb
and describes the subject.
• i.e. Christmas cookies smell delicious.
• Object Complement
Adjectives and adjective phrases function as object complements. An object
complement is a word, phrase, or clause that directly follows and describes the
i.e. Judeo-Christians consider Jerusalem holy.
What Do Adjectives and Adjective Phrases Do in English Grammar?
www.brighthubeducation.com › Homework Help › English Help
Examples of Adjective Complements
Noun Clause and Prepositional Phrase:
1. She was hesitant to tell her parents.
2. The boss was anxious to promote sales.
3. Are you afraid of spiders?
4. We were shocked by the news.
5. I was delighted that she was chosen.
6. He is likely to be nominated.
7. The child was eager for Christmas to arrive.
8. I am curious what color it is.
9. It was wrong of her to go.
10. I am happy they got married.
11. We are all afraid that the storm will be severe.
What Is an Adjective Complement?grammar.yourdictionary.com › ... ›
Subject and Object Complement:
1. My puppy is very mischievous.
2. The patient appears dehydrated and feverish.
3. The apple pie you made tastes sour.
4. My grandmother was rather forward thinking.
5. The British are fond of fish and chips.
6. The little girl painted her bedroom bright pink.
7. The preschoolers are coloring the trees purple and blue.
8. The jury declared the defendant guilty.
9. We voted her entry most original.
10. Studying grammar makes me happy.
What Do Adjectives and Adjective Phrases Do in English Grammar?
www.brighthubeducation.com › Homework Help › English Help
complementations used. Show outputs in class through a gallery walk of life-like ad
Activity 17: LISTEN AND BE HEARD
Listen to this blog entry that will be read by one of your classmates and take down
Activity 18: SHOUT OUT!
Brainstorm by pairs then refer to your notes to fill out the information being asked.
Present outputs by posting these around the classroom. Afterwards, other pairs will write
their comments below.
eight (8) with 5 members each. You, together with other members will conduct a talk
show regarding the blog entry heard. Your teacher can also furnish a copy for your
reference. Assign speakers who will share their ideas and opinions using signal words.
Consider the focus questions.
Opinion Signal Words
*may, ought, could, might, possibly, sometimes, often,
I think, it is believed, usually, seem (s), probably,
many people believe, everyone, no one, everybody,
Opinion Signal Wordswww.e-tme.com/opinion%20signal%20words%20-%20sample.htm
Activity 20: FIRST IMPRESSIONS…
Based on the given texts, passages or literary selections that you have read and
heard, write your impression/s (a lasting effect, opinion or mental image of somebody or
something) on the literature of Myanmar and the Burmese people, that is, the
temperaments and psyche of the Burmese people in their response to the challenges of
Refer to the template with the possible prompts provided. Remember to develop
your paragraphs observing the main idea and supporting details integrating any mode
(expository, descriptive, narrative, persuasive, and creative).
My First Impression
I was able to /The literature of Myanmar/The
Reflect on the focus questions.
In this section, the discussion focused more on the temperaments and
psyche of the Burmese people in their response to the challenges of
Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the
discussion. How much of your initial ideas are found in the discussion?
Which ideas are different and need revision?
Now that you know the important ideas about this topic, go deeper by
moving on to the next section.
REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND:
Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some aspects of the
topic on the temperaments and psyche of the Burmese people in their
response to the challenges of modernity.
Activity 21: THE F’S (Faith and Fight for Freedom)
Here is another poem for you to reflect upon. Read the poem orally as a class. For
the unlocking of difficulties, have the game word auction. Your teacher will post phrases
from the poem and will ask the class if any of you knows the italicized words to be defined.
If you have possible meanings, corresponding points will be given.
Frequency Word List
a. golden spires
b. saffron prayers
c. only callousness and betrayal
d. stillness of their gaze
e. novice monk’s robe
f. serene downcast eyes
g. ceremonial finery
h. anger is fiercer
Take note also of the guide questions before and after reading.
1. According to the speaker in the poem, what is happening in his/her country Burma?
2. What can be done to attain peace and freedom?
3. What was the role of the monks in the fight for freedom?
4. Why is the poem entitled, “Prayer for Burma”?
5. How would you feel under similar conditions?
6. What does this quotation from the poem mean: “We shall never forget our monks
who were at the forefront of our march for freedom.”
7. How does this poem show the temperaments and psyche of the Burmese people in
their response to the challenges of modernity?
Do you recall the land of golden spires?
Where morning bells are answered with murmurs of saffron prayers
And the silence of bare feet echoing their innocence
In a land overwhelmed by evilness and greed
A message of hope for hearts in deepest despair
In a language of love for a people enduring only callousness and betrayal
As their Meta Sutra chants rose high up above
Reflecting in the stillness of their gaze
You can see great courage and dignity in the eyes of Burmese monks
I remember the summer a lifetime ago
When your soft hair was shaved and the first time you wore your
Thin-gann the novice monk’s robe
And your beautiful boyish face was full of determination
With serene downcast eyes
After shedding Shinlaung’s ceremonial finery
You remained a Buddhist monk
To devote your life to your people and your religion
I also remember the dark winter nights
When you stayed up late studying Buddha’s scripture, poetry and politics
Looking to find answers for your people’s suffering
Since last September
The war against evil has only just begun
And I know that you will fight on
I am quite sure that
Your prayer will be answered
Your hopes will come true
And your fight will be won
Your anger is fiercer
And your power mightier
Or their hatred more bitter
Your cause is just
Your prayers are sincere
Your wishes are true
Your hopes are pure
And your love for Burma is right
You will win in the end
There is nothing to stop your spirit and your hope
No one can silence your prayers for peace and freedom in Burma
We shall never forget our monks who were at the forefront of our march for freedom.
Prayer for Burma (Poem)
By May Ng
Afterwards, you will be grouped into two: one will deliver the poem in a simple
speech choir or choral reading and the remaining group will have it in a rap presentation or
creative jazz chant with choreography.
Activity 22: YOUR MISSION
Earlier, you read poems, now we have the story, The Country’s Good Son. Read
the said text silently.
The Country’s Good Son
Minn New Thein
Lin Aung’s mother had a shop in the Mingaladon market, where she
sold slippers. Lin Aung helped his mother in the shop during his school
holidays. As the Mingaladon market was an army market, soldiers could be
seen shopping there daily. It was more crowded on Sundays. Many
soldiers could be seen moving about busily.
It was Sunday, and Lin Aung was sitting in front of the shop;
“Younger Brother, do you have real ‘Sin-kye’ No. 9?” A young man, wearing
trousers, entered and asked him. Quickly Lin Aung took a pair of ‘Sinkye’
No. 9 slippers and showed them. “How much are these slippers, Young
Brother?” Twenty -one Kyats, Elder Brother.” “Can I take only the right
side slipper and pay you ten Kyats and fifty pyas?”
The young man’s question made Lin Aung’s eyes become wide. If he
sold only the right side, how could he sell the left side? And why did he
want only one slipper? “You can’t do that. If I sell only the right side, the
one left in the shop will become useless. “Yes, but I want only the right
side. But wait, I’ll go and look for a partner.” Lin Aung was left behind,
looking at the back of the young man, who walked away, limping.
Soon, the young man came back. He had another young man with
him. The first young man asked Ling Aung for the slippers, and gave the
left side slipper to the young man who had come with him. He lifted the leg
of his trouser and put on the slipper. Then he nodded with satisfaction.
Only then did Lin Aung understand. They were buying and sharing
one pair of slippers. The first young man had a false left leg, and second
young man had a false right leg. So everything was all right because there
was one who wanted only the right side, and another who wanted only the
Lin Aung was sorry to see the condition of the two young men. They
were quite young, and they each had a leg missing. “Don’t you feel sad
that you have only one leg?” Lin Aung as inquisitive and asked them. “Why
should we be sad?” the first young man smiled. “We are soldiers who
offered even our own lives for our country. We are proud to lose a leg in
protecting our country.”
When Lin Aung heard the first young man’s answer, he respected
them. They were very different from the young drug addicts about whom
he had often read in the newspapers. They were wasting their lives and
These young men were the country’s good sons who were protecting
the country from its enemies. Their aims and intentions were as different
from those of the addicts as east from west, north from south. Although
these young men had one leg missing, they still wanted to serve their
country. The two young soldiers told Lin Aung that they planned to work in
the disabled soldiers’ cooperative shop.
“I respect you and honor you. You good sons of the country are the
jewels of our country. When I grow up, I will try to be a good son of the
country like you.”
The two young soldiers smiled to hear Lin Aung’s words. “We admire
your intention. Our country’s future will really be bright if there were more
young people in our country with the same aim and intention as yours. All
right, we will go now.”
The two young soldiers said goodbye to Lin Aung and went away. Lin
Aung was filled with the desire to become a good son of the country.
Literature in Focus II
Do the following exercises by groups (six).
Activity 23: CHARACTER REVELATION FIGURE
For groups 1 and 2, your leader and members will label the Character Revelation
Figure by answering the questions. Present your work and defend your answers in front
of the class.
change from beginning to
Which character do you
like best? Why?
Activity 24: FREQUENCY WORD LIST
Groups 3 and 4 will be in charge of the Frequency Word List with members
replacing the underlined words or phrases accordingly in the paragraphs from each pair
from the options. Share answers with the other groups for interactive discussion.
1. Why should we be sad? We are soldiers who offered even our own lives for our
country. We are proud to lose a leg in protecting our country.
a. happy, gloomy
b. would gladly die, would fight gladly
c. to lose our limbs, to lose our lives
2. Lin Aung felt respect for both of them. They were very different from the young
drug addicts he often read about in the newspapers. These drug addicts were a
burden to the country. They were wasting their lives and killing themselves.
a. admiration, satisfaction
b. a contrast to, a far cry from
c. disgrace, problem
d. ruining their lives, hurting their lives
3. I respect and honor you. You good sons of the country are the jewels of our
country. When I grow up, I will try to be a good son of the country like you.
a. praise, salute
b. patriots, heroes
c. treasures, assets
d. imitate your patriotic example, be a heroic son like you
Activity 25: SOLDIER SIMULATION
Groups 5 and 6 will simulate or role play in class the situation wherein the members
will pretend to be Lin Aung while the others play or act out the roles of the two young
soldiers. Try to come up with another point of view or varied interpretation.
*Questions/Activities Adopted/Modified from Literature in Focus II
Activity 26: PS AT YOUR FINGERTIPS (PRECIS/SUMMARY)
Individually, write a précis/summary of the above story by discussing
comprehensively and identifying the proper paragraph development (expository,
descriptive, narrative, persuasive, and creative). Relate it to your previous writing activity
on impressions and refer to the following example.
How did the story reveal the
temperaments and psyche of
the Burmese people in their
response to the challenges of
How do you think this situation
could apply to Filipino soldiers?
A précis or a summary is a short
version of a passage containing
only the main points and main
Teaching is the noblest of professions. A teacher has a sacred
duty to perform. It is he on whom rests the responsibility of moulding
the character of young children. Apart from developing their intellect,
he can inculcate in them qualities of good citizenship, remaining neat
and clean, talking decently and sitting properly. These virtues are not
easy to be imbibed. Only he who himself leads a life of simplicity,
purity and rigid discipline can successfully cultivate these habits in his
Besides a teacher always remain young. He may grow old in age,
but not in spite. Perpetual contact with budding youths keeps him
happy and cheerful. There are moments when domestic worries
weigh heavily on his mind, but the delightful company of innocent
children makes him overcome his transient moods of despair.
Teaching is the noblest profession. A teacher himself leading a
simple, pure and disciplined life can mould the character of the young
children and make them neat and good mannered citizens. Besides
he remains every young forgetting his own domestic worries in the
constant company of the young.
5 quality precis writing samples | Articles | Knowledge Hubwww.publishyourarticles.net/.../5-quality-precis-writing-
THE COUNTRY’S GOOD SON
A Summary of the Story
You can double check your work using this checklist:
Ask yourself the following questions:
½ Is my précis/summary only one third of the original?
½ Did I include all the main points?
½ Have I left out the illustrations and less important ideas?
½ Have I written clearly in my own words using synonyms
for the author's words where possible?
½ Does my précis/summary accurately reflect the original in
½ Is my grammar and spelling correct?
Activity 27: LEND ME YOUR EARS!
On this part, you will listen and view a video clip of a speech delivered. Take down
notes and refer to these in writing your editorial article. At the same time, just like in your
panel discussion, you can use terms or expressions that signal opinions and consider the
right paragraph development. Refer to an example of editorial article below.
An editorial article expresses an opinion
about a current issue or topic.
Editorial Graphic Organizer Twww.ccps.org/chms/research/davis/edigo.pdf
Activity 28: 3-2-1
With this chart, review by listing down or filling out what are asked and always
connect everything with the focus questions.
1. What does (Burmese) literature reveal about Asian and African character?
2. How do (Burmese) Asians and Africans respond to the challenges of modernity as
reflected in their literary selections?
In this section, the discussion was about the temperaments and psyche
of the Burmese people in response to the challenges of modernity.
What new realizations do you have about the topic? What new
connections have you made for yourself?
Now that you have a deeper understanding of the topic, you are ready to
do the tasks in the next section.
3 THINGS YOU FOUND OUT
2 INTERESTING THINGS
1 QUESTION YOU STILL HAVE
Your goal in this section is to apply your learning to real life situations.
You will be given a practical task which will demonstrate your
Activity 29: HANDING IN YOUR EVALUATION PAPER
Your task is to write an evaluation paper regarding a program viewed. You are
invited by a state university for a possible scholarship and one of the requirements is to
submit an evaluation paper regarding current events or social issues. There will be a
screening of video clips to guide you and choices of topics for you to write on. Therefore,
choose one as your basis and prepare to defend or discuss it in the form of a hot seat in
front of the board members.
An evaluation paper is a type of
argument that includes evidence to
justify a writer's opinions about a
You can find an example here for reference.
Evaluation Essay on Gender in Advertising
Gender differences and biases have been a part of the normal
lives of humans ever since anyone can remember. Anthropological
evidence has revealed that even the humans and the hominids of
ancient times had separate roles for men and women in their
societies, and this relates to the concepts of epistemology. There
were certain things that women were forbidden to do and similarly
men could not partake in some of the activities that were traditionally
reserved for women. This has given birth to the gender role
stereotypes that we find today. These differences have been passed
on to our current times; although many differences occur now that
have caused a lot of debate amongst the people as to their
appropriateness and have made it possible for us to have a
stereotyping threat by which we sometimes assign certain qualities to
certain people without thinking. For example, many men are blamed
for undermining women and stereotyping them for traditional roles,
and this could be said to be the same for men; men are also
stereotyped in many of their roles. This leads to social
constructionism since the reality is not always depicted by what we
see by our eyes. These ideas have also carried on in the world of
advertising and the differences shown between the males and the
females are apparent in many advertisements we see today. This can
have some serious impacts on the society as people begin to
stereotype the gender roles in reality.
There has been a lot of attention given to the portrayal of
gender in advertising by both practitioners as well as academics and
much of this has been done regarding the portrayal of women in
advertising (Ferguson, Kreshel, & Tinkham 40-51; Bellizzi & Milner
71-79). This has led many to believe that most of the advertisements
and their contents are sexist in nature. It has been noted by viewing
various ads that women are shown as being more concerned about
their beauty and figure rather than being shown as authority figures
in the ads; they are usually shown as the product users. Also, there is
a tendency in many countries, including the United States, to portray
women as being subordinate to men, as alluring sex objects, or as
decorative objects. This is not right as it portrays women as the
weaker sex, being only good as objects.
At the same time, many of the ads do not show gender biases in
the pictures or the graphics, but some bias does turn up in the
language of the ad. “Within language, bias is more evident in songs
and dialogue than in formal speech or when popular culture is
involved. For example, bias sneaks in through the use of idiomatic
expressions (man's best friend) and when the language refers to
characters that depict traditional sex roles. One's normative
interpretation of these results depends on one's ideological
perspective and tolerance for the pace of change. It is encouraging
that the limited study of language in advertising indicates that the
use of gender-neutrality is commonplace. Advertisers can still reduce
the stereotyping in ad pictures, and increase the amount of female
speech relative to male speech, even though progress is evidenced.
To the extent that advertisers prefer to speak to people in their own
language, the bias present in popular culture will likely continue to be
reflected in advertisements” (Artz et al 20).
Advertisements are greatly responsible for eliciting such views
for the people of our society. The children also see these pictures and
they are also the ones who create stereotypes in their minds about
the different roles of men and women. All these facts combine to give
result to the different public opinion that becomes fact for many of
the members of the society. Their opinion and views are based more
on the interpretation they conclude from the images that are
projected in the media than by their observations of the males and
females in real life. This continues in a vicious circle as the media
tries to pick up and project what the society thinks and the people in
the society make their opinions based upon the images shown by the
media. People, therefore, should not base too much importance about
how the media is trying to portray the members of the society; rather
they should base their opinions on their own observation of how
people interact together in the real world.
Artz, N., Munger, J., and Purdy, W., “Gender Issues in Advertising Language”, Women and Language,
22, (2), 1999.
Bellizzi, J. A., & Milner, L. “Gender positioning of a traditionally male-dominant product”, Journal of
Advertising Research, 31(3), 1991.
Ferguson, J. H., Kreshel, P. J., & Tinkham, S. F. “In the pages of Ms.: Sex role portrayals of women in
advertising”, Journal of Advertising, 19 (1), 1990.
Refer to this rubric for assessment.
Evaluation Paper/Evaluative Essay Rubric
Directions: This rubric will be used to evaluate the final draft of your paper/essay. Before you
turn in the final draft, fill out this rubric yourself. What score would you give yourself and why?
Score Level Criteria Comments
30-27 Excellent to Very Good:
knowledgeable, substantive development
of thesis, relevant to assigned topic
26-22 Good to Average: sure knowledge of
subject, adequate range, limited
development of thesis, mostly relevant to
topic, but lacks detail
21-17 Fair: limited knowledge of subject, little
substance, inadequate development of
16-13 Needs Much Improvement: does not
show knowledge of subject, not many
details, not relevant to assigned topic or
not enough to evaluate
20-18 Excellent to Very Good: fluent
expression, ideas clearly stated/supported,
succinct, well-organized, logical
17-14 Good to Average: somewhat choppy,
loosely organized, but main ideas stand
out, limited support, logical but
13-10 Fair: non-fluent, ideas are confusing or
disconnected, lacks logical sequencing
9-7 Needs Much Improvement: does not
communicate, no organization or not
enough to evaluate
20-18 Excellent to Very Good: sophisticated
range, effective word/idiom choice and
usage, word form mastery
17-14 Good to Average: adequate range,
occasional errors of word/idiom form,
choice, usage but meaning understood
13-10 Fair: limited range, frequent errors of
word/idiom form, choice, usage, meaning
somewhat confusing or not understood
9-7 Needs Much Improvement: essentially
translation, little knowledge of English
vocabulary, idioms, word form or not
enough to evaluate
25-22 Excellent to Very Good: effective,
complex sentences, few errors of
agreement, tense, number, word
order/function, articles, pronouns,
21-18 Good to Average: effective, but simple
sentence construction, minor problems in
complex constructions, several errors of
agreement, tense, number, word
order/function, articles, pronouns,
prepositions, but meaning understood
17-11 Fair: major problems in simple/complex
sentences, many errors of agreement,
tense, number, word order, articles,
pronouns, prepositions and/or fragments,
run-ons, deletions, meaning confused or
10-5 Needs Much Improvement: almost no
mastery of sentence construction rules,
many errors, ideas not understood or not
enough to evaluate
5 Excellent to Very Good: few errors of
spelling, punctuation, capitalization,
4 Good to Average: some errors of
spelling, punctuation, capitalization,
paragraphing, but meaning understood
3 Fair: frequent errors of spelling,
punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing,
poor typing, meaning confused or not
2 Needs Much Improvement: many
errors of spelling, punctuation,
capitalization, paragraphing, typing is
poor, or not enough to evaluate
Rubric Adapted From: Reid, J. (1993). Teaching ESL Writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.
Activity 30: outBOX Out-of-the-Box.jpgempoweredonlineentrepreneurs.com
Let us go back to our box and finalize your map of conceptual change by finishing
the “I Think” OUT OF THE BOX area. Review the focus questions.
Activity 31: LESSON CLOSURE
In summary, do the lesson closure as a reflection.
In this section, your task was to write an evaluation paper of a program
How did you find the performance task? How did the task help you see
real world based on the topic?
You have completed this lesson. Carry on!
IN THE BOX
OUT OF THE BOX
………………………………..One key idea was…………………............
……………………………………This is important because…………..
……………………………………………………….In sum, today’s
GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS LESSON:
Adjective. The part of speech or word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
Adjective Complement. A clause or phrase that adds to the meaning of an adjective or
modifies it. It always follows the adjective it complements and it is a noun clause or a
Advertisement. A public announcement using the mass media.
Editorial Article. It expresses an opinion about a current issue or topic.
Evaluation Paper/Evaluative Essay. A type of argument that includes evidence to justify
a writer's opinions about a subject.
Fantasy. It means a dream or imagination.
Frequency Word List. Set of words used in reading texts or selections for unlocking of
difficulties or vocabulary building and development.
Idiom. A word, phrase or expression which is commonly used in everyday conversation
by native speakers of English. It is figurative.
Impression. A lasting effect, opinion or mental image of somebody or something.
Opinion. It is a view or assessment about something.
Précis/Summary. This is a short version of a passage containing only the main points
and main supporting points.
Propaganda. A publicity to promote something. An information put out by an
organization or government to promote a policy, idea or cause.
Psyche. The human spirit or soul and mind.
Reality. It is actual or exists.
Temperament. The prevailing or dominant quality of mind that characterizes
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