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Risks of interactive communication in adolescents. Digital literacy diagnosis and intervention

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Presentación de la tesis doctoral de Isabel Rodríguez de Dios dirigida por Juan José Igartua y presentada el 4 de septiembre de 2018 en el Salón de Grados del FES (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales) de la Universidad de Salamanca.

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Risks of interactive communication in adolescents. Digital literacy diagnosis and intervention

  1. 1. Author: Isabel Rodríguez de Dios Supervisor: Juan José Igartua DOCTORAL THESIS
  2. 2. INDEX • Introduction • Overall and specific goals of the thesis • Theoretical Framework • Online Risks and Online Opportunities • Digital Literacy and Digital Skills • Promoting Digital Safety • Mobile learning and Narrative Persuasion • Empirical Research • Study 1: Development and Validation of the Digital Literacy Scale • Study 2: Relationship between parental mediation and adolescents’ digital skills, online risks and online opportunities • Study 3: Digital Literacy Intervention and Coping Strategies Development • Discussion and General Conclusions
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Technology has become accessible for most of the population Introduction
  5. 5. Introduction Interactive communication
  6. 6. Introduction ADOLESCENTS Internet Computers Smartphone s Instant messaging Social media
  7. 7. Introduction OPPORTUNITIES RISKS
  8. 8. Introduction RESEARCH Minors and Technology
  9. 9. Introduction RESEARCH Parental mediation Educational interventions Digital literacy
  10. 10. Goal of the Thesis Improve digital skills in adolescents with the aim that they can afford, without danger, the risks of interactive communication and can maximise the opportunities that this communication gives to them.
  11. 11. Goal of the Thesis: Specific Objectives Methodological tool: assess digital literacy Parental influence on digital skills Relationship: digital skills and online risks Develop a mobile application: digital literacy 1 2 43
  12. 12. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  13. 13. Theoretical Framework • Contact with strangers • Engagement in sexting • Exposure to online pornography • Exposure to online violence • Cyberbullying (Agatston et al., 2007; Catalina García et al., 2014; Dowdell et al., 2009; Livingstone & Helsper, 2010; Livingstone & Smith, 2014; Online risks • Entertainment • Communication • Multimedia (Chisholm, 2006; Ktoridou et al., 2012; Livingstone & Helsper, 2010; Vandoninck et al., 2010) Online opportunities • Avoid risks? (Cernikova et al., 2018; Rodríguez-de-Dios & Igartua, 2016; Sonck & de Haan, 2014; Sonck et al., 2011) • More online opportunities, but also more online risks (S.-J. Lee & Chae, 2012; Leung & Lee, 2012b; Livingstone, Ólafsson, et al., 2017; Livingstone & Helsper, 2010; Sonck & de Haan, 2013; Staksrud et al., 2013) Digital skills ONLINE RISKS AND ONLINE OPPORTUNITIES
  14. 14. Theoretical Framework Digital Literacy Technological skill Communication skill Information skill Critical skill Security skill Digital skills (Bawden, 2001; Claro et al., 2012; Eshet- Alkalai & Chajut, 2009; Hargittai, 2008; Helsper & Eynon, 2013; Lee & Chae, 2012; Livingstone, 2004; Sonck & de Haan, 2014) DIGITAL LITERACY AND DIGITAL SKILLS
  15. 15. Theoretical Framework Coping strategies. Mitigate negative effects à cyberbullying (Raskauskas & Huynh, 2015) PROMOTING DIGITAL SAFETY Technologic al mediation Parental mediation Active parental mediation Restrictive parental mediation Educational intervention s Use of technology (Fleming et al., 2006; Przybylski & Nash, 2017; Ybarra, Finkelhor, Mitchell, & Wolak, 2009). (Cabello-Hutt et al., 2017; Daud et al 2014; Duerager & Livingstone, 2012; Ihmeideh & Shawareb, 2014; Khurana et al., 2015; Lau & Yuen, 2013; Lee, 2012; Lee & Chae, 2012; Liau et al., 2005; Lwin et al., 2008; Mitchell et al., 2003; Sasson & Mesch, 2014; Shin & Ismail, 2014; Shin & Kang, 2016) (Chaux et al., 2016; Chibnall et al., 2006; Cross et al., 2016; Fernández-Montalvo et al., 2017; Gradinger et al., 2016; Ortega- Ruiz et al., 2012; Palladino et al., 2016; Vanderhoven et al., 2014; Williford et al., 2013; Zhang- Kennedy et al., 2017) (Nocentini, Zambuto & Menesini, 2015)
  16. 16. Theoretical Framework MOBILE LEARNING Mobile learning Learning benefits (Chee et al., 2017; Cheung & Slavin, 2013; Stevenson & Hedberg, 2017; Tingir, Cavlazoglu, Caliskan, Koklu, & Intepe-Tingir, 2017; W.-H. Wu et al., 2012) Mobile acceptance Effectiveness of the educational content (Al-hawari & Mouakket, 2010) Knowledge achievement and motivation (Alsawaier, 2018; Hamari et al., 2014; Marzouki, Idrissi, & Bennani, 2017) Constructivism Gamification
  17. 17. Theoretical Framework ENTERTAINMENT-EDUCATION AND NARRATIVE PERSUASION Entertainment- education strategy: educational content within entertaining formats (Ayala et al., 2015; W. J. Brown & Singhal, 1999; Rogers et al., 1999).
  18. 18. Theoretical Framework Narratives: more effective in changing attitudes, beliefs and behaviours (Murphy et al., 2013) ENTERTAINMENT-EDUCATION AND NARRATIVE PERSUASION Entertainment- education strategy: educational content within entertaining formats Narrative format Transportation Identification with the characters Impact of the narrative (Ayala et al., 2015; W. J. Brown & Singhal, 1999; Rogers et al., 1999). (Asbeek Brusse et al., 2015; Moyer- Gusé, 2008). (de Graaf & van Leeuwen, 2017; Igartua & Vega Casanova, 2016; Moyer-Gusé, 2008; L. Shen et al., 2017; Slater & Rouner, 2002) (de Graaf et al., 2012; Green & Brock, 2000; Igartua & Barrios, 2012; Igartua & Frutos, 2017; Igartua & Vega Casanova, 2016; Moyer-Gusé et al., 2011; Moyer- Gusé & Nabi, 2010; Murphy et al., 2013, 2011)
  19. 19. Theoretical Framework More research is needed COMBINATION OF MOBILE LEARNING AND NARRATIVE PERSUASION? Mobile learning Narratives Successful knowledge dissemination ?
  20. 20. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
  21. 21. Study 1 Development and Validation of the Digital Literacy Scale
  22. 22. Study 1 •Not up to date (Wilson et al., 2015) •Narrow focus on the Internet (Hargittai & Hsieh, 2012; S.-J. Lee & Chae, 2012; Len-Ríos et al., 2016; M.-J. Tsai & Tsai, 2010) •Not validated (Gastelú et al., 2015; Li & Ranieri, 2010; S. Park & Burford, 2013; Pino Juste & Soto Carballo, 2010) •Only children or adults (Boyaci & Atalay, 2016; Bunz et al., 2007; Helsper & Eynon, 2013; Koc & Barut, 2016; S. Park & Burford, 2013; Røkenes & Krumsvik, 2016) Digital Literacy Measures
  23. 23. Study 1 Develop and validate a Digital Literacy Scale to assess adolescents’ digital literacy and its different digital skills. GOAL
  24. 24. Study 1 METHOD Development of the Scale • Five digital skills • 47 items: 5-point Likert agreement Pilot Study • 208 students of secondary education • Psychometric analysis: 11 items • Difficult words
  25. 25. Study 1 METHOD 1,446 adolescents Sample Digital literacy scale Convergent validity: • Positive ICT attitude (α=.84) (Ainley, Fraillon, Gebhardt, & Schulz, 2012; Zylka, Christoph, Kroehne, Hartig, & Goldhammer, 2015). • Technology anxiety (α=.83) (De Wit, Heerwegh, & Verhoeven, 2014; Durndell & Haag, 2002; Zylka et al., 2015). Questionnaire Two groups EFA and CFA Cross- population validity
  26. 26. Study 1 Factors (items of the scale: know how to…) Factor loadings Explained variance α TECHNOLOGICAL SKILL 21.16 .73 Bookmark a website I like so I can view it later .731 Download/save a photo I found online .684 Download information I found online .498 Connect always to aWi-Fi network from smartphone, no matter the device or where I am .498 Use shortcut keys (e.g. CTRL+C o cmd+C for copy) .454 I don’t like downloading apps for smartphones as I find difficult to learn how to use them (recoded) .445 If I want to install new programs on my computer, I will ask someone to do it for me because I don’t know (recoded) .440 PERSONAL SECURITY SKILL 6.60 .73 Deactivate the function showing my geographical position (e.g. Facebook, apps) .671 I know when I can post pictures and videos of other people online .646 Use ‘report abuse’ buttons on social media sites (e.g. Someone uses my photo without my permission) .637 Change the sharing settings of social media to choose what others can see about me (friends of friends, friends only, only me) .585 I know the consequences of illegal downloading of music and movies .425 CRITICAL SKILL 5,42 .75 Compare different sources to decide if information is true .707 Determine if the information I find online is reliable .675 Identify the author of the information and evaluate their reliability .646 Compare different apps in order to choose which one is most reliable and secure .589 If I meet someone online, I know how to check if their profile is real .381 Factors (items of the scale: know how to…) Factor loadings Explained variance α DEVICES SECURITY SKILL 4.15 .72 Use software to detect and remove viruses .751 Detect a virus in my digital device .746 Block unwanted or junk mail/spam .574 If something doesn’t work occurs while I am using a device (computer, smartphone, etc.), I usually know what it is and how to fix the problem .500 INFORMATIONAL SKILL 3.96 .63 I find hard to decide what the best keywords are for online searching (recoded) .697 I find confusing the way in which many websites are designed (recoded) .641 Sometimes I find difficult to determine how useful the information is for my purpose (recoded) .596 I get tired when looking for information online .570 Sometimes I end up on websites without knowing how I got there .500 COMMUNICATION SKILL 3.02 .46 Depending on who I want to communicate with, it is better to use one method over the other (make a call, send a WhatsApp message, send an email, etc.) .723 Send any file to a contact using a smartphone ,463 No matter with who I communicate: emojis are always useful .308 RESULTS: Exploratory Factor Analysis KMO = .90. Bartlett’s test for sphericity: χ2 (595) = 5,862.715, p < .001.
  27. 27. Study 1 RESULTS TECHNOLOGICAL SKILL COMMUNICATION SKILL INFORMATIONAL SKILL DEVICE SECURITY SKILL CRITICAL SKILL PERSONAL SECURITY SKILL .77 .79 .38 .44 .13 .39 .25 .37 .40 .62 .50 .63 .58 .71 .51 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Second-order CFA TECHNOLOGICAL SKILL COMMUNICATIO N SKILL INFORMATIONAL SKILL DEVICE SECURITY SKILL CRITICAL SKILL PERSONAL SECURITY SKILL DIGITALLITERACY .88 .83 .66 .69 .40 .78 X2 (335) = 848.73, p < .001, CFI = .89, RMSEA = .046 (90% [CI] = [.04, .05]) X2 (344) = 969.085, p < .001, CFI = .87, RMSEA = .05 (90% [CI] = [.04, .05])
  28. 28. Study 1 RESULTS: Convergent Validity DIGITAL SKILLS Digital LiteracyTechnological skill Critical skill Personal security skill Device security skill Informational skill Communicatio n skill Positive ICT attitude .50*** .26*** .38*** .45*** .18*** .08* .47*** Technology anxiety -.55*** -.26*** -.39*** -.32*** -.41*** -.20*** -49*** + p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < 0.1, *** p < .001
  29. 29. Study 1 Conclusions PURPOSE • Create a methodological tool • Digital literacy RESULT • Valid and reliable instrument • Fills a gap in the field
  30. 30. Study 2 Relationship between Parental Mediation and Adolescents’ Digital Skills, Online Risks and Online Opportunities
  31. 31. Study 2 Online risks Online opportunities Digital skills Parental mediation?
  32. 32. Study 2 1. Adolescents' digital skills are related to more online opportunities and less online risks? 2. Adolescents' digital skills mediate the relationship between parental mediation and adolescents’ online risks and opportunities? GOALS
  33. 33. Study 2 H1: Digital literacy will predict online risk behaviours (H1a) and online opportunities (H1b). HYPOTHESES DIGITAL SKILLS ONLINE RISKS ONLINE OPPORTUNITIES (S.-J. Lee & Chae, 2012; Leung & Lee, 2012b; Livingstone, Ólafsson, et al., 2017; Livingstone & Helsper, 2010; Nikken & Schols, 2015; Sonck & de Haan, 2013; Staksrud et al., 2013)
  34. 34. Study 2 H1: Digital literacy will predict online risk behaviours (H1a) and online opportunities (H1b). H2: Parental mediation will predict adolescents’ digital literacy H2a Active parental mediation will be a positive predictor H2b Restrictive parental mediation will be a negative predictor HYPOTHESES DIGITAL SKILLS (Cabello-Hutt et al., 2017; Duerager & Livingstone, 2012) PARENTAL MEDIATION
  35. 35. Study 2 H1: Digital literacy will predict online risk behaviours (H1a) and online opportunities (H1b). H2: Parental mediation will predict adolescents’ digital literacy H2a Active parental mediation will be a positive predictor H2b Restrictive parental mediation will be a negative predictor H3: Digital literacy will mediate the relation between parental mediation and online risks and online opportunities H3a Active parental mediation will increase both online risks and online opportunities by increasing digital skills H3b Restrictive mediation will decrease online risks and online opportunities by decreasing digital skills. HYPOTHESES Active Parental Mediation Restrictive Parental Mediation Digital Literacy Online Risks Online Opportunities Digital Literacy Online Risks Online OpportunitiesActive Parental Mediation Restrictive Parental Mediation Digital Literacy
  36. 36. Study2 METHOD Sample 1,446 adolescents 13 schools Urban and rural areas of Spain Questionnaire • Digital literacy scale • Parental mediation: restrictive parental mediation (α = .76), active parental mediation (α = .89) • Online risk behaviours: contact with strangers (α=.76), exposure to pornography (α=.80), exposure to violence (α=.67), cyberbullying victim (α=.66) and cyberbullying perpetrator (α=.69). • Online opportunities: communication (α = .53); entertainment (α = .74); multimedia (α = .58).
  37. 37. Study 2 Active Parental Mediation Restrictive Parental Mediation Digital Literacy Online Risks .36** * -.23*** .06 .15** .74** * R2=.05 R2=.03 Online Opportunities R2=.55 X2 (290) = 1251,782, p < .001, CFI = .84, RMSEA = .07 (95% [CI] = [.06, .07]) H1. Digital literacy as a predictor of online risks (H1a) and opportunities (H1b) H2 Parental mediation (active (H2a) and restrictive (H2b)) as a predictor of adolescents’ digital literacy H3 Digital literacy as a mediating variableActive mediation does not indirectly predict online risks, β = .01, b = .00, SE = .00, p = .167 (95% BCI = [-.005, .036]) or online opportunities, β = .04, b = .02, SE = .02, p = .298 (95% BCI = [-.041, .120]) through digital literacy. Restrictive mediation is negatively related to online risks, β = -.03, b = -.02, SE = .01, p = .025 (95% BCI = [-.075, -.005]) and online opportunities, β = - .17, b = -.11, SE = .05, p = .001 (95% BCI = [-.270, -.093]) through digital literacy.
  38. 38. Study 2 Conclusions Digital skills • More online opportunities • More online risks Restrictive parental mediation • Less digital skills • Less online risks, less online opportunities.
  39. 39. Study 3 Digital Literacy Intervention and Coping Strategies Development
  40. 40. Study 3 DIGITAL SKILLS ONLINE RISKS ONLINE OPPORTUNITIES PARENTAL MEDIATION CONTACT WITH STRANGERS EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS MOBILE LEARNING NARRATIVE PERSUASION COPING STRATEGIES
  41. 41. Study 3 Develop a mobile application for teaching digital skills and coping strategies for facing contact online risks, and to evaluate the impact of its use on adolescents. GOAL
  42. 42. Study 3 HYPOTHESES H1: The mobile application will have an impact on the development of the personal security digital skill and the intention to use active coping strategies for facing online contact risks . H2: Mobile application acceptance, narrative transportation and identification with the main character will predict the impact of the exposure to the app on the level of the personal security skill (H2a) and the intention to use active coping strategies (H2b) for facing online contact risks.
  43. 43. Study 3 HYPOTHESES H1: The mobile application will have an impact on the development of the personal security digital skill and the intention to use active coping strategies for facing online contact risks . H2: Mobile application acceptance, narrative transportation and identification with the main character will predict the impact of the exposure to the app on the level of the personal security skill (H2a) and the intention to use active coping strategies (H2b) for facing online contact risks. H3: Age will negatively moderate the impact of the app on the level of the personal security skill (H3a) and intention to use active coping strategies (H3b) when facing contact online risks. Interventions have larger effects for younger students than for older students (Chibnall et al., 2006; Williford et al., 2013). Little previous research: sample of students at the same grade (Ahmed & Parsons, 2013; Burgess & Murray, 2014; Cross et al., 2016; Desmet et al., 2017; Kiger et al., 2012; Meilan et al., 2015; Palladino et al., 2016; Sandberg et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013)
  44. 44. Study 3 HYPOTHESES H1: The mobile application will have an impact on the development of the personal security digital skill and the intention to use active coping strategies for facing online contact risks . H2: Mobile application acceptance, narrative transportation and identification with the main character will predict the impact of the exposure to the app on the level of the personal security skill (H2a) and the intention to use active coping strategies (H2b) for facing online contact risks. H3: Age will negatively moderate the impact of the app on the level of the personal security skill (H3a) and intention to use active coping strategies (H3b) when facing contact online risks. H4: Frequency of contact with online risks will positively moderate the impact of the app on the level of the personal security skill (H4a) and intention to use active coping strategies (H4b) when facing contact online risks. Higher levels of online risks were related to a stronger effect of the intervention (Gradinger et al., 2016)
  45. 45. Study 3 METHOD: Development of the mobile application Digital Skills Active Coping Strategies
  46. 46. Study 3 METHOD: Development of the mobile application
  47. 47. Study 3 METHOD: Development of the mobile application
  48. 48. Study 3 METHOD 245 students of secondary education 3 schools Sample Quasi-experiment Experimental group and control group Design and Procedure
  49. 49. Study 3 METHOD: Questionnaire • Pre-test •Personal security skill (α = .66) •Online contact risk (α = .66) •Coping strategies: proactive (α = .50), communicative (α = .30), passive (r = .23), avoidance (α = .72). • Post-test •Personal security skill (α = .73) •Coping strategies: proactive (α = .56), communicative (α = .43), passive (r = .34), avoidance (α = .82). • Post-test experimental: Mobile application acceptance (α = .78) Identification with the protagonist (α = .81) Narrative transportation (α = .74)
  50. 50. Study 3 RESULTS: Preliminary equivalence Variable Group M SD t P Personal Security Skill Experimental group (N =126) 4.11 .84 3.30 .001 Control group (N = 118) 4.44 .66 Online Contact Risks Experimental group 1.26 .37 2.56 .011 Control group 1.40 .51 Proactive Coping Experimental group 3.01 .65 .35 .723 Control group 3.04 .62 Communicative Coping Experimental group 2.34 .64 -.90 .366 Control group 2.26 .70 Passive Coping Experimental group 1.86 .74 .44 .658 Control group 1.91 .81 Avoidance Coping Experimental group 2.19 .82 -2.72 .007 Control group 1.90 .78
  51. 51. Study 3 RESULTS: Hypotheses 0 1 2 3 4 5 Proactive Pre Proactive Post Experimental Control 0 1 2 3 4 5 Commun. Pre Commun. Post Experimental Control H1: The mobile application will have an impact on the development of the personal security digital skill and the intention to use active coping strategies for facing online contact risks. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Skill Pre Skill Post Experimental Control Personal Security Skill Active Coping Strategies H1
  52. 52. Study 3 RESULTS: Hypotheses Personal Security Skill Proactive Coping Communicative Coping β β β Mobile app acceptance .314** -.015 -.106 Identification with characters .011 .390** .411*** Narrative transportation -.178 -.136 .048 F (gl) 2.94 (4, 113) 3.84 (4, 113) 5.09 (4, 113) p .023 .006 .001 R (Adjusted R2) .307 (.062) .346 (.088) .391 (.123) H1: The mobile application will have an impact on the development of the personal security digital skill and the intention to use active coping strategies for facing online contact risks. H2: Mobile application acceptance, narrative transportation and identification with the main character will predict the impact of the exposure to the app on the level of the personal security skill (H2a) and the intention to use active coping strategies (H2b) for facing online contact risks. H1
  53. 53. Study 3 RESULTS: Hypotheses H1: The mobile application will have an impact on the development of the personal security digital skill and the intention to use active coping strategies for facing online contact risks. H2: Mobile application acceptance, narrative transportation and identification with the main character will predict the impact of the exposure to the app on the level of the personal security skill (H2a) and the intention to use active coping strategies (H2b) for facing online contact risks. H3: Age will negatively moderate the impact of the app on the level of the personal security skill (H3a) and intention to use active coping strategies (H3b) when facing contact online risks. H1 Personal security skill (B = -.01, SE = .08, p = .892). Proactive coping strategies (B = -.03, SE = .06, p = .618) Communicative coping strategies (B = -.16, SE = .08, p < .05)
  54. 54. Study 3 RESULTS: Hypotheses H1: The mobile application will have an impact on the development of the personal security digital skill and the intention to use active coping strategies for facing online contact risks. H2: Mobile application acceptance, narrative transportation and identification with the main character will predict the impact of the exposure to the app on the level of the personal security skill (H2a) and the intention to use active coping strategies (H2b) for facing online contact risks. H3: Age will negatively moderate the impact of the app on the level of the personal security skill (H3a) and intention to use active coping strategies (H3b) when facing contact online risks. H4: Frequency of contact with online risks will positively moderate the impact of the app on the level of the personal security skill (H4a) and intention to use active coping strategies (H4b) when facing contact online risks. H1 Personal security skill (B = .10, SE = .20, p = .613). Proactive coping strategies (B = .23, SE = .15, p = .144) Communicative coping strategies (B = .19, SE = .20, p = .322)
  55. 55. Study 3 Conclusions Mobile application • Effective • Predictors: identification with characters and mobile acceptance. NO: narrative transportation Mobile learning • Effective regardless of individual characteristics Narratives • Promote online safety • Mobile learning
  56. 56. DISCUSSION AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
  57. 57. Discussion and General Conclusions DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 Digital Literacy Scale Future studies: Digital literacy and adolescents Mediating role of digital skills Digital skills à online risks and online opportunities Other stronger predictors of online risks? Restrictive mediation reduces online risks mostly at the expense of online opportunities Age did not moderate Effective application Identification and mobile acceptance as predictors Communicative coping strategies: parents Effective regardless of individual characteristics Narratives and mobile learning Line of research that deserves further attention
  58. 58. Discussion and General Conclusions LIMITATIONS Study 1 Model fits of the CFA. Low reliability of two digital skills. Improve the scale. Study 2 Model fit Only Spanish sample: generalisability? Test the model in other countries Cross-sectional character: causal relationships? Longitudinal study Study 3 Not randomization: internal validity? Lack of long term follow-up Longer-term effects. FURTHER RESEARCH
  59. 59. Discussion and General Conclusions CONCLUSIONES GENERALES Contribuciones originales Escala de Alfabetización Digital Vacío en la investigación en alfabetización digital Modelo teórico original Rol mediador de las competencias digitales Persuasión narrativa y aprendizaje móvil • Seguridad online • Alfabetización digital • Efectivo independientemente de las características individuales Investigación • Alfabetización digital • Aprendizaje móvil • Persuasión narrativa
  60. 60. DOCTORAL THESIS Isabel Rodríguez de Dios

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