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The Value of Fall Hazard Risk Assessments

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Fall hazard risk assessments are foundational for an effective fall protection program. This presentation explains benefits and best practices for conducting fall hazard risk assessments.

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  • Thanks for the feedback. At LJB, we use a very specialized form that corresponds to our proprietary database and risk formula. Our process and formula allow you to get a true risk ranking, from greatest risk to least risk. We'd be happy to talk to you about this and how it could help your organization. Otherwise, you can use some of the fall factors discussed in the presentation to develop your own form. Thanks again for reviewing our presentation.
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  • This was a well done presentation. Does anyone have a source for a good risk assessment form specific to fall protection?
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The Value of Fall Hazard Risk Assessments

  1. 1. THE VALUE OF FALL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENTS January 30, 2015 Moderator: Speaker: KIM MESSER THOMAS E. KRAMER, P.E., C.S.P. KMesser@LJBinc.com TKramer@LJBinc.com
  2. 2. 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain the basic elements of a fall hazard risk assessment Discuss the benefits of performing an assessment
  3. 3. 3 AGENDA Background Fall hazard risk assessment Benefits of assessment Case studies Closing
  4. 4. 4 TOTAL FALL FATALITIES Source: BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries 573 607 652 623 634 659 698 638 604 738 664 738 733 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Fatalities 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 Year
  5. 5. 5 TOTAL FALL FATALITIES Source: BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries 573 607 652 623 634 659 698 638 604 738 664 738 733 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Fatalities 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 Year +28%
  6. 6. 6 WHY PERFORM AN ASSESSMENT? Make the most effective investment in fall protection Achieve compliance
  7. 7. 7 FINANCIAL REASONS Fall protection is cost intensive > Overhead systems > PPE > Other, low risk hazards Abate most risk with given budget Know when you are done
  8. 8. 8 COMPLIANCE REASONS – OSHA Proposed subpart D & I – OSHA 1910 > Hazard surveys required under 1910.132 > Required for categories of falls listed under subpart D I2P2 proposed regulation > Injury and Illness Prevention Program > Focus on assessments, not how to abate hazards already identified
  9. 9. 9 COMPLIANCE REASONS – OTHER ANSI Z359.2 standard > Required for all tasks exposing workers to fall hazard > Surveys must include identification of possible abatements Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) > Management Leadership and Employee Involvement > Worksite Analysis > Hazard Prevention and Control > Safety and Health Training
  10. 10. 10 GETTING TO KNOW YOUR RISK Do nothing Methods
  11. 11. 11 GETTING TO KNOW YOUR RISK Do nothing Methods 1. Suggestion programs 2. Statistics 3. Job hazard analysis 4. Facility walk-through 5. Wall-to-wall fall hazard risk assessment
  12. 12. 12 Suggestion programs >Areas of keen interest >Frequently accessed/hazardous areas >Larger group >Continuous improvement METHODS
  13. 13. 13 Statistics >Bureau of Labor Statistics (bls.gov) METHODS
  14. 14. 14 FALL FATALITIES BY WORK ACTIVITY 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Roofs Ladders Scaffolds Non-moving vehicles StrucSteel Source: BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
  15. 15. 15 Statistics >Bureau of Labor Statistics (bls.gov) >NIOSH FACE reports Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation >Industry-wide incidents >Organization-wide incidents METHODS
  16. 16. 16 Job hazard analysis >Typically developed after hazard is identified >No analysis of risk relative to other hazards METHODS
  17. 17. 17 Facility walk-through >Competent or qualified person >Identifies typical hazards >Prioritize typical hazards >Estimate abatement cost >Specific to job function (internal) >Objective set of eyes (external) METHODS
  18. 18. 19 Wall-to-wall fall hazard risk assessment >Competent or qualified person >Objective set of eyes >Comprehensive vs. typical >Management of data >PREFERRED METHODS
  19. 19. 20 Suggestion programs Facility walk-through Statistics Wall-to-wall facility survey METHODS Job Safety Analysis
  20. 20. 21 AGENDA Background Fall hazard risk assessment Benefits of assessment Case studies Closing
  21. 21. 22 BASIC ELEMENTS 1. Find out what and where the true issues are 2. Assess risk through priorities and abatement options 3. Select and implement the appropriate solution
  22. 22. 23 BASIC ELEMENTS 1. Find out what and where the true issues are > Involve facility personnel • Kick-off meeting • Incentive programs • Each unit
  23. 23. 24 BASIC ELEMENTS 1. Find out what and where the true issues are > Conduct fall hazard survey • Task descriptions and exposures • Photograph hazards • Hazard data – Location – Type of task – Category – Level or elevation – Department
  24. 24. 25 WHAT IS CONSIDERED A HAZARD? Proposed 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D&I § 1910.28 Duty to have fall protection § 1910.29 Fall protection systems criteria and practices Hazard surveys required under 1910.132 and the categories of falls listed under subpart D
  25. 25. 26 HAZARD LOCATIONS § 1910.28 Duty to have fall protection > (b) Protection from fall hazards 1. Unprotected sides and edges 2. Hoist areas 3. Holes 4. Dockboards (bridge plates) 5. Runways and similar walkways 6. Dangerous equipment
  26. 26. 27 HAZARD LOCATIONS § 1910.28 Duty to have fall protection (cont.) 7. Wall openings 8. Repair, service, and assembly pits (pits) less than 10 feet in depth 9. Fixed ladders 10.Outdoor advertising (billboards) 11.Stairways 12.Scaffolds (including rope descent systems) 13.Walking-working surfaces not otherwise addressed 14.Protection for floor holes
  27. 27. 28 HAZARD LOCATIONS § 1910.29 Fall protection systems criteria and practices > (b) Guardrail systems > (c) Safety net systems > (d) Designated areas > (e) Covers > (f) Handrail and stair rail systems
  28. 28. 29 HAZARD LOCATIONS § 1910.29 Fall protection systems criteria and practices (cont.) > (g) Cages, wells, and platforms used with fixed ladders > (h) Qualified Climbers > (i) Ladder safety systems > (j) Personal fall protection systems > (k) Protection from falling objects
  29. 29. 30 BASIC ELEMENTS 2. Assess risk through priorities and abatement options > Develop risk assessment • Probability – Number of workers exposed – Frequency of exposure – Duration of work – Environmental conditions • Severity – Fall distance – Obstructions in path of fall
  30. 30. 31 Hazard Probability Hazard Severity Frequently (A) Probably (B) Potential (C) Unlikely (D) Fatal - Cat. IV 1 1 2 3 TTD - Cat. III 1 2 3 4 Minor Injury - Cat. II 2 3 4 5 Violation Cat. I 3 4 5 5 RISK ASSESSMENT CODES
  31. 31. 32 SIMPLE HAZARD SCORE SHEET Rating Severity of Injury Probability of Fall (Odds of occurring) 1 First Aid Very Low (1/1,000,000) 3 Recordable Low (1/10,000 – 1/1,000,000) 7 Disabling Injury Medium (1/100 – 1/10,000) 10 Potentially Fatal High (1 in 100)
  32. 32. 33 BASIC ELEMENTS 2. Assess risk through priorities and abatement options > Evaluate abatement option • Low-hanging fruit – Aerial lifts – Scaffold – Swing gates • Total cost of solution • Cost vs. risk • Hierarchy of control
  33. 33. 34 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL
  34. 34. 35 AGENDA Background Fall hazard risk assessment Benefits of assessment Case studies Closing
  35. 35. 36 WHERE IS YOUR GREATEST RISK?
  36. 36. 37 Hazard Probability Hazard Severity Frequently (A) Probably (B) Potential (C) Unlikely (D) Fatal - Cat. IV 1 1 2 3 TTD - Cat. III 1 2 3 4 Minor Injury - Cat. II 2 3 4 5 Violation Cat. I 3 4 5 5 RISK ASSESSMENT CODES
  37. 37. 38 SIMPLE HAZARD SCORE SHEET Rating Severity of Injury Probability of Fall (Odds of occurring) 1 First Aid Very Low (1/1,000,000) 3 Recordable Low (1/10,000 – 1/1,000,000) 7 Disabling Injury Medium (1/100 – 1/10,000) 10 Potentially Fatal High (1 in 100)
  38. 38. 39 WHERE IS YOUR GREATEST RISK? 1 2 3 … Hazard Rank …5206 Risk
  39. 39. 40 BENEFITS OF ASSESSMENT Validated program budget > Report cost-benefit metrics to management Phased implementation plan Development of procedures Customized training
  40. 40. 41 NOW THAT YOU KNOW YOUR RISK…. 3. Select and implement the appropriate solution for the highest risk hazards > Conceptual design > Final design > Construction/Implementation > Additional training
  41. 41. 42 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
  42. 42. 43 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
  43. 43. 44 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
  44. 44. 45 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
  45. 45. 46 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
  46. 46. 47 CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS
  47. 47. 48 HAZARD CONTROL
  48. 48. 49 AGENDA Background Fall hazard risk assessment Benefits of assessment Case studies Closing
  49. 49. 50 INSTITUTIONAL CAMPUS ASSESSMENT Campus-wide risk assessment
  50. 50. 51 INSTITUTIONAL CAMPUS ASSESSMENT Campus-wide risk assessment > 100+ structures surveyed on 350-acre site > Interiors and exteriors, including roofs and process equipment > Nearly 2,500 hazards documented > Organized data by maintenance type, by request
  51. 51. 52 FINDINGS Total hazards = 2,579 > Handrail/guardrail = 969 > Maintenance access to equipment = 918 > Non-compliant ladders = 688 Hazard breakdown by maintenance type: > Institutional: 38% > Process: 33% > Facility: 29%
  52. 52. 53 FINDINGS Preferred Solution for Top 100 Hazards Other 11% Guardrail 18% Fixed Platform 24% Aerial Lift 27% Scaffold 20%
  53. 53. 54 REFINERY ASSESSMENT Facility-wide risk assessment
  54. 54. 55 REFINERY ASSESSMENT Facility-wide risk assessment > Objective set of eyes on the entire facility > Client had ability to sort hazards from greatest risk to lowest risk as well as by probable cost of the abatement • Focus budget on high risk items • Still able to pick off some low hanging fruit > Able to combine abatements and address multiple hazards with one solution
  55. 55. 56 WHERE IS YOUR GREATEST RISK? 1 2 3 … Hazard Rank …5206 Risk
  56. 56. 57 WHERE IS YOUR GREATEST RISK? 1 2 3 … Hazard Rank …5206 Risk 32% of risk in top 1% of hazards 77% of risk in top 10% of hazards 98% of risk in top 50% of hazards
  57. 57. 58 WHERE IS YOUR GREATEST RISK? Hazard Rank Risk ONLY 2% of the risk, but 25% of abatement cost
  58. 58. 59 CLOSING Ultimate goals > Reduce risk and increase safety for workers at heights > Use your available budget to decrease as much risk as possible
  59. 59. 60 THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME To learn more about fall protection from LJB Inc. Blog > http://www.ljbfallprotectionblog.com Podcasts – 60 Seconds for Safety > http://www.ljbinc.com/safetybydesign YouTube video > http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dk7F8UJxnLU
  60. 60. THE VALUE OF FALL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENTS January 30, 2015 Moderator: Speaker: KIM MESSER THOMAS E. KRAMER, P.E., C.S.P. KMesser@LJBinc.com TKramer@LJBinc.com

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