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  1. 1. Motivation Creating flow as a leader
  2. 2. Motivating Employees <ul><li>Motivation Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Low Skills High Skills </li></ul><ul><li>High Anxiety Flow! </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Low Apathy Boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul>?
  3. 3. Key factors to consider <ul><li>Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Is what you are doing ecological? </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Theories <ul><li>Existential Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal responsibility for living the life you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existential anxiety due to awareness of life’s finitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive mental health is based on the meaning one gives to their life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Rodgers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in direct experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditional positive regard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathic understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary and sufficient for personal growth </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How does Existential theory impact one’s management style? <ul><li>? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Motivational Theory <ul><li>Roots in psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security and safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Love and feelings of belonging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competence and self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-fulfillment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity and need to understand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Motivational Theory cont. <ul><li>Four dimensions of motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest, relevance, expectancy and satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivational theory deals with the processes and structures that cause us to want to learn </li></ul>
  8. 8. Motivational Theory and management <ul><li>How does management theory impact one’s management style? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Herzberg <ul><li>Motivation and the workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work come from different factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans have two needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid pain and gain pleasure or to develop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At work people will seek hygiene because they are unhappy without them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salary, status, good boss, security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once reached- satisfaction is temporary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal growth takes importance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Rewards to motivate?? <ul><li>Lao-Tzu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is better not to make merit a matter of reward less people conspire and contend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alfie Kohn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards do motivate people; They motivate people to want more rewards! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kurt Lewin (1930) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards motivate us to not succeed at the task but to succeed at getting the award! </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rewards?? Cont. <ul><li>B.F Skinner and Behaviorist theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant in most companies today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual or group is not meeting their objectives. Solution follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you meet your objectives, you’ll get your bonus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t meet your objectives, you’ll have a bad performance review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A non-behaviorist would ask why? Objectives were not being met </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Reward to motivate? <ul><li>Boss to group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet this project deadline and we’ll have a pizza party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later when progress is not getting made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make this deadline or you will not have a vacation day next month </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Some challenges with Rewards <ul><li>Rewards can discourage risk taking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward is the goal and the focus gets very narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being creative takes a back seat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We get exactly what the reward called for and not much more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some research has shown: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a reward is at stake, the easiest route is selected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This becomes a habit later when rewards are dropped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you are rewarded or measured for something you love to do, your performance drops! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Dangers of workplace incentives <ul><li>Cash vs. non-cash rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Performance mgmt or goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Carrot and stick </li></ul><ul><li>Would you rather work at a place with goodies and pats on the back or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A place which offers interesting work, sense of community and an opportunity to contribute and make decisions? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dangers of workplace incentives <ul><li>No specific studies show long term improvement in quality as a result of any reward system (Kohn) </li></ul><ul><li>Many studies have shown that rewards are ineffective and counterproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Amazing fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations, schools continue to induce external rewards for motivation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Potential problems with Performance Mgmt <ul><li>Kohn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term vs. long term focus (Kohn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrecy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too big vs. too small </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nathanson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The desire is collaboration ; result is competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance is largely a result of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system of merit is the most powerful inhibitor to quality and productivity in the western world </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Can you motivate someone as a manager? <ul><li>Doubtful </li></ul><ul><li>But you can damage motivation with; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats or bribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you do this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t do this………. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. What would you do? <ul><li>If you were in charge of a new company, what would you do to help people learn how to be internally motivated? </li></ul>
  19. 19. What can you do? <ul><li>Establish a system which is : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matches high challenges and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treats everyone EQUAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates competition e.g. ranking and rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul></ul>