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Swim ppt ch14


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Swim ppt ch14

  1. 1. Chapter 14 The Child from Eighteen to Twenty- Four Months of Age ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Materials and Activities • Materials for this age group must be challenging: – As toddlers practice their gross motor skills, they develop increased competence in using them – Their finger and wrist muscles are developing so they can manipulate more complex objects – Their imaginations are expanding as they construct internal representations of their world • Materials may be homemade or commercially purchased ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Physical Development • Toddlers gain more stability and coordination – Stand, squat and stand again – Climb on everything, including stairs with assistance – Walk, run, jump with both feet – Kick balls, ride wheel toys, push and pull toys • Toddlers have increased control of fingers and wrists – Grasp and drop, twist and turn – Turn pages of books – Observe for hand dominance ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Physical Development • Provide open spaces for walking and running • Provide riding toys and riding path • Provide balls and targets for throwing • Provide music for dancing • Provide easels for painting and table for drawing • Assist child in turning pages in books • Provide tools for sand and digging • Assist when necessary with self-help skills: dressing, feeding, tooth brushing ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Cognitive and Language Development • Cognitive Development: – Toddlers are in Piaget’s substage 6 or are transitioning to the preoperational stage of development, using mental trial and error – Toddlers can remember one and two step oral directions, and may show imitation in play – Play begins to move from imitative to symbolic during this time period – Play can involve working out conflicts ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Cognitive Development • Allow time for child to figure out solutions • Allow children to help plan games, such as with hidden objects • Provide dolls and puppets for role play • Provide clothing and materials that help child to pretend to be someone else • Observe pretend play behaviors over time before making interpretations ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Cognitive and Language Development • Language Development: – Toddlers learn language through positive interactions with others – Children’s vocabulary is expanding rapidly, a language explosion – Children use their language to express needs and to direct others, seek information, etc. – Toddlers may use telegraphic speech – Shared reading should take place several times daily – Toddlers show interest in scribbling as written representation ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Language Development • Verbally label objects and actions • Speak normally and use sentences • Model social words “please” and “thank-you” • Listen to child’s expression of needs or commands • Answer child’s frequent questions • Use the child’s name when talking to him • Read books throughout the day. Demonstrate care of books • Tell stories, repeat rhymes and poems • Provide writing spaces and materials, share interest in scribbling • Display each child’s work ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Emotional Development • Toddlers interpret responses from caregivers and other children as reflecting their self- worth • Memory and other cognitive skills result in toddlers expressing more fear and stress • Emotions are felt and expressed intensely • The more enjoyable and secure relationships have been, the easier the separation process ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Emotional Development • Accept and acknowledge emotions, respond to child’s needs • Provide consistent feedback that helps the child feel good about self • Listen to a child’s fears and fantasies • Shared reading provides security and calms children’s emotional agitation • Create new routines and maintain existing routines • Explain change before it happens ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Social Development • Children of this age are continuing to develop a sense of self – I, me, mine • Toddlers are beginning to recognize other people’s feelings and they are working slowly at understanding another person’s intentions • Toddlers engage in pro-social behaviors • Toddlers are still working on showing ownership and are not yet ready to share ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Social Development • Help the toddlers to interpret the behaviors of their peers by providing descriptive language • Recognize and allow ownership of toys • Encourage toddler to interact with others, with support • Provide multiple supplies and equipment so that they can engage alongside others in parallel play • Allow child to choose if they want to trade toys • Praise a child for seeking help with challenges • Encourage toddlers to help with clean up ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Spotlight on Research • Conflicts with Peers – Young children must learn how to engage in a process of responsible decision making as they negotiate their relationships with others – Responding with strong emotions or harmful behaviors does not mean that children are aggressive or antisocial – To attribute all of their conflicts to possession minimizes their efforts ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • List three ways symbolic play helps a child develop cognitively. • Identify two possible developments in the child’s language and state two strategies for each that a caregiver can use to facilitate that development. • Provide examples of how routines can be used to help children deal with emotional stress. • Chris and Marlin both pick up a car and start pulling on it. What can you do and say that shows appropriate understanding of each child’s needs and desires? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.