Fever 1793 : Behind the Story Kalena Gries Educ 388
Social Stratification <ul><li>3 classes:  gentry, middle class, poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentry—could vote, owned mansio...
Facts of the Fever <ul><li>Struck Philadelphia in 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Three-month epidemic </li></ul><ul><li>Spread by ...
Hygiene <ul><li>Basically nonexistent </li></ul><ul><li>No indoor plumbing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chamber pot </li></ul></u...
Medical Care <ul><li>Crude, few trained doctors </li></ul><ul><li>No stethoscope, thermometer, or knowledge of how disease...
Markets <ul><li>No refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers brought produce, meat, eggs, cheese, milk, and bread to town ma...
Coffeehouses <ul><li>Popular in 1790s </li></ul><ul><li>Social gathering place </li></ul><ul><li>Respectable business for ...
Government <ul><li>Young government </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First home of </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Transportation <ul><li>Wagon, horse, or foot </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of kept many from leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of...
African Americans <ul><li>Most in Philadelphia were free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free but not equal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T...
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Fever 1793 Visual Response

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  • Social classes ranked by income, jobs, and land ownership
  • One of the worst epidemics in U.S. history
  • Once a month at best, more on specially occasions Many washed clothes more frequently than themselves
  • Doctors didn’t wash their tools after very often, had dried blood and dirt on them
  • Conduct business, talk politics, catch up on day’s news
  • Chaplain Jacob Duche leading the first prayer in the First Continental Congress at Carpenter&apos;s Hall, Philadelphia
  • Fever 1793 Visual Response

    1. 1. Fever 1793 : Behind the Story Kalena Gries Educ 388
    2. 2. Social Stratification <ul><li>3 classes: gentry, middle class, poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentry—could vote, owned mansions and carriages, shipped their furniture from England, wore newest clothing styles to show their importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class—owned property but not as rich, worked skilled jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cook family—probably lower middle class </li></ul>
    3. 3. Facts of the Fever <ul><li>Struck Philadelphia in 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Three-month epidemic </li></ul><ul><li>Spread by mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands fled the city, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the sick were abandoned and left to die by their family and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Killed nearly 5,000 people, 10% of the city’s population </li></ul><ul><li>Many were buried in unmarked graves in an old field </li></ul>
    4. 4. Hygiene <ul><li>Basically nonexistent </li></ul><ul><li>No indoor plumbing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chamber pot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washstand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrequent bathing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tried to fight fever with vinegar, </li></ul><ul><li>gun and cannon smoke, camphor, </li></ul><ul><li>garlic, and other herbs </li></ul><ul><li>Frost </li></ul>
    5. 5. Medical Care <ul><li>Crude, few trained doctors </li></ul><ul><li>No stethoscope, thermometer, or knowledge of how diseases spread </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Benjamin Rush vs. French doctors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury, induced vomiting and diarrhea, bleedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest, fresh air, fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fever still exists but not in U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine developed in 1930s </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Markets <ul><li>No refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers brought produce, meat, eggs, cheese, milk, and bread to town market and city dwellers bought it </li></ul><ul><li>Main source of food for city people </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of fever kept farmers from coming into the city </li></ul><ul><li>Other cities banned Philadelphians, would not give food </li></ul>
    7. 7. Coffeehouses <ul><li>Popular in 1790s </li></ul><ul><li>Social gathering place </li></ul><ul><li>Respectable business for a widow </li></ul>
    8. 8. Government <ul><li>Young government </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First home of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest city in colonies, centrally located </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from 1790 to 1800 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moved to Washington, D.C., in 1800 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Transportation <ul><li>Wagon, horse, or foot </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of kept many from leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of fever felt by pack animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owners died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little to no food </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. African Americans <ul><li>Most in Philadelphia were free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free but not equal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought to be immune to the fever </li></ul><ul><li>Free African Society (1787) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded as mutual aid organization to help widowed, ill, or out-of-work African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked tirelessly to help fever victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After epidemic, accused of overcharging and stealing from the sick but defended by mayor </li></ul></ul>

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