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  2. 2. Introduction All professionals start their important tasks by defining clearly theirobjectives and determining the procedures they will follow to reach the enddesire. All the more, teachers who take their profession as the solemn vowto mold the young mindsare expected to be knowledgeable in identifyingthe objectives their students are expected to accomplish and deciding onthe step-by-step procedure that they will follow to achieve intended learninggoals. 2
  3. 3. I. OBJECTIVE A statement that indicates a purpose, aim or goals set for any undertaking. In teaching, it identifies the purpose of the teacher plans to pursue. Educational or instructional objective. Provides guidance in organizing suitable learning situations and in choosing appropriate assessment methods to find out if said objectives have been attained. The three domains of objectives: o Cognitive domain o Affective domain o Psychomotor A person will learn first through his/her mind or cognitive, next is by reflecting to his/her life/heart or affective and the last is the application of the learning or psychomotor. Every objective is likely to have cognitive, affective and psychomotor components because all learning activities involve all three domains. Reported by: MaricarTeorima 3
  4. 4. A. IMPORTANCE OF OBJECTIVES Objectives are important because they help facilitate thefollowing: 1. Identification of what the students are expected to: a. Know  Knowledge  Facts  Information b. Develop  Skills  Science process c. Inculcate  Values  Attitudes  Habits 2. Basis for: a. Planning b. Organizing 3. Choice of appropriate: a. Instructional materials b. Equipment c. Sample tools 4. Decision on appropriate assessment techniques. Reported by: Cynthia Baoit 4
  5. 5. RULES IN FORMULATING OBJECTIVES The five essential rules in writing behavioral objectives: 1. Describe the expected behavior of the student. The teacher must set a clear vision of what she wants the students to perform during the lesson, what she wants to achieve in terms of their behavior while or after teaching the lesson. This also speaks of the goal at the end of the session. In short what you want them to do or be able to do.Example: predict the weather for the nest 24 hours, identify the flowerbearing plants. In relation to English, for example I am going to use the short story as my lesson. My expected behavior of the students will be for them to be able to identify the elements of a short story. 2. Describe the observable behavior in terms of an outcome verb which the student will perform. In this rule, we are going to add an outcome verb to the expected behavior we had set a while ago. The action will be specified unlike the 1st rule that we talk of the behavior in general.Examples: arrange, weigh, measure, classify In the short story, I can put the word arrange in my objective as , to arrange the series of events in the short story. 5
  6. 6. 3. Describe the criterion for evaluating an acceptable performance or behavior. The teacher is going to set the standard or criteria in evaluating the performance of the student. When they perform the task, there must be criteria for the achievement and completion of the task. With my given example, is it okay to just arrange the series of events? Is there a guide or reference in which they are going to arrange the events?Examples: name at least 4 officials who participated in EDSA 1, identify atleast 5 novels about war. We need to specify the action ‘arrange the series of events’ by adding that they need to arrange the series of events in reference to the 5 parts of the plot. 4. Specify important conditions under which the student will perform the behavior. We also need to state the conditions on performing the task. Together with the criteria, we include the conditions in completing the performance. Conditions like the manner of conducting the task, where to write it, the presentation, etc.Example: run a mile during a sports contest; arrange the books in the shelfaccording to titles. 6
  7. 7. So what happens to the my desired objective will be, to arrange the seriesof events in the short story using the parts of a plot in paramedic structure, 5. Measure only one outcome verb for each objective. Another rule in formulating objectives is that we only measure one outcome verb for each objective. In formulating objectives, we must make sure that what we want to achieve is clear in each desired objective. Objectives are what will guide us in our lesson. From the objectives will come the framework of our lesson. If these are listed in accordance to the rules, we can expect that our discussion will be harmonious and organized. Reported by: Jazzelle Alpha Andaya 7
  8. 8. B. STATING OBJECTIVES 1. The Cognitive Domain The following are cognitive process expected of the learner. They are divided into six (6) levels ranging from simple to more complex.A. KnowledgeExhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts,terms, basic concepts and answers Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and generalizations, theories and structures.  Knowledge (Recall of facts)  Terms  Name  Identify  State  Select  List  Match  Label  Reproduce  Extended 8
  9. 9.  ReorderB. ComprehensionDemonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing,comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and statingmain ideas Translation Interpretation Extrapolation  Comprehension (Gaining meanings)  Compare  Classify  Describe  Give examples  Order  Estimate  Distinguish  Predict  Convert  Manipulate  Modify 9
  10. 10. C. Application Using new knowledge, solve problems to new situations by applyingacquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way Application (Use a new situation)  Demonstrate  Solve  Apply a rule  Show  Measure  Compute  Operate  Use  Illustrate D. Analysis Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations  Analysis of elements  Analysis of relationships  Analysis of organizational principles  Analysis (Break into parts)  Differentiate  Distinguish 10
  11. 11.  Select  Separate  Prove  Infer  Breakdown  Define  Analyze  Point out  Categorize  Detect  Revise Reported by: Kharenz Grace Dulay____________________________________________________________ 11
  12. 12. E. SynthesisCompile information together in a different way by combiningelements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions Production of a unique communication Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations Derivation of a set of abstract relationsF. EvaluationPresent and defend opinions by making judgments about information,validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria Judgments in terms of internal evidence Judgments in terms of external criteria b. Synthesis (Organize)  Summarize  Design  Combine  Reconstruct  Draw  Relate  Organize data  Devise  Prepare  Recognize  Produce  Create 12
  13. 13. c. Evaluating (Make Judgment)  Interpret  Explain  Criticize  Justify  Recommend measures  Suggest  Appraise  Contrast  Discriminate  Deduce  Conclude  Support Reported by: Christopher Dimatatac 13
  14. 14. 2. The Affective Domain The affective domain deals with how students are affected by their learning. These are divided into five (5) categories. a. Receiving  The student shows willingness to attend to particular classroom stimuli or phenomenon in the environment. b. Responding  The student is required active participation based on the stimuli. c. Valuing  Thestudent displays definite involvement or commitment toward some experience.Affective: The Affective domain has received less attention, and is lessintuitive than the Cognitive. It is concerned with values, or more preciselyperhaps with perception of value issues, and ranges from mere awareness(Receiving), through to being able to distinguish implicit values throughanalysis. (Kratwohl, Bloom and Masia (1964)) 14
  15. 15. The affective domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Key Words, Direct Objects and Specific Objectives Receiving Phenomena1.1 1.1 Awareness Key Words: to differentiate, to separate, to set apart, to share Examples of Direct Objects: sights, sounds, events, designs, arrangements Specific Objective: After the introduction, the 15
  16. 16. student will be able to share newly introduced people in 20 minutes. Key Words: to accumulate, to select, to1.2 Willingness to receive combine, to accept Examples of Direct Objects: models, examples, shapes, sizes, meters, cadences Specific Objective: After the discussion, the student will be able to select the models they want to present in 5 minutes.1.3 Controlled or selected Key Words: to select, to positively respond to,attention to listen Examples of Direct Objects: alternatives, answers, rhythms, nuances Specific Objective: Given the policy, the student will be able to listen to others with respect.Responding toPhenomena: Activeparticipation on the part ofthe learners. Attends and Key Words: to comply (with), to follow, toreacts to a particular 16
  17. 17. phenomenon. commend, to approve2.1 Acquiescence in Examples of Direct Objects: directions,responding instructions, laws, policies, demonstrations Specific Objective: after the discussion, the student will be able to comply with what he has learned in 5 minutes. Key Words: to volunteer, to discuss, to practice, to perform, to play2.2 Willingness to respond Examples of Direct Objects: instruments, games, dramatic works, charades, burlesques Specific Objective: After giving the presentation the student will be able to perform the presented task in 10 minutes. Key Words: to applaud, to acclaim, to spend leisure time in, to augment2.3 Satisfaction in Examples of Direct Objects: speeches,responding plays, presentations, writings 17
  18. 18. Specific Objective: After giving the topic to the groups, the student will be able to acclaim the topic using panel discussion.Valuing: The worth or valuea person attaches to aparticular object,phenomenon, orbehavior. This ranges fromsimple acceptance to themore complex state ofcommitment. Valuing isbased on the internalizationof a set of specified values, Key Words: to increase measured proficiencywhile clues to these values in, to increase numbers of, to relinquish, toare expressed in the specifylearners overt behavior andare often identifiable. Examples of Direct Objects: group memberships, artistic productions, musical3.1 Acceptance of a value productions, personal friendships Specific Objective: After watching the clip, the student will be able to specify a belief in a democratic process. Key Words: to assist, to subsidize, to help, to 18
  19. 19. support Examples of Direct Objects: artists, projects, viewpoints, arguments3.2 Preference of a value Specific Objective: After enumerating the problems, the student will be able to help give solutions to solve problems in 10 minutes. Key Words: to deny, to protest, to debate, to argue Examples of Direct Objects: deceptions,3.3 Commitment irrelevancies, abdications, irrationalities Specific Objective: After discussing the social problems, the students will be able to debate about the best plan for social improvement. Reported by: Hayden Caroline Umandap 19
  20. 20. 3. The Psychomotor Domain a. Reflex movements  Students’ actions can occur involuntarily in response to some stimuli.  The students can response to a situation without their control it always depend on the situation they were engage in. For example you are cooking when you touch a hot surface your body reflexes act quickly even without realizing you’re doing it.  Reactions that is not learned. It is not learned nor teach because you can’t tell what your body reaction is. Example of activities to be measured Respond physically instinctively Keyword react, respond b. Basic fundamental movements  Student has innate movement pattern formed from a combination of reflexes movements.  Basic movements such as walking or grasping.  Basic simple movement Example of activities to be measured alter position, move, perform simple action 20
  21. 21. Keyword grasp, walk, stand, throwc. Perceptual abilities  Student can translate stimulus received through the sense into appropriate desired movements. What the students perceived can result to a reaction which they know right for what they see.  Response to stimuli such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination. The people can response on what he sees, what he hears, and other people movement.  Basic response it simple explained as what the stimuli is acting is people react to it. Example of activities to be measured use than one ability in response to different sensory perceptions Keyword catch, write, explore, distinguish using senses Reported by Aleja L. Zarco 21
  22. 22. d. Physical abilities  Student has developed basic movements that are essential to the development of more highly skilled movements.e. Skilled movements  Student has developed more complex movements requiring a certain degree of efficiency.f. Nondiscursive communications  Student has the ability to communicate through body movements. Reported by: Jay ArMaitem 22
  23. 23. Robert Mager, in his book, Preparing Instructional Objectivesrecommended a format in three parts as follows:a. Student behavior It states what the student should be able to do or the change inbehavior that the teacher would recognize as evidence that the objectivehas been achieved.b. Testing situation It indicates the condition under which the behavior will observe or willbe expected to occur.c. Performance criteria It states the standard of performance level that is aimed at.Additional information What are instructional objectives?Instructional objectives may also be called performanceobjectives, behavioral objectives, or simply objectives. All of theseterms are used interchangeably. Objectives are specific, outcomebased, measurable, and describe the learners behavior afterinstruction. So what does that mean? Lets take a closer look.. . . specific Objectives are very specific. This means that they should describe precisely what the learner is expected to do. 23
  24. 24. . . .outcome Objectives are outcome based. This means that thebased objective is going to state what the learner should be able to do after the instruction is complete. The process of how the instruction happens is not considered in an objective.. . Objectives are measurable. This means that objectives.measurable should describe learning outcomes that can be measured; objectives should be seen or heard.. . .describe Objectives describe student behaviors. This means thatstudent objectives should relate what the student should be ablebehavior to do after the instruction. Instructional Objectives are key to effective instruction.Effective instruction occurs only when student behavior is changed indesired ways. Because instructional objectives are tools fordescribing student outcomes, they provide a means to making theinstruction effective. In addition, there are three reasons that instructionalobjectives are so important. Lets review these reasons.. . . serve as Objectives tell students to what is expected of them. Theya guide for eliminate the "guess work" because the expectations arestudents. clearly defined.. . . serve as Objectives allow the teacher/facilitator to determine thea basis for media, and materials that is necessary to facilitate thethe learning. The procedures to be used to teach the newselection of information become clearer once the objective is defined.instructional 24
  25. 25. media &materialsandprocedures.. . . Evaluation is always based on each instructional objective.determine Determining the objective classification will assist youthe indetermining the appropriate methods for evaluation.appropriateways toevaluate thelearning. Instructional Objectives Definition -- Instructional objectives describe the skills, knowledge, abilities or attitudes students should possess or demonstrate after they complete the training. The starting point for designing a course of study should include these instructional objectives; the objectives determine the intended outcomes of the training. Good instructional objectives describe an observable performance, one that can be observed and measured by an instructor or manager. In a nutshell, instructional objectives: Describe a skill that students are expected to possess after instruction Describe a measurable performance 25
  26. 26. Describe the performance conditions 26