Business CommunicationTrainer:Kiran Nalluri,Vishal Arogya Sampat.email@example.com
Improved Quicker StrongerStakeholder Problem Decision Response Solving Making EnhancedProfessional Effective Increased Communication Productivity Image Clearer Stronger SteadierPromotional Business Work Flow Materials Relationships
Usage of Business Communication Channels Writing 9% Receiving Sending Speaking Listening 30% 45% Reading 16%
What is communication• Giving, receiving or exchanging information, opinions or ideas• Medium is by writing, speech or visual• Understood by everyone• Intentional and unintentional• Dynamic process• Systemic• Interaction and transaction
Some definitions• It’s a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another- Keith Davis• It is any behaviour that results in an exchange of meaning- The American Management Association
Forms of communication• One-way and two-way communication• One-way – Radio, television, newspaper, advertisements• Two-way – Interactive – Source and receiver
Forms of communication• Formal and informal• Formal used in corporate / organisations – Advantages • Official language, so binding • Written so less likely to be misunderstood • Saves time • Avoids embarrassment if information is sensitive or painful
Forms of communication• Disadvantages of formal communication – Rigid – Bureaucratic jargon – Does not give reasons, just orders – Takes time – Authoritative and downward – Social matters seldom mentioned – Impersonal and final – Fails to motivate employees
Forms of communication• Informal communication• Advantages – Personal and carries enthusiasm – Encourages flow of ideas – Oral so two-way – Promotes open climate – Reduces rumours – Fosters harmonious relationships – Co-operation based on shared concerns and interests
Forms of communication• Disadvantages – Flexible, so difficult to apply – Can lead to spread of inaccurate information – Coloured by emotion and distort the meaning – Difficult to trace when an enquiry has to be made• 2 types- oral and written, internal and external
Internal CommunicationOfficial Structure The Grapevine Formal Chain Informal of Command Networking Up, Down, Across Unofficial Lines Formal Power Lines of Power
The Communication Process Phase 1: Phase 6: Sender Has Channel Receiver an Idea And Medium Sends Feedback Phase 2: Phase 5:Sender Encodes Receiver Decodes Idea Message Phase 3: Phase 4: Six-PhaseSender Transmits Receiver Gets Process Message Message Situation
Communication Barriers• Perception and language• Listening• Pre-judgement• Relationships• Emotional responses• Systems
Communication Barriers• Physical barriers – Defects in the medium – Noise – Information overload• Language barriers• Socio-psychological barriers – Self centered attitudes – Group identification
Communication Barriers– Self image– Status block– Resistance to change– Closed mind– Poor communication skills– State of health
Communication Barriers• Organisational barriers – Cross cultural barriers • Language • Values/norms of behaviour • Social relationships • Concepts of time • Concepts of space • Thinking process • Non-verbal communication • perception
Communication Climate Overall Corporate Level ofStructure Culture Feedback Flat More Open High Tall Less Open Low
Communication systems• Downward• Upward• Horizontal• Diagonal• Grapewine• Informal
Principles of effective communication• Its all about understanding• Knowledge about the communication cycle• Awareness of communication barriers• Knowing the objective• Knowing about the receiver• Knowing the circumstances of communication• Reaction of the recipient
Tips for successful communication• Read• Listen intelligently• Think and plan• Use appropriate language• Be open minded• Select appropriate media• Time your communication appropriately• Use appropriate language• Obtain feedback• Aim high
Oral communication• Life blood of business and personal life• Danger of taking it for granted• Need for practice and improvement• ‘You’ are the key• Two roles- – Listener – speaker
Speaking skills• Decide the desired outcome• Select important facts and figures• Identify key points• Arrange the key points• Choose appropriate language• Monitor feedback constantly• End on positive note
Listening skills• Prepare to listen• Avoid pre-judgement• Be open-minded• Establish eye contact• Watch for signals• Extract main points• Give feedback• Make notes
Listening skills• Four steps of listening – Hearing • If you can repeat the speakers words, you have heard the message – Interpretation • Depends on vocabulary, knowledge, interpretation – Evaluation • Listener decides what to do with the received information: eg sales talk – Response • Maybe in words or body language
Activity of listening• Listening is not being passive, it’s a positive activity• Hard work with a slightly raised heart beat• Involves not only understanding the content but also feelings of the speaker – Called emphatic or active listening• Different types of listening – Appreciative, attentive, evaluative, critical
Benefits of listening• Find out more information• Learn about people and how their mind works• Improves relations with people• Raise morale of employees• Obtain suggestions and new ideas• Discover why employees perform as they do• Help by solving problems
Barriers to effective listening• Distraction• Wandering attention• Planning a reply• Lack of interest• Tendency to criticise• Being self centered• Avoiding what is difficult
Barriers to effective listening• Excessive note taking• Emotional blocks• Emotional excitement• Impatience• Poor health• Personal anxieties• External noise and disturbances
Listening to non-verbal messages• Body language- 55%• Tone of voice -38%• Words- 7%• Speakers body language indicates his state of mind and feelings – Facial expression, gestures and posture – Tone, pitch of vice, speed of speaking – Omission of facts
Profile of an effective listener• Good listeners – Consider listening and opportunity to learn – Are aware of personal prejudices so avoid judging the speaker – Are not influenced by word filled with emotions – Are not upset by use of any words – Listen to ideas behind the speakers words – Use the time lag to evaluate what they hear – Consciously notice the speakers non-verbal behaviour
Profile of an effective listener• You are a good listener – Make and maintain good and comfortable eye contact – Reflect appropriate feelings in facial expressions – Sit/stand in attentive posture – Tune in to speakers line of thought – Use same grammar as the speaker – Reflect on the speakers terminology – Use emphathic questioning techniques – Ask open ended questions, seeking information and clarification – Summarise what the speaker has said
Guidelines for effective listening• Following guidelines require practice – Stop talking, be attentive, make the speaker feel important – Put the speaker at ease – Create positive atmosphere through body language – Be patient – Show that you are listening – Write down important points so speaker feels important
Guidelines for effective listening – Do not allow distractions – Do not interrupt – Do not give advice – Do not question – Do not take conversation in a different direction – Do not criticise – Keep your temper- an angry person cannot speak nor listen – Listen ‘between the lines’ – Keep an open mind, do not jump to conclusions
Non-verbal communication• Instant feedback• Body language• Used unconsciously• Adds impact to words• Provides instant impression• Posture• Facial expressions• Gestures• Eye contact
Feedback• Ensures communication is understood• Keeps relationships smooth and open• Requires an open communication climate• Completes the communication cycle• Both speaker and listener need skills of feedback• In written communication- delayed feedback• In oral-its instant from facial expressions and body language
Feedback• In organisations process of feedback is built into policies and procedures- eg appraisals and analysis meetings• In human interaction- feedback is for helping the other person to see result of his action so that he may choose whether to change or not to get different result• If feedback is given for any other reason it becomes criticism, judgement etc• Feedback not to be given to make oneself feel better or to relieve ones frustrations etc
Barriers to feedback• No one likes to get bad news• Hierarchical organisations are less receptive to feedback• Managers like to hoard information – Discomfort about other peoples reactions – Information may not be reliable – Feedback can lead to change of relationship• Listening is essential to feedback
Guidelines for giving feedback• Must be given immediately soon after the message has been received• Should be given in a positive manner• Must be specific, not general or vague• Must not be evaluative or judgemental, it should be descriptive• Should be on aspects which the person can improve on
Guidelines for giving feedback• Should be limited to one or two important points at a time• Must be constructive- alternate options should be discussed• Must be sure of ones motive of giving feedback• Positive feedback is as important as negative feedback
Telephone• Guidelines for making a positive impact – Answering a call – Listening – Messages – Hold on or call back – Never interrupt
Before calling• Before calling – Choose right time – Check the number – Plan your call – Be prepared – Avoid interruptions
During the call– Be courteous– Establish a rapport– Smile– Check your notes– Obtain feedback– Be courteous– Never argue– Never use slang– Use conversation cues– End the call politely– Never put on the speaker phone without taking permisiion
Cellular phone• Should be used in emergencies• If other people are present, excuse yourself• Attention to present company is very important• Move way to a quiet corner• Switch off when entering a meeting, lecture, theatre etc• Used quiet methods when in hospitals etc
Leaving a voice mail• Include your name, telephone number, companys name etc• Spell any unusual name• Repeat your name and telephone name at the end of the message• Specify the purpose of your call• Indicate what would be the best time to return your call• Anticipate and prepare your message
Telephone• After the call – Make notes – Take action
MY PERCEPTION YOUR CONTEXT OF SITUATION OF CONTEXT PERCEPTION OF CONTEXT C1 MY YOURINFORMATION INFORMATION PERCEPTION PERCEPTION Communication Motivations C2 C3 Influence Bargaining ME YOU
Pre- negotiations• Establish both, your objectives and those of the other party• Decide on your BATNA (Best alternative to no agreement)• Collect all relevant facts• Before framing specific proposals consult with all key persons.• Decide who should be conducting the negotiations and the roles of each member of the negotiating team.• Ensure that all members of your side are in agreement• Calculate in advance the cost of various concessions.
Negotiation strategies• Not everybody will receive the same information.• There is no guarantee that everybody will receive some information.• Find out how the other party sees the situation and try to see it from their point of view• Understand their problems and find out what they want.• Don’t antagonise the other party by making them defensive and if you feel he needs an opportunity to save face give him one.
Positive behaviour• Showing respect for the other person’s opinion.• Showing willingness to change your judgement in the light of new evidence• Keeping an open mind.• Being sincere and consistent in your approach.• Avoiding his defeat in argument – leave him a way out where possible.
Positive behaviour• Being calm and patient; considerate and cool.• Listening to what he has to say before replying and showing interest in what he says by summarising.• Acting with deliberate intent and not on impulse.• Be flexible and be prepared to offer or accept alternative solutions to particular problems.
Positive behaviour• The ultimate settlement is frequently not what was originally envisaged.• Remember that good negotiators start high so that they have a strategic anchor!• Don’t make promises unless you are absolutely certain of your backing, and that you will be able to keep them.• Always leave yourself a small loophole. Don’t ever be dogmatic.
Tactics• There are two rules management should follow• - do not accept verbal statements at their face value.• - do not counter wild union demands with equally wild proposals. Always act in a manner calculated to maintain the respect of the entire work force.
Tactics• The union negotiator usually begins with an attack upon the employer.• This is usually purely ritualistic behaviour;• Its objective is – either to strengthen the resolve of the union members – to strengthen the leader’s position in the union, – or as a compensating show of strength for accepting a relatively unfavourable position.
Tactics• The management should simply listen and ignore his behaviour.• To shock management into revealing information.• To create a nervous or conciliatory mood in which real negotiations would begin.
How to say ‘No’• Say it promptly.• Do not feel obliged to explain and justify every ‘no’.• Do not say ‘no’ impatiently or in anger.• Find a sound proposal to soften the answer.• Show concern for the person while rejecting his ideas.• Restate their demands and proposals in a different way more suitable for you• Be assertive
Assertiveness• Our behaviour towards others may fall into the following categories.• Passive - allowing others to get what they want, not expressing your needs (eg. ‘you have the chocolate cake’).• Aggressive - imposing your will or needs on others (e.g. ‘give me that chocolate cake.)• Manipulative - ‘scheming’ to get what you want (e.g. ‘no, no, you have the chocolate cake, I’ll go without’)• Assertive - expressing your needs openly without imposing on the other (e.g. ‘i like chocolate cake, do you? Should we divide it up?).
Your behaviour• Your behaviour can affect others – Being passive can make others feel powerful or frustrated. – Being aggressive can make others feel angry or intimidated. – Being manipulative can make others feel powerless or as though they are being taken advantage of. – Being assertive allows others to know where they stand and to feel respected. • It also encourages them to be assertive rather than be forced to react with either one of the other behaviours. People sometimes equate assertiveness with aggression, but its very different.
Interviewing skills• What is an interview A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants oral responses to oral enquiries
Selection Interview IF EFFECTIVE• Saves Time• Better job/person matching• Satisfied interviewers/Interviewees• Good image / PR• Tightening of recruitment process
Selection Interview IF INEFFECTIVE• May end up recruiting unfit candidates• Missing suitable candidates• Demotivating suitable candidates from joining
Setting the environment• No disturbance• No phone Calls• Seating - Neutral ( Perhaps an L shape )• No distraction in the vicinity• No ‘Power Statements’• Having water available on the table ( for candidate )• Have stationary ready ( for candidate )
Interview structure1 Opening, rapport building2 Current & previous roles3 Aspirations & awareness4 Education & upbringing5 Circumstances & interests6 Closing , wrap up
Opening, rapport building• Appropriate recognition• Relaxed approach• Introduce yourself• Share - Interview purpose » Recruitment process » Job Role ( briefly) » Interview structure & Time• Check understanding
Structure of questions• Open ended QuestionsHow - What - When - Where - Who - Why• Close ended QuestionsDo you - Did you - Can you - Will you - Could you - Would you - Should you• Prompting/ encouraging expressionsTell me…, Describe …For example?, For instance?, In what sense?How come?, In simpler terms...
Characteristics of Good Questions• Purposeful• Relevant• Clear & concise• Limited to one idea• Neutral in tone & substance
Questions coverage• WHAT Q’s - Elicit information about knowledge, facts/data, opinions• WHY Q’s - Analytical skills , reasoning, logic etc. motivations( what else…How else…, Where else….)• HOW Q’s - Knowledge of functional skills, process/steps ( also analytical skills)• HOW MUCH/HOW WELL Q’s - validating achievements
The Interview Funnel• Start with an open ended question – LISTEN• Narrow down to specific area – LISTEN• How did the person go about it – LISTEN• Find out motivations – LISTEN• Achievements – LISTEN• Summarise and seek agreement• Start with new area
The panel interview• Agree about roles & structures• Stick to roles• Do not interrupt• Do not help the candidate• Select lead interviewer• The others should listen and take notes , ask questions on other key areas and observe non verbal behavior• Follow up at end of a section
Telephonic Interviews• You cannot see the candidate , so you have to trust only two senses - hearing & intuition• Do not short circuit the interview. The process should be the same as a face-to- face interview• Follow the interview structure• Use the funnel - what, why, how,how well
Telephonic Interviews• Use many encouraging , prompting expressions ,like … • Yes • Tell me more • Describe • I see • For example? • In what sense?• Keep sentences & discussions short• Summarise each section
Interview Tips• Interviewers need to be provided with job description & specification of the requirements of the position to minimize the influence of stereotypes• Interview questions need to be job related• Avoid making quick decisions about an applicant• Avoid giving too much weight to a few characteristics• Try to put the applicant at ease during the interview• Communicate clearly with the applicant• Maintain consistency in the questions asked
Management Interviewing• Less emphasis on background : more on role and work• Ask about aspirations before role• Easy for candidate to obscure track record through jargon and generalities• A ‘look good, talk good’ candidate may land up interviewing the interviewer - superficial interview may take place• Hence be specific - focus on Critical attributes
Management skills• How results are achieved and how the candidate handles the process of management• Setting objectives for self and team• Decision making style - alone or team• Resolving conflicts - how and when• Handling customers - relationship based and task based• Resolving issues between internal demands and customer expectations
Management focus• Motivational style - sort of environment in team. Leading team front or back• Grooming others - spending time for developing people• Investing in self - learning & growing• Monitoring work of self and team• Handling communication & consultation• Influencing others through meetings and presentations
Seven C’s of communication• Courtesy – Sincere and genuine expressions • Out of respect and care for others – Not merely using phrases – Be sincere – Avoid anger – Refrain from preaching – Use positive words – Avoid discriminating words
Seven C’s of communication• Clarity – Short sentences – Simple, familiar & right words – No jargons – Foreknowledge about audience
Factors that reduce clarity• Use of camouflaged words• Use of passive voice• Use of long bureaucratic style of writing• Use of clichés• Use of unfamiliar words• Use of words that have double meaning
Seven C’s of communication• Conciseness – Time is money in business – Eliminate all redundant words• Concreteness – Be precise and factual – Concreteness is opposite of being abstract or vague
Seven C’s of communication• Correctness – Correct use of grammar – Appropriate words – Message composition to suit receivers level – Right tone• Consideration – Also known as ‘you’ attitude
Seven C’s of communication• Completeness – Business communication message not complete unless it adheres to all the seven C’s – Does not mean providing all necessary information – Means how the matter has been put across to the receiver of the message
A communicator may speak or write fluently but he has to be tactful, thoughtful, courteous, correct and complete
Definition• A presentation is delivered to a small knowledgeable audience at a conference, a seminar or a business meeting; its purpose is to inform, explain, persuade or present a point of view; it is followed by questions from the audience
Preparation• Finding about the environment in which the presentation is to be delivered – Venue, organisers, occasion, time available, other speakers, audience etc• Preparing the text and the required visuals – Style, length, humour, style of addressing – the text of the presentation – Posters, flip charts, OHPs, powerpoint presentations• Physical appearance and body language – Appearance, grooming, posture• Practising delivery of the talk
Profile of a good speaker• Is lively, enthusiastic, interested• Has a sense of responsibility to the audience• Has a sense of responsibility to others• Has a sense of responsibility to others• Has a sense of responsibility to the subject• Stands tall, makes eye contact, speaks responsibly, with authority, is positive and friendly• Does not let confidence turn into over- confidence• Can accept feedback and benefit by it