The global experience <br />By: KeiryMoreno, Sara Gonzalez<br />
II. WEST’S First OutreAch: Maritime power <br />
II. The west´s first Outreach: MaritimPower <br />Introduction <br />Fear of the emergence of the Ottoman Empire and the declining supply of gold in the West spurred renewed efforts to discover routes to Asia.<br />Initial successes in colonizing the islands just off the Atlantic coast of Africa offered encouragement, but technology did not permit more aggressive attempts to cross the open sea.<br /><ul><li>The world trade system:
Technology: the study and knowledge of the practical, especially industrial, use of scientific discoveries.
Ottoman Empire: was a Islamic empire that lasted from 1299 to November 1, 1299 (an as imperial monarchy). It was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey. </li></li></ul><li>B. New technology : A key to power<br />A number of technological developments made ocean passages possible. <br />The compass and improved mapmaking allowed more proficient navigation for long voyages. <br /><ul><li>Gunpowder: an explosive mixture of substances in the form of powder, used for making explosive devices and fire work</li></li></ul><li>c.Portugal and Spain lead the pack <br /> To protect their commercial interests, the Portuguese constructed a series of forts along the Atlantic coast of Africa and the Indian Ocean coast of India To protect their commercial interests, the Portuguese constructed a series of forts along the Atlantic coast of Africa and the Indian Ocean coast of India.<br />Spanish colonial ventures began with the voyege of the Genoese captain Christopher Columbus in 1492.<br />Portugal held trade forts in Africa and India, right in Indonesia, China, and Japan, and Brazil as a result of early explorations. Spain claimed the Philippines and most of the Americas. <br />
<ul><li>Vasco da Gama: Vidigueira, Alentaje, Portugal , around 1460 to 24 December 1524 in Kochi, India. Was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the European age of discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly form Europe to India.
Henry The Navigator: Port , 4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460. was an infante (prince) of the kingdom of Portugal and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations.
Christopher Columbus: ( 1451- 20 May 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, an explorer whose voyages whose across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the western Hemisphere.
Ferdinand Magellan: c. 1480 – April 27, 1521) was a Portuguese explorer. He was born at Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, but later obtained Spanish nationality in order to serve king Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the “Spice Islands" (modern Maluku Islands in Indonesia). </li></li></ul><li>D. Northern European Expedition<br /> Utilizing lighter and faster vessels, the northern European nations concentrated on lands in the Americas north of the Spanish and Portuguese claims.<br />French explorers first reached Canada in 1534 <br />Dutch merchants also established a small way station on the southern tip of Africa. <br />In the cases of the Dutch and English explorations and colonization, private companies played a major role. <br /><ul><li>Governments: the group of people who officially control a country
Private: controlled or paid for by a person or company and not by the government.
Monopolies: (an organization or group which has) complete control of something, especially an area of business, so that others have no share.</li></li></ul><li>III.Toward world Economy <br />
A. Introduction<br />Europe's entry into the Atlantic and Pacific created an international exchange of goods, created a new world-wide economy including the Americas, and paved the way for the establishment of colonies.<br /><ul><li>World –wide: existing or happening in all parts of the world.
Economy: the system of trade and industry by which the wealth of a country is made and used.</li></ul>Colony : a country or area controlled politically by a more powerful and often distant country.<br />
B. The “Colombian exchange” of disease and food <br />One of the negative aspects of the new trade system was the dissemination of European diseases such as smallpox and measles to the Americas and Polynesia.<br />European and Asian animals were introduced into the Americas, which had previously lacked animal power.<br /><ul><li>Smallpox: an extremely infectious disease which causes a fever, spots on the skin and often death.
Polynesia: is a sub region of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.</li></li></ul><li>C. Thewest´scommercialoutreach<br />Internal or regional trade remained in the hands of Asian or Muslim merchants, but transoceanic voyages were the monopoly of Europeans.<br />Initially, Europeans did not seize much territory as part of their trading initiative, but limited their incursions to fortified trading posts along the coasts of Africa, India, and the islands of Southeast Asia.<br /><ul><li>Muslim: is an adherent of the religion of Islam. Literally, the word means "one who submits (to God)". Muslim is the participle of the same verb of which Islam is the infinitive.
Civilization: human society with its well developed social organizations, or the culture and way of life of a society or country at a particular period in time.</li></li></ul><li>D. Imbalances in world<br /> Outside of the core region of Europe lay areas that were economically dependent on the world trade system.<br />The earliest of the colonizers, Spain and Portugal, declined in the face of later competition from England, France, and Holland. <br />The construction of core and dependent areas was critical the formation of the world trade system<br /><ul><li>Merchant: a person whose job is to buy and sell products in large amounts, especially by trading with other countries.
Colonize: to send people to live in and govern another country.
Manufactured: to produce goods in large numbers, usually in a factory using machines.</li></li></ul><li>E. System of International Inequality<br />The division into core and dependent areas lasted until the twentieth century in many cases. <br />Some areas of the Americas and Africa managed to remain outside the world trade system for centuries.<br />In Americas, the economy of latin Americas, the Caribbean, and the southern British colonies relied on the importation of Africa slaves. <br />
<ul><li>Indigenous: naturally existing in a place or country rather than arriving from another place.
Government: the system used for controlling a country, city, or group of people.
Tax: money paid to the government, which is based on your income or the cost of goods or services you have bought</li></li></ul><li>F. How much world in the world economy <br />East Asia largely remained outside the world trade system. <br />The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires within the Islamic, world similarly limited European mechants to enclaves within their cities.<br />Russia´s trade was oriented toward central Asia <br /><ul><li>Huge: extremely large in size or amount.
China: is an ancient civilization located in a cultural region and, depending on perspective, a national or multinational entity extending over a large area in East Asia.
Safavid: were one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled the greatest Iranian empire since the Islamic conquest of Persia and established the Ithnāˤashari (Twelver) school of Shi'a Islamas the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.
Mughal: , (or Mogul Empire in former English usage), was an Islamic imperial power that ruled the Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century.</li></li></ul><li>G.The expansionist trend<br />The world trade system expanded. <br />Areas of southeast Asia and India were brought into the system on more complete basis in the eighteenth century.<br /> Both the British and French East India Companies regarded India as suitable for incorporation as a dependent region and a producer of cotton<br /><ul><li>Tariffs: a charge or list of charges either for services or on goods entering a country.</li></li></ul><li>IV. Colonial Expansion<br />
A.Introduction <br />Western leaders fostered colonialism as a means of creating controlled markets for manufactured good. <br />
B. TheAmericas:LooselyControlled Colonies. <br />Colonial administrations were established by small groups of adventurers loosely controlled from the mother lands.<br />
C. British and French North America: Backwater Colonies<br />The colonies that more fully adopted Western culture and institutions were located in British and French North America. Denser settlement led to almost the total elimination of indigenous populations of the Atlantic colonies.<br />
D.North America and Western Civilization<br />Colonists reproduced in North America most of the patterns of Western culture. American colonies of the Atlantic coast all developed representative institutions. Economic equality was greater in the colonies than in Europe, and there was no formal aristocracy.<br />
E. Africa and Asia: Coastal Trading Stations <br />Although most of the European colonization of Africa was limited to coastal fortification, two more intrusive settlements were attempted by the Portuguese in Angola and the Dutch on the Cape of Good Hope. Their expansion brought them into conflict with indigenous peoples such as the Bantus. Economically, India was drawn into the world trade system. Latin America drew more settlers from Spain and Portugal, who often intermarried with the local population, but Europeans remained a small minority of the total population.<br />
F. Impacton western Europe<br />European nations fought many wars over colonial possessions. Western colonialism had a more dramatic effect on Latin America, but even there indigenous cultures survived. <br />