Pakm paper

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Pakm paper

  1. 1. International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge ManagementDeveloping a Model for LinkingKMS and IC Measurement Mário Paulo Pinto Polytechnic Institute of Porto 1
  2. 2. Agenda Introduction Intellectual Capital (IC) Measurement Models IC Measurement in Portuguese Organizations Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) The Proposed Model Model Validation Conclusions Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 2
  3. 3. Introduction: clarifying the problem KMS and IC Measurement System are normally viewed as separate and discrete systems, without linkages and connections. Organizational knowledge Strategic perspective Operational perspective IC measurement Gap KMS system Linking them can facilitate the evaluation of the benefits and the impact of KMS in the value creation Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 3
  4. 4. IC Measurement Models Review IC Measurement ModelSkandia NavigatorBalanced Scorecard  IC ComponentsIntangible Assets MonitorIntelect Model  IC measurement metricsIntellectual Capital Index (stock & flows)Nova ModelIntangible Value FrameworkIC RatingIntellectual Capital RatingHeng Model Human StructuralMeritum GuidelinesDanish Guidelines Capital CapitalValue Chain ScoreboardChen, Zhu & Xie Model 40 metricsIntellectus Relationship 70 metricsTechnology BrokerCitation-Weighted Patents CapitalInclusive Valuation MethodologyTotal Value CreationThe Value Explorer 33 metricsThe 4-Leaf Model Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 4
  5. 5. IC Measurement in Portuguese Organizations A study was conducted in Portugal based on a questionnaire Two main aims:  To know the current practices of Portuguese organizations relating with IC management & measurement  To complement the IC metrics systematization with a practical perspective Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 5
  6. 6. IC measurement in Portuguese organizationsHUMAN CAPITALMetrics Services Industry Metrics Services Industry% employees of full-time X X Motivation index X X% employees of part-time X X Employees satisfaction index X X% temporary employees X X Nº of employees X X% specialized employees X X Nº of expert employees X XAbsenteeism rate X X Nº of managers X XAlternation rate X X Average IT literacy XAverage age of employees X X Average staff literacy X XYears on company service X X Time spent in training X XDistribution by age group X X Investment in training programs X X% male and female X X Nº employees in training programs XExperience index X X Value added per capita X XInitiative capacity X X Profits by employee X XInnovation capability X X Employees turnover X XLeadership index X X Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 6
  7. 7. IC measurement in Portuguese organizationsSTRUCTURAL CAPITALMetrics Services Industry Metrics Services Industry% critical processes in compliance with X Nº accesses to organizational bases Xmanuals% critical processes with procedure X Rate of knowledge distributed X XmanualsProcess efficiency index X X Diffusion of best practices XInformation systems capacity X X Rate of knowledge accessed/reutilized XNº of certificate products X Nº projects in collaboration with external X X entitiesQuality performance (ISO 9000) X X Protocols with innovation entities X XNº of tested products X X Nº projects with partners X XPCs by employee X X New business opportunities identified XEmployees satisfaction index X X New products XNº customers per employee X Upgrading projects X XEmployees alternation rate X Employees until 40 years X XHours in development X X Innovation capability X XHours in training X X Nº innovative ideas that generate new X products/services Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 7
  8. 8. IC measurement in Portuguese organizationsSTRUCTURAL CAPITAL (cont.)Metrics Services Industry Metrics Services IndustryInvestment in training X X Investment in TI per employee XInvestment in new methods and X Administrative expense per X Xprocesses employeeInvestment in relationship with X Administrative expense/total X Xstakeholders revenuesInvestment in IT X X Investment in new competences X XInvestment in IS X X Productivity rate X X Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 8
  9. 9. IC measurement in Portuguese organizationsRELATIONSHIP CAPITALMetrics Services Industry Metrics Services Industry% small, medium, high customers X X Average time between first contact X and close transactionCustomers geographic distribution X X Customer visits to the company X XAverage duration of customer X X Business alliances and partnerships X XrelationshipNew customers/customers lost X X Company image X XOrders repetition frequency X Market share in segment X XCustomer satisfaction index X X Investment in marketing XNº of customers X X Customer relationship investment X XNº of lost customers X X Investment in TI X XNº customers /employee X X Revenues per customer X XNº of customers claims X X Administrative expenses per X customerSales rate to new customers X X Annual sales per customer X XSales rate to new markets X X Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 9
  10. 10. IC measurement in Portuguese organizations IC metrics identified  27 metrics for human capital  36 metrics for structural capital  23 metrics for relationship capital Considerations  There aren’t strongly differences between the metrics identified by service and industry organizations  These metrics will be used to complement the metrics systematization Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 10
  11. 11. KMS Classification Business intelligence Collaboration systems (groupware) Competence management systems Corporative portals Document management systems E-learning systems Expert systems Knowledge discovery systems Knowledge maps Workflow systems Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 11
  12. 12. The proposed Model Strategic Objectives & Success Factors A MODEL FOR LINKING KMS AND IC MEASUREMENT intangible assets Identifying IC measurementRealigning critical intangible assets with strategic objectives IC measurement model model and selected metrics Cause-effect relationship KMS categories Identifying Knowledge Management systems Measures provided by Measures provided other systems IC measurement measurement KMS with IC by KMS Integrating system Other systems Financial systems ERPs & CRMs Quality systems IC measurement Others report Evaluating results Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 12
  13. 13. Strategic Objectives & Success Factors A MODEL FOR LINKING KMS AND IC MEASUREMENT SYSTEM IC MEASUREMENT MODEL IC MEASUREMENT MODEL Identifying intangible Intangible assets Intangible assets Human IC metrics assets capital IC measurement model and Metrics Human capital specification selected metrics Structural capital Relationship capital Structural Relationship capital capitalRealigning critical intangible assets with strategic objectives KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Corporative portals KMS categories Corporative portals Collaborative systems IC MEASUREMENT SYSTEM Identifying Collaborative systems Intangible Expert systems assets Expert systems Workflow systems Workflow systems Measures Measurement E-learning systems provided model E-learning systems Measures by KMS Measures provided Competence management systems Metrics by other systems Competence management systems Knowledge discovery systems systems Integrating KMS with Knowledge discovery IC IC measurement Business intelligencesystems measurement Business intelligence systems Knowledgemaps Knowledge maps OTHER SYSTEMS OTHER SYSTEMS Document management systems Document management systems Financial systems Quality systems Financial systems IC measurement report ERPs & CRMs Other sources Quality systems Other sources ERps & CRMs Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge creation creation storage storage distribution distribution application application KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE valuating
  14. 14. Measures provided by KMS to quantify ICmetrics: methodology IC MEASUREMENT IC measurement Survey from models Portuguese organizations theoretical approach practical approach IC metrics systematization Measures provided by KMS to quantify IC metrics KMS CATEGORIES Main Issues & functionalities 52 software tools from different KMS categories were analyzed Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 14
  15. 15. Measures provided by KMS to quantify ICmetricsKMS categories Measures provided by KMS -Rate of knowledge availability -Rate of knowledge accessed/reutilized Knowledge Maps -Contributions to organizational knowledge base (#) -Rate of knowledge reutilized/distributed knowledge -Contributions to organizational knowledge base (#) -Projects in collaboration with external entities (#) -Projects developed in collaboration with other workgroups (#) Collaboration Systems -Rate of best practices diffusion -Questions reported and answered in forums (#) -Rate of knowledge distributed according employees profiles -Expert employees (#) -Experts with specialization degree (#) -FAQs accessed (#) Expert systems -Contributions from experts: rolls, best practices, advices, suggestions (#) -Rate of expert knowledge reutilized -Contributions to organizational bases (#) Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 15
  16. 16. Measures provided by KMS to quantify ICmetricsKMS categories Measures provided by KMS -Critical processes completed without errors (%) -Critical processes in compliance with manuals (%) Workflow systems -Processes upgraded (%) -Processes completed in time (%) -Automated business processes (%) -New patents (#) -Patents in registration (#) Knowledge discovery -Years average of registered patents systems -Rate of knowledge reutilized in new contexts -New ideas to upgrade products, services or processes (#) -New business opportunities identified by innovation processes (#) -E-learningtraining programs (#) -Hours spent in training programs E-learning systems -Employees with specialization degrees based on e-learning programs (#) -Rate of employees in training programs Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 16
  17. 17. Measures provided by KMS to quantify ICmetricsKMS categories Measures provided by KMS -Employees by group age (%) -Average age of employees -% of female and male employees -Rate of absenteeism Competence -Rate of employees rotationmanagement systems -Employees with advanced degrees -Employees satisfaction index -Average years in service -Average literacy & average literacy in IT -Recent employees (less two years) (%) -Market share in the segment -Rate of investment in new markets -Geographic customers distribution -New costumers/costumers lost (%) Business intelligence -Rate of sales to new markets -Rate of sales to new customers -Customers distribution (%): small, medium, big customers -New business opportunities captured Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 17
  18. 18. Measures provided by KMS to quantify ICmetricsKMS categories Measures provided by KMS -Accesses to knowledge repositories (#) -Contributions to knowledge repositories (#)Document management -Rate of knowledge accessed/reutilized systems -Rate of knowledge distributed according employees profiles -Rate of knowledge distributed/applied Corporative portals -Rate of knowledge accessed/reutilized Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 18
  19. 19. Model validation The model has been evaluated by an expert panel in order to test his validity. A questionnaire was sent to 40 experts (researches, practitioners and consulters) It includes 9 questions with a five-point scale 14 valid answers were received, corresponding to a response rate of 35% Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 19
  20. 20. Model validation Scale Totally Much Little Nothing Don’tQuestions know1. Do you consider the model useful? 46% 54% 0% 0% 0%2. Do you consider the modelcomprehensive? 15% 77% 8% 0% 0%3. Do you consider the model complete? 0% 50% 33% 0% 17%4. Do you agree with the model components? 8% 84% 8% 0% 0%5. Do you consider the model structurecoherent? 8% 92% 0% 0% 0%6. Do you agree with the IC measurementmodel component? 31% 61% 8% 0% 0%7. Do you agree with the KMS component? 15% 85% 0% 0% 0%8. Do you agree with the IC measurementsystem component? 8% 84% 8% 0% 0%9. Do you agree with the measures providedby KMS to quantify the IC metrics? 8% 76% 8% 0% 0% Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 20
  21. 21. Conclusions The model is an attempt to show the KMS contribution to the IC measurement, filling the gap between these systems It contributes to evaluate the success (benefits) or failure of KMS initiatives It enables a more automated and systematic IC measurement Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 21
  22. 22. Conclusions and future work Future work  Improve the model specifications  Model validation through case studies Thank you for your attention! Mário Paulo Pinto Email: mariopinto@eseig.ipp.pt Mário Paulo Pinto Maria Filomena Lopes Maria Paula Morais 22

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