Real comm2e ch3


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Real comm2e ch3

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Communication and Culture
  2. 2. • Define and explain culture and its impact on your communication • Delineate seven ways that cultural variables affect communication • Describe the communicative power of group affiliations Chapter Outcomes
  3. 3. Chapter Outcomes (cont.) • Explain key barriers to competent intercultural communication • Demonstrate behaviors that contribute to intercultural competence
  4. 4. • Culture: – A learned system of thought and behavior that belongs to and typifies a relatively large group of people – The composite of their shared beliefs, values, and practices Understanding Culture
  5. 5. • We learn culture through communication with others. • We express our culture through communication. • Your personal worldview is the framework through which you interpret the world and the people in it. Culture Is Learned
  6. 6. • The communication between people from different cultures who have different worldviews • Necessary in our diverse, mobile society • Mediated communication gives us regular exposure to people from other cultures. Intercultural Communication
  7. 7. • Cultural variations play out along a continuum and are not absolute. • High-context cultures use contextual cues to both interpret meaning and send subtle messages – Cues: time, place, relationship, situation Communication and Cultural Variations
  8. 8. • Low-context cultures use direct language and rely less on situational factors. – Examples: U.S., Canada, northern Europe • Collectivistic cultures perceive selves primarily as members of a group; use hyperbole. – Examples: Arab and Latin American cultures, China, Japan Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.)
  9. 9. • Co-cultures within a larger culture Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.)
  10. 10. • Individualistic cultures value individuality, communicate autonomy and privacy, and downplay emotions. – Examples: U.S., Great Britain, Australia, Germany • High uncertainty avoidance cultures adapt behavior to avoid risk and use formal rules to communicate. – Examples: Portugal, Greece, Peru, Japan Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.)
  11. 11. • Low uncertainty avoidance cultures have a higher tolerance for risk and ambiguity and use fewer formal rules to communicate. – Examples: Sweden, Denmark, Ireland, U.S. • Power distance is the way in which cultures accept the division of power among individuals. Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.)
  12. 12. • Masculine cultures place value on assertiveness, achievement, ambition, and competitiveness. – Examples: Mexico, Japan, Italy • Feminine cultures value nurturance, relationships, and quality of life. – Examples: Sweden, Norway Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.)
  13. 13. • Time orientation: the way that cultures communicate about and with time – Monochronistic cultures are time- conscious; include U.S., Great Britain – Polychronistic cultures have a more fluid approach to time; include Latin America, Asia Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.)
  14. 14. • In monochronistic cultures, time is a valuable resource that is not to be wasted. Polychronistic cultures have a more fluid approach to time and deal with various projects and people simultaneously. Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.)
  15. 15. • Co-cultures: Members share some of the general culture’s system of thought and behavior, but have distinct unifying characteristics. – Include race, gender, sexual orientation, religion – Include generations Understanding Group Affiliations
  16. 16. • Social Identity Theory includes – Personal identity – Social identity from your group memberships • Intergroup communication – How communication occurs within and between groups and affects relationships – We communicate differently with people in ingroups versus outgroups. Understanding Group Affiliations (cont.)
  17. 17. • Anxiety • Ethnocentrism • Discrimination – Behavioral affirmation – Behavioral confirmation Intercultural Communication Challenges
  18. 18. • Changing thinking (cognition) • Changing feelings (affect) • Changing behavior • Being mindful (intercultural sensitivity) • Desiring to learn about other cultures Improving Intercultural Communication
  19. 19. • Overcoming intergroup biases – Intergroup contact theory: interaction between members of different social groups generates a possibility for more positive attitudes. Improving Intercultural Communication (cont.)
  20. 20. • Accommodating appropriately – Convergence involves shifting language or nonverbal behaviors toward each other’s way of communicating. – Avoid overaccommodation, or going too far in making changes based on stereotypes about another group. Improving Intercultural Communication (cont.)
  21. 21. • Listen effectively. • Think before you speak or act. • Be empathic. • Do the right thing. Practice Your Skills