Whom to Coordinate With and How in Online Social Communities during Crisis Response Coordinaiton

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ISCRAM paper presentation on "With Whom to Coordinate, Why and How in Ad-hoc Social Media Communities during Crisis Response" by H. Purohit, S. Bhatt, A. Hampton, V. Shalin, A. Sheth, and J. Flach.

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Whom to Coordinate With and How in Online Social Communities during Crisis Response Coordinaiton

  1. 1. ! ! With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social! Media!Communi8es!during!Crisis!Response!! ISCRAM'2014,-May-19! Hemant-Purohit--(PhD%candidate,%Computational%Social%Sci.)% Shreyansh%Bhatt%(CS),%Andrew%Hampton%(Psychology),%Valerie%Shalin%(Psychology),%% Amit%Sheth,%(CS),%John%Flach%(Psychology)%
  2. 2. Outline! 1.  Motivation!and! Preliminaries! 2.  Identifying!Community- In>luencers:!With!Whom!to! Engage!on!Priority!Basis!!! 3.  Enabling!Faceted- Engagement-with! Community:!User! Categorization!by!Expertise! Summarization! 4.  Application-Interface- 5.  Conclusion-and!Future!Work! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 2!
  3. 3. Outline! 1.  Motivation!and! Preliminaries! 2.  Identifying!Community- In>luencers:!With!Whom!to! Engage!on!Priority!Basis!!! 3.  Enabling!Faceted- Engagement-with! Community:!User! Categorization!by!Expertise! Summarization! 4.  Application-Interface- 5.  Conclusion-and!Future!Work! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 3!
  4. 4. Coordina8on! !A"Macro(level"Social"Phenomenon" !  Coordination! !  Managing-dependencies!between!activities!(Malone!and! Crowston,!1994)! !  Examples! !  Managing!response!priorities!for!speciRic!needs!during!crisis! !  Prioritizing!whom!to!engage!with!about!concerns!for!a!brand! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 4!
  5. 5. Mo8va8on:!WHY!Coordina8on?! Consequence"of"Uncoordinated"Engagement" !  2nd!disaster!to!be!managed:!formal!response!community! !  UnderSsupply!of!required!demands!! !  OverSsupply!of!not!required!supplies! •  Hurricane!Sandy!example,! “Thanks,!but!no!thanks”,!NPR,! Jan!12!2013.!Story!links:! •  http://www.npr.org/ 2013/01/09/168946170/thanksSbutS noSthanksSwhenSpostSdisasterS donationsSoverwhelm! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 5!
  6. 6. Second'costliest-hurricane-in-United-States- history-estimated-damage-$75-billion- 90'115-mph-winds-in-#Sandy- State-of-Emergency-in-New-York-- 285-people-killed-on-the-track-of-#Sandy-- 750,000-without-power-(NY)-- Immense-devastation-and-Human-suffering- Mo8va8on:!Why!Social!Media?!! Informal!Community!Responds!to!the!Disaster!Scale!! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 6! Source:!http://www.hufRingtonpost.com/2012/10/30/hurricaneSsandySpowerSoutageSmapSinfographic_n_2044411.html!! *20M!Tweets!in!1st!week!of! #Sandy!! ! *Velocity:!200!tweets/sec.! ! *Well,!not!everything!was! useful,!but!some!signals!! How!to!leverage?!
  7. 7. Characteris8cs!of!Informal!AdGhoc! Social!Media!Communi8es! !  Presence!of!both!real,!onSground!informants!(Starbird,%Muzny,% and%Palen,%ISCRAM%2012)!and!virtual!volunteers!(Reuter,%Heger,% and%Pipek,%ISCRAM%2013)% !  Potential!to!provide!both!timely!and!valuable!situational! awareness!(Vieweg,%Hughes,%Starbird,%and%Palen,%CHI%2010)% !  !A-Big-challenge-to-Address:- !  Information!overload!problem!(Hiltz%and%Plotnick,%ISCRAM%2013)! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 7!
  8. 8. Where!and!What!to!give!aHen8on?! Whom!to!give!aHen8on?!! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 8! Voluminous!! Data!and! Users!!!
  9. 9. Poten8al!Approaches!to!Address! Informa8on!Overload! !  Content&driven:!Filter!content!of!the!messages!with!‘important! features’! !  DeRine!‘importance’! !  Content%type:!damage,!donation,!etc.!(Imran,%Elbassuoni,%Castillo,%Diaz,% Meier,%ISCRAM%2013)% !  Demand/request!and!Supply/offer!of!Help!!(Purohit,%Castillo,%Diaz,%Sheth% and%Meier,%FIRST%MONDAY%2014)! !  People.content.network&driven:!Filter!source!of!the!information:! whose!voice!is!heard?! !  Better!for!passive!(content!reception)!and!active!(veriRication!and! channeling)!engagement! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 9!
  10. 10. Proposal:!Coordina8on!Assistant! Framework! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 10! EventSoriented! data!collection! IdentiRication! of!whom!to! engage!with! Categorization! of!user!types! for!faceted! engagement!! Outcome:!Visual! Interface!to!provide! engagement!!
  11. 11. Goal:!PeopleGContentGNetwork!view! !!! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 11! Twitris!v3:!! http:// twitris.knoesis.org/ yolandastorm2013/ networkTest/!!!
  12. 12. Outline! 1.  Motivation!and! Preliminaries! 2.  Identifying!Community- In>luencers:!With!Whom!to! Engage!on!Priority!Basis!!! 3.  Enabling!Faceted- Engagement-with! Community:!User! Categorization!by!Expertise! Summarization! 4.  Application-Interface- 5.  Conclusion-and!Future!Work! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 12!
  13. 13. Whom!to!Engage!With! !  Known&reliable&sources:!Identify!onSground!informants! (Starbird%et%al.,%ISCRAM%2012)% !  Scope!for!improvement:!What!can!we!do!if!we!do!not!have!onS ground!responders?! ! !  Alternative&reliable&sources:!Identify!inRluencers!among! virtual!responders!whose!voice!is!heard!the!most!! !  For!better!user!categorization,!identify!inRluencers!per!need!type! (e.g.,!medical,!shelter,!volunteering,!etc.)!!! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 13!
  14. 14. Approach:!Implicit!(Interac8on)!LinkG based! !  Classify!content!by!need!types!(e.g.,!medical,!shelter,!volunteering,!etc.)! !  Create!user!interaction!network:! !  Node:!Users! !  Edge!(directed):-from-A-to-B,-if-A-‘interacts’(retweets/replies/mentions)-B- !  Total!edge!weight:!weighted!aggregation!of!proportions!of!speciRic!interaction!type! !  Apply!PageRank!on!user!interaction!network! !  How!to!Incorporate!features!in!PageRank!Analysis! !  By!modifying!edgeSweights! !  By!Personalized!PageRank:!assigning!initial!probability!to!nodes! !  By!Hypothetical!Node!creation! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 14! (Purohit!et!al.,!ICWSM,!2012a)!
  15. 15. Relevant!Insights!of!this!Approach!to! Support!its!Use!in!our!Context! !  On!various!brandSpage!event!oriented!community! datasets!of!similar!evolving!nature:! !  Implicit!Network!analysis!a!good!proxy!for!explicit!network! analysis!in!sparsely!connected!communities! !  Positive!correlation!between!rankings! !  Comparable!accuracy!to!Rind!inRluentials!(~80%)! !  User!activity!and!its!inRluence!does!not!correlate!! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 15! (Purohit!et!al.,!ICWSM,!2012a)!
  16. 16. Outline! 1.  Motivation!and! Preliminaries! 2.  Identifying!Community- In>luencers:!With!Whom!to! Engage!on!Priority!Basis!!! 3.  Enabling!Faceted- Engagement-with! Community:!User! Categorization!by!Expertise! Summarization! 4.  Application-Interface- 5.  Conclusion-and!Future!Work! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 16!
  17. 17. Problem!of!User!Engagement!with! Iden8fied!Influencers! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 17!
  18. 18. Mo8va8on:!(Generic)!Problem!of! User!Engagement!with!Influencers! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 18! Huf>ingtonPost-- •  No-relevance-cues-about-who- they-are-and-why-they-are- in>luencers-to-engage-with- •  Problem-of-user-engagement- with-the-content-
  19. 19. Mo8va8on:!Tagline!Summariza8on! ! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 19! •  Now-I-can- see-why-…- Senior!Media!Reporter! for!The!HufRington!Post! Better!engagement!with!content!! User!Data!Mining! Analysis!&! Aggregation! Tagline- (Purohit!et!al.,!Social!Informatics,!2012b)!!
  20. 20. What!Data!to!Exploit?! !  Meformer- !  Self!Descriptive! !  e.g.,!ProRile!Bio,!Content!of!the!user!posts! !  Informer:-works-for-well'known-users-in-the-community- !  Others!describe!the!person:!available!in!external!knowledge!bases! !  e.g.,!Wikipedia,!IMDB,!Freebase!etc.! 20!Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response!
  21. 21. Extrac8ng!Occupa8on!PaHerns!for! Taglines:!!Occupa8on!Knowledge!bases! !  Occupation!titles!collection!! !  from!Wikipedia!and!! !  US!Dept.!of!Labor!Statistics!Reports! !  Given!a!user’s!proRile!bio! !  Spot!the!occupation!titles!in!the!NSgrams!of!the!bio! !  Create!candidate!tagline!by!joining!NSgrams!in!the!order!of!their! appearance!in!proRile!bio!(Intuition:!User’s!own!described!order!of!what! he!is!expert!for!)!! !  Create!Rinal!candidate!set!by!those!falling!in!the!UI!space! constraint!threshold.! 21!Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! (Purohit!et!al.,!Social!Informatics,!2012b)!!
  22. 22. Facets!for!Engagement:!Classify! Exper8se!Tagline!Summaries! !  ClassiRication!of!users!(summaries)!into!occupation!types!to! provide!classiRied!facets!for!engagement! !  Classes:!Journalism,!Medical,!Humanitarian,!etc.! !  ClassiRication!using!algorithm!desired;!A!ClassSlookup!Method:! per!class!bagSofSwords!model!based!on!lexicons!from!Wikipedia! !  Useful!for!enabling!coordinators!to!do!customized/! ‘personalized’!engagement!as!per!class!type!! !  e.g.,!response!coordinator!may!want!to!communicate!with! ‘humanitarian’!professionals!differently!than!‘journalists’!! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 22!
  23. 23. Outline! 1.  Motivation!and! Preliminaries! 2.  Identifying!Community- In>luencers:!With!Whom!to! Engage!on!Priority!Basis!!! 3.  Enabling!Faceted- Engagement-with! Community:!User! Categorization!by!Expertise! Summarization! 4.  Application-Interface- 5.  Conclusion-and!Future!Work! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 23!
  24. 24. Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 24! Twitris!v3!demo:!! http://twitris.knoesis.org/ yolandastorm2013/networkTest/!!!
  25. 25. Preliminary!Analysis:!data!collec8on! and!filtering! !  Data!collection:!Philippines!Typhoon,!Nov.!11,!2013!(24hr)! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 25!
  26. 26. Preliminary!Analysis:!example! outcomes!from!random!sets! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 26!
  27. 27. Conclusion! !  Coordination!assistance!framework!to!enable!engagement! between!formal!and!informal!communities! !  Automatic!recommendation!for!whom!to!engage!with! !  Access!to!better!quality!information!content! !  Potential!agents!for!information!veriRication!and!coordination!! !  Rumor!control!messages,!! !  Required!supplies!info!for!potential!donors!to!avoid!‘2nd!disaster’)! !  Automatic!user!categorization!to!provide!faceted!engagement!! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 27!
  28. 28. Future!Work! !  Identifying!groups!to!engage!with! !  By!modeling!low!collective!diverging!behavior! !  Preliminaries:%Purohit%&%Ruan%et%al.,%ICWSM%2014% !  Identifying!who!is!likely!to!engage:!measuring!audience! engagement!level!for!potential!agent!use! !  Background!knowledge!infusion!to!improve! categorization!of!candidates!for!engagement! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 28!
  29. 29. Acknowledgement! !  U.S.!NSF:!for%the%SoCS%grant%#IISW1111182%to%support%the%work%on%social%media% based%coordination%during%emergencies% !  SoCS!team:!coWauthors,%Twitris%team%&%Prof.%Srinivasan%Parthasarathy’s%OSU%group% !  Active!Collaborators:!Drs.%Patrick%Meier%(QCRI),%Carlos%Castillo/ChaTo%(QCRI),% Fernando%Diaz%(Microsoft%Research)% !  Colleagues:!Digital%Volunteers%from%various%organizationsW%Ushahidi,%StandBy%Task% Force,%info4Disasters,%Crisis%Mappers%network,%Humanity%Road,%etc.%% Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 29!
  30. 30. Appendix! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 30!
  31. 31. Goal:!Data!to!Meaning! Transforma8on!to!assist!Coordina8on! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 31! Coordination!of!Actions! Citizen!Sensing!related!to!Crisis!on!Social! Media!! Interpretation!of!sensed!data!via!context! categories!(e.g.,!need!types)! Annotated!data!explicitly!specifying! meaning!(e.g.,!intent/behavior,!type,! whatSwhereSwhenSwhoSwhy!metadata)!
  32. 32. Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 32! IdentifySMatchSEngage!(IME)!! Computing!Framework!
  33. 33. Crisis!Response!Coordina8on! Framework! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 33!
  34. 34. Edge-Wt (A , B) = TF*IDF TF = (w1.TotalAtoBRT + w2. TotalAtoBRP + w3. TotalAtoBMN) IDF = LOG ( (TotalNodes-1) / (w1.TotalART + w2.TotalARP + w3.TotalAMN) ) Union!Implicit!Network:!How!to! Model!Influence!Propaga8on! !  Edge!weights!are!combined!according!to!TFIDF!type!normalization! to!propagate!weighted!inRluence!between!nodes!A!and!B!! !  Also!penalizing!A!users!who!just!keep!interacting!for!everything!! A! B! D! C! WORD! DOC! DOC! DOC! E! F! Purohit!et!al.!2014:!With!Whom!to!Coordinate,!Why!&!How!in!Social!Media!Communities!during!Crisis!Response! 34! (Purohit!et!al.,!ICWSM,!2012a)!

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