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IngléS TéCnico I 121109


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IngléS TéCnico I 121109

  1. 1. November 12th, 2009 Profesor: Karla M. López Ahumada
  2. 2. TODAY´S GOALS <ul><li>Return class work </li></ul><ul><li>Review exercises from last class </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the following topics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight gain during Pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breastmilk vs. Formula feeding </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Best Intentions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do as I say, not as I do!” Karen is well aware of the ways to control weight. In fact,s he frequently nags her husban, Roger, about the “love handles” around his waistline, urgining him to get up early and jog before work, or to go easy on the cookies and cakes that appear almost magically in their kitchen from her mom. He promises to try harder, if she thinks he needs to. </li></ul><ul><li>But she groans about the flab that´s beginning to appaear around her own hips, too. “I never used to have this problem. Thank goodness for loose clothing. I just need to get away from my computer and get some exercise. Maybe tomorrow,” she thinks, as she handles yet another rush memo that appears on her computer via E-mail and once more eats lunch sitting at her desk. </li></ul><ul><li>Going through her mail at home that evening, she sees what may be her solution, an easy way to melt pounds away. It says, “No need for exercise. Just focus on fruits, vegetables, and saladas, and send for this diet supplement.” She puts that on her immediate “do list” before taking the fried chicken dinner she bought on the way home out of the bag. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>¿De que trata el párrafo? </li></ul><ul><li>¿Cuál es la moraleja? </li></ul><ul><li>¿Qué hace mal Karen? </li></ul><ul><li>¿Qué debe cambiar Karen? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Bites between bytes </li></ul><ul><li>“ This job really keeps you moving!” remarked Akim to his co-worker. “I barely have enough time for lunch or a break before our next customer needs help. Thank goodness for that stand downstairs and those snacks we get there.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ And you know,” he said, popping another hard candy into his mouth, “that bowl of candy for our customers gets me through the day, too!” </li></ul><ul><li>As the owner of a small computer repair business, Akim certainly does work on a time crunch, often eating at his desk when customers aren´t around. He grabs a sandwich and a fruit pie from the food stand and a soft drink from a vending machine. If he gets hungry later on, there is a snack display by the coffee pot with cookies and chips. </li></ul><ul><li>With an ironic smile, Akim jokes about the easiest strategy for eating more nutritious meals and snacks. “Get rid of our customers so I have time to go out, just kidding!” Seriously, what changes could Akim make and why? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The other way around! </li></ul><ul><li>Translate this pharagraph </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Los alimentos son sustancias naturales o transformadas que contienen uno o, más a menudo, varios nutrientes. Los seres humanos los ingieren para saciar el hambre o por otros motivos. Pueden ser de origen vegetal o animal, líquidos o sólidos. Cuando se ingieren, los alimentos progresan por el tubo digestivo donde, mediante el proceso físico-químico de la digestión, irán cediendo sus nutrientes, para que sean a continuación absorbidos. La búsqueda y obtención de alimentos es un proceso fundamental para la supervivencia y por ello el hombre ha debido adaptarse a su medio, o luchar contra él, para asegurar su sustento. Así fue sucesivamente, recolector de frutos y cazador, convirtiéndose más tarde en pastor y agricultor. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Este proceso es bastante subjetivo y arbitrario, de manera que existen varias clasificaciones dependiendo de los países e incluso dependiendo de los autores. Por ejemplo, pueden agruparse según su origen: Vegetal - Cereales </li></ul><ul><li>- Azúcares </li></ul><ul><li>- Verduras y Hortalizas </li></ul><ul><li>- Frutas </li></ul><ul><li>- Leguminosas </li></ul><ul><li>- Aceites y grasas </li></ul>Animal - Leche y derivados lácteos - Huevos - Carne y derivados - Pescados, moluscos y crustáceos - Grasas
  9. 9. <ul><li>Homework: </li></ul><ul><li>Turn in the summary for one nutrition-related topic from the websites we discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>The summary must be in spanish and you must provide the link to the website. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the rules we discussed about reliable websites. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Weight during Pregnancy </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Birthweight is the msot reliable indicator of an infant´s health. The underweight infant is the most likely to have physical and mental defects, become ill, and die than a normal-weight infant. Two caracteristics of the mother´s weight influence an infant´s birthweight: </li></ul><ul><li>Her weight prior to conception, and </li></ul><ul><li>Her weight gain during pregnancy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pregnancy Weight Gain <ul><ul><li>Pregnancy weight gain is common and necessary for proper growth and development of the fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be more than expected, or appear in other areas, such as arms, legs, thighs, or face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper diet and exercise can make weight loss after pregnancy a reality </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Prepregnancy Weight Status Recommended Weight Gain in pounds (lbs) Recommended Weight gain in Kilograms (kg) Underweight (less than BMI of 19.8) 28 to 40 12.5 to 18 Normal Weight (BMI 19.8 to 26.0) 25 to 35 11.5 to 16 Overweight (BMI 26.1 to 29.0) 15 to 25 7.0 to 11.5 Obese (BMI higher than 29.1) 15 minimum 6.8 minimum
  14. 14. Normal Pregnancy Weight Gain <ul><ul><li>Between 11.4-15.9kg (25-35 lbs.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need about 300 additional calories per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First trimester weight gain should be 1.4-2.3kg (3-5 lbs.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain average one pound per week for remainder of pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy weight gain calculator can help determine ideal weight gain for your height and body type </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Exercises for Pregnant Women <ul><ul><li>Pregnancy yoga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid extra weight gain during and help weight come off quickly after delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining popularity </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pregnancy Calculator <ul><ul><li>Strenuous exercise in third trimester or taking on new exercise may not be recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pregnancy calculator helps determine how far along you are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gauge exercises appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use exercises designed for pregnant women </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Do exercise regularly (at least 3 times per week) </li></ul><ul><li>No te ejercites vigorosamente y por largos periodos. </li></ul><ul><li>Do warm up with 5 to 10 minutes of light activity </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Do exercise for 20 to 30 minutes at your target heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Do drink water before, after, and during exercise </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Do eat enough to support the edditional needs of pregnancy plus exercise </li></ul>
  18. 18. Answer the following questions <ul><li>¿Como afecta el peso de la madre antes del embarazo al producto? </li></ul><ul><li>¿Cuanto peso se recomienda subir durante el embarazo? </li></ul><ul><li>¿Cuántas calorias extras debe consumir una mujer embarazada por día? </li></ul><ul><li>Explica 5 recomendaciones generales sobre nutrición para una mujer embarazada </li></ul>
  19. 19. Fill in the space with the correct word <ul><li>Folate during Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>The folate RDA (_________________) during ________ ( embarazo ) is 600 µm DFE (Dietary Folate Equivalents) per ____ (día) and is _______ ( mejor) met from a combination of supplements, ___________ (alimentos fortificados) , and diet. Folate is expressed in terms of DFE because synthetic folate from supplements and fortified foods is ______ (absorbido) at almost twice (1.7 times) the rate of naturally occurring folate from other foods. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Breads and cereals: 7 to 11 servings </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables: 4 to 5 servings </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits: 3 to 4 servings </li></ul><ul><li>Meat/meat alternatives: 3 servings </li></ul><ul><li>Milk and milk products: 3 to 4 servings </li></ul>
  21. 21. Generate a comparison chart of female feeding before pregnancy and during pregnancy Food for women No. of Servings Food for pregnancy No. of servings Breads and cereals Vegetables Fruits Dairy Meats and alternatives
  22. 22. <ul><li>Folate: 300 µg (___________?) </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B6: 2 mg </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C: 50 mg (___________?) </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D: 5 µg (___________?) </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium: 250 mg (___________?) </li></ul><ul><li>Copper: 2 mg (___________?) </li></ul><ul><li>Iron: 30 mg (___________?) </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc: 15 mg (___________?) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>On waiking, arise slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat dry toast or crackers . </li></ul><ul><li>Chew gum or suck hard candies. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat small, frequent meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid foods with offensive odors. </li></ul><ul><li>When nauseated, do not drink citrus juice, water, milk, coffee, or tea. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Eat foods high in fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Drink at least 8 glasses of liquids all day. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond promptly to the urge to defecate. </li></ul><ul><li>Use laxatives only as prescribed by a physician. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Relax ad eat slowly . </li></ul><ul><li>Chew food thoroughly. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat small, frequent meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Drink liquids between meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid spicy or greasy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Sit up while eating, elevate the head while sleeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait an hour after eating before laying down. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait two hours after eating before exercising. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Alcohol- to prevent FAS </li></ul><ul><li>Medicinal Drugs- to prevent birth defects and problems in labor </li></ul><ul><li>Ilegal Drugs- they impair fetal development </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking and Chewing Tobbaco- it restricts blood supply to the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Contaminants- lead and mercury impair cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin-Mineral megadoses- related to malformations </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine- related to LBW and birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss Dieting – it may impair fetal development </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Substitutes- they are safe but use them in moderation </li></ul>
  27. 27. Feeding for Infants
  28. 28. <ul><li>Provides a favorable balance of nutrients with high bioavailability. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides hormones that promote physiological development. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves cognitive development . </li></ul><ul><li>Protects against a variety of infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). </li></ul><ul><li>Protects against some chronic diseases, such as diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Makes food allergies less likely. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Contracts the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthens birth intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves iron stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of breast cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects bone density. </li></ul><ul><li>Saves money and offers convenience. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>The lactating woman eeds extra fluid and enough energy and nutrients to produce aobut 25 ounces of milk a day. Alcohol, other drugs, smoking, and contaminants may lessen milk production or enter breast milk and impair infant development. </li></ul><ul><li>Translate…. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Vitamin D recommendations for an infant are 10x greater per pound of body weight than for adult male. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron recommendations for an infant are 6x greater per pound of body weight than those for an adult male….. </li></ul><ul><li>Explica esto en español….. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Feeding of school-aged children
  33. 33. <ul><li>Study for quizz 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Good luck! </li></ul>