Standard Indicator Activity 4


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Standard Indicator Activity 4

  1. 1. Diversity of Life: Organism Classification By Kalena Gries 12-2-09
  2. 2. Science Standard 4 – The Living Environment <ul><li>Indicator 6.4.1 – Explain that one of the most general distinctions among organisms is between green plants, which use sunlight to make their own food, and animals, which consume energy-rich foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Taken from: </li></ul><ul><li>Link to activity: </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Organism – a n individual form of life that is capable of growing, metabolizing nutrients, and usually reproducing </li></ul><ul><li>Classification – the process of placing of animals and plants in a series of increasingly specialized groups because of similarities in structure, origin, molecular composition, etc., that indicate a common relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom – the third of nine steps in classifying organisms; separates organisms into five groups </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi – one of the five kingdoms of classification; composed of complex-structured multi-celled organisms such as mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Monera – one of the five kingdoms of classification; composed of single-celled organisms such as bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall – a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located outside the cell membrane, which provides the cell with structural support, protection, and acts as a filtering mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus – the control center of a cell, which contains the cell's chromosomal DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Taken from: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background Information <ul><li>There are almost 2 million kinds of organisms on Earth. It would be hard to keep them all straight so scientists developed a system to keep everything organized and make it easier to study. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 4 th century BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle divided organisms into two groups, plants and animals, and then subdivided the animals based on how they moved—by walking, flying, or swimming. This may make you wonder what he did about animals that fit into more than one group, such as the duck. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 18 th century, a scientist named Carolus Linnaeus was the first to find a way to classify organisms into two major groups based on form: plants and animals. This helped solved Aristotle’s problem. He also developed a naming system for organisms called binomial nomenclature; humans are called Homo sapiens. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brainstorm <ul><li>On a separate sheet of paper, brainstorm some answers to the following questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some differences between plants and animals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do plants and animals obtain food? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested answers are at the end, but please try to answer the questions before looking. I want to know what you think, not what I already know. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Classify <ul><li>Look at the pictures of organisms below. On your paper, classify each one as a plant or an animal (write the name and the classification). </li></ul>German shepherd E. coli Rose bush Oak tree Lion Mushrooms Emperor Penguin
  7. 7. We need more! <ul><li>Did all of the organisms fit under the classification of plant or animal? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think there should be more than two groups to classify organisms? </li></ul><ul><li>Modern scientists have modified the Linnaean system of two groups. They decided to classify organisms based on their cell structure and how they get their food. </li></ul><ul><li>Most scientists agree that there are five major groups of organisms, or kingdoms, but we will only focus on four of the five kingdoms: Plant, Animal, Fungi, Monera, and Protista. </li></ul><ul><li>Now that you know that there are five kingdoms and not just two, go back to your organism classification answers and write the correct kingdom next to any that you missed. Do not erase your incorrect kingdom so that I can see which ones you corrected. There is an answer key at the end. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research <ul><li>Now you are going to research to find out the basic cell structure and method of getting food for each of the four kingdoms Plant (Plantae), Animal (Animalia), Fungi, and Monera. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a table like the one below (on your own paper) to record your information. For the cell structure column, tell whether the organisms in each kingdom have a cell wall, a nucleus, and whether they are multi-celled or single-celled. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your science textbook or the website below to find the information. </li></ul>Plant Monera Fungi Animal Method of Obtaining Food Cell Structure Kingdom
  9. 9. Organism Classification Summaries/Conclusions <ul><li>On your own paper, answer the following questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are bacteria and fungi not classified in the plant or animal kingdoms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer back to your table. What is the main difference between plants and animals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be sure to put all of your papers/answers back in the folder so that they can be checked. </li></ul><ul><li>There are too many organisms on Earth to not have a classification system to keep track of them all. Without it, it would be like walking into a grocery store where items are randomly placed on shelves throughout the store. Talk about confusing! It would be difficult for you to learn science without this classification system. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Resources <ul><li>Background Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism photos </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Possible Brainstorm Solutions <ul><li>What are some differences between plants and animals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most plants are green. They grow out of the ground so they can’t really move. Plants don’t eat animals but animals eat plants. Only some animals are green. Many have fur, feathers, or some other kind of outer coating. Animals can live on the ground, in the trees, or even in the air. Plants are pollinated, but animals have babies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do plants and animals obtain food? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants make their food using sunlight and a green substance called chlorophyll through a process called photosynthesis. Animals have to eat other organisms to get food. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Classify Answers <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oak tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rose bush </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor penguin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German shepherd </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E. coli </li></ul></ul>