Traditionally thought of as a women’s issue, we need to better inform ourselves of our immediate resrouces and see how those resources are equipped to deal with victims from many communities. A lot of our stats reflect women, white women, reporting, with men as the perpetrators, but do these accurately the human epidemic of violence in our caompus and community?
**Las vegas has very few resources for victims of DV and SA
= severe under reporting, intersection of youth communities and violence as well as ethnicity, no account for more than one gender… this is one way we work thru ASERTAV
This leads into the low reporting on campus but high reporting of college age victims to the rape crisis center
**Gender stereotypes undermine, dismiss or justify the experience of violence based on the race and gender stereotype **Culture blaming refers to a belief by mainstream society that entire cultures are “more likely” to permit violence based on ethnicity. This becomes problematic because it forces us to think violence happens more often in certain communities
Intimidation. Isolation, citizenship or residency privilege, coercion, threats, children… Lying about her immigration status. Calling her racist names. Telling her that he has abandoned her culture and become &quot;white,&quot; or &quot;American.“ Hiding or destroying important papers (i.e. her passport, her children's passports, ID cards, health care cards, etc.) Destroying the only property that she brought with her from her home country. Destroying photographs of her family members. Threatening persons who serve as a source of support for her. Threatening to do or say something that will shame her family or cause them to lose face. Threatening to divulge family secrets. Preventing her from visiting sick or dying relatives. Lying about his ability to have the immigration status of his lawful permanent resident abuse victims changed.
in recognition of the large Latino/a population in Las Vegas has developed “Problemas dos Todos” a community outreach program that brings RCC advocates to community centers and churches located in areas of the city with a large Latino/a demographic **At UNLV both PAAVE and the JNWC strive to incorporate cultural competent language into the peer training curriculum
Resources on Campus and the Community: Marginalized Communitiesand Interpersonal Violence 2011 PAAVE Presentation Karoline Khamis Violence Prevention Coordinator at JNWC
Introduction The goal of this discussion is to “shift the focus” of dominant conceptualizations of violence that maintain an idea of victims/survivors as typically white, heterosexual women. In addition, we aim to provide students with knowledge of campus and community initiatives for victims of violence. Ultimately, we aim to broaden the discussion of violence in different communities to effectively address violence as a social epidemic.
Overview Definitions Statistics Resources Violence in marginalized communities Cultural competency
The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center The only on campus resource for referrals to community organizations Four on-staff, certified advocates (Christina Hernandez, Karoline Khamis, Treasure Watanabe, Crystal Jackson– 895-4475) Member of ASERTAV task force Oversees all violence prevention programming on campus Provides twice a year peer education training (PAAVE) on domestic violence and sexual assault **October 2011 training for PAAVE and hotline volunteers
Theoretical Framework Intersectionality - focuses on the intersections of race and gender and other personal identities and aims to provide visibility to those identities and experiences of multiple social identities Extend the intersections to include the experience of domestic violence and sexual assault
Definitions Sexual Assault: a broader category that the Justice Department uses to classify rape, attempted rape and other violent felonies that fall short of rape (which is defined as strictly forced vaginal, anal or oral penetration) Assault/Battering: “Physical assault is a behavior that threatens, attempts, or actually inflicts physical harm, ranging from slapping and hitting to using a gun” (US Justice Department)
Definitions Marginalized: We use this term as a blanket term to encompass social identities that are not dominant and central in our society. This includes but is not limited to – race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, citizen status, class, physical and mental ability, age etc. Advocates: Go through extensive training to work directly with victims/survivors every step of the reporting and court processes immediately following experiences of violence.
When is a relationship abusive? Many different forms of violence in a relationship Often are dismissed as “isolated” or “random” acts of anger Media images contribute to a social complicity of violence and often portrays signs of violence in relationships as signals of “passion” or “lust” Signs of abuse overlap and escalate
Verbal signs of abuse Has the abuser… Called you stupid or insulted your intelligence? Criticized your appearance? Told you that you could never leave him/her? Told you that you could be easily replaced? Said that no one else would want you?
Emotional signs of abuse Has the abuser… Ridiculed or insulted your gender as a group? Ridiculed your beliefs, morals, race, religion or heritage? Humiliated you in public OR private? Insulted or driven away your friends or family? Manipulated you with lies or contradictions? Threatened to hurt themselves if you left?
Physical signs of abuse Has the abuser… Held or restrained you to keep you from leaving? Slapped or pushed you? Locked you out of the house? Refused to help you when you were sick, injured or pregnant? Forced or aggressively pressured you to consume alcohol or drugs?
Sexual signs of abuse Has the abuser… Forced you to strip when you didn’t want to? Been jealous or angry, assuming you have had sex with someone else? Criticized you sexually? Forced you into unwanted sex? Withheld sex and affection? Insisted on uncomfortable or unwanted touching?
Financial forms of abuse Has the abuser… Taken credit cards/checks/money away as a form of punishment? Forced you to hand over money or your paychecks? Refused to tell you about bills? Are they the only one “allowed” to work? Taken your name off crucial documents (insurance, leases) to prevent your access to them? Drained your bank account?
Effects on Victims Can be short or long term Cutting/ self-mutilation Eating disorders Depression Alcohol and substance abuse Re-entrance into a violent relationship Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Academic Career
Same Sex (LGBTQ) Abuse Abuse in relationships is any pattern of behavior that is used to coerce, dominate or isolate the other partner to gain control Abuse knows no boundary concerning race, class, gender, sexual orientation etc. Remember, violence may take a different form in different communities but that does not make one form more important than another
Types of Victimization Hate Crimes Difficult at times to ascertain whether the crime was, in fact, motivated by the person’s sexual orientation. 14th Amendment: Every citizen has equal protection under the law More judgment on the person’s sexual orientation than on the attacker
Types of Victimization Sexual Violence By stranger By known individual By significant other ‘Fact’ Finding and research: Heterosexism is at work because it is typically a heterosexual model upon which findings are based.
Types of Victimization Domestic Violence Remember, DV is about power and control. May be especially difficult for lesbian victim Size does not matter Verbal and emotional abuse can be compounded for the lesbian/gay/trans victim/survivor Threats to “out” the person Threats to disclose HIV/AIDS status Not “easier to leave” Individuals may be more intertwined with each other’s lives What happens in DV shelters?
Types of Victimization:Everyday Occurrences of InterpersonalViolence Invisibility/Isolation Qualifiers Subject to gay jokes/degrading comments Presumption of heterosexuality Threats to “disown” by family Partner Exclusion Perceived danger to children Name calling Forced sexual acts (rape) to “make” them straight
Types of Victimization:Barriers to Reporting Victimization Threat of being “outed” when an LGBTQ person is abused Concerned about betraying the LGBTQ community when reporting Homophobia intersects with possible sexism and racism for LGBTQ victims/survivors Institutionalized homophobia affects the support services victims/survivors receive Shelters are often not available to men, while women may not feel safe if their abuser has access Victims of same-sex sexual violence are not necessarily LGBTQ Lack of knowledge about LGBTQ sexual violence affects victims/survivors, educators, and support services
LGBTQ Abuse Similarities 1. Abuse is always the responsibility of the abuser. It is their choice. 2. Victims are often blamed for the abuse by their partner, and by society 3. It is difficult for victims to leave their relationship. 4. Victims often feel responsible for their abuse. 5. Abuse escalates over time. 6. The abuser is often apologetic after abusing, giving false hope that the abuse will stop.
LGBTQ Abuse Differences 1. There are limited resources available for abused and abusive LGBTQ people. 2. Homophobia in society denies the reality of some same sex relationships, including their very existence, let alone abuse. 3. Shelters for women may not be sensitive to a victim of same sex assault. 4. Gay/Bi/Trans men have even fewer options for help. 5. Reporting may result in a feeling or experience of being excluded from the LGBTQ community.
Cultural Competency & Statistics The experience of violence carries much stigma in our society but there are other barriers that contribute to the lack of reporting: Lack of adequate services available Services that lack necessary tools to properly assess violence in marginalized communities Lack of sensitivity training for resource providers
The Rape Crisis Center of Southern Nevada Gender: Female – 97% Male – 3% Race/Ethnicity: White – 58% Latino/Hispanic – 18% Black – 16% Asian – 3% Bi-racial – 2% Native – <1% Unknown/Other – <1% 43% of the total 833 reported victims in 2007 were between the ages of 19-29.
UNLV Police Services Reports of Forcible Sex Offenses on Campus 2007 – 3 2008 – 1 2009 – 2 2010 – 1 *Often times these crimes occur and are reported outside of the jurisdiction of UNLV.
LGBTQ Statistics Substantial lack of current research in this area Domestic violence occurs in LGBTQ relationships with the same severity and frequency as in heterosexual relationships Consistent abuse occurs in as many as 1 in 3 relationships At least one episode of abuse occurs in 1 in 2 relationships Lesbians are more likely to report sexual violence than gay men 1 in 2 transgender individuals have experienced sexual violence (FORGE)
Race, Gender and ViolenceHow are the experiences of marginalized communities concerning sexual assault and domestic violence both perceived and treated in our society? Reporting is a “betrayal” to the community Differing gender stereotypes (black women as “too strong”, hypersexualization of Asian women) “That’s just how they are” – culture blaming How do stereotypes and cultural practices hinder one’s ability to access adequate resources? Language barriers Service locations Advocate and service provider visibility Institutionalized racism Citizenship status – fear of deportation
Violence and Im/Migrants The two most common forms of abuse experienced by immigrant women are intimate partner violence and exploitative work conditions. • Domestic violence and sexual assault commonly occur in the home, at immigrant detention centers, and on the job. • Exploitative work conditions include, but are not limited to: • poor wages • unlimited work hours with no rest days and limited breaks • lack of health benefits • isolation from the outside world • substandard physical environments. Immigrant women might also experience sexual, physical, emotional, or psychological abuse at the hands of their employers. www.ncrwbigfive.org
Culturally Competent Responses As much as the experience of violence is isolating, services must reflect societal demographics to adequately serve a diverse community to prevent further isolation. How can this be achieved?
Cultural Competency PAAVE – Since January 2009, training included a session on cultural competency Jean Nidetch Women’s Center – programming on sexual assault and domestic violence infused into racial identity months (and LGBT pride, Women’s history months, and Disability Recognition as well!)
Latin@ Resources & Outreach Mapping" Latina/os in NV and Clark County Challenges in capturing SA stats on Latina/os and conducting Latina/o outreach Cultural competent programs: what are we talking about...? "Problema de Todos"- Sexual assault community outreach program Resources
LGBTQ Resources & Outreach The LGBTQ Center of Las Vegas NV Partnership for Homeless Youth JNWC UNLV Community United Against Violence (CUAV) 24 hr crisis line: 415-333-HELP (4357) www.cuav.org Matthew’s Place www.matthewshepard.org Trevor Helpline: 1-866-4-U-TREVOR GLBT National Youth Talkline: 1-800-246-PRIDE (7743) National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs 212-714-1184 www.ncavp.org FORGE: For Ourselves: Reworking Gender Expression www.forge-forward.org
Rethinking Violence: Myths vs. Facts MYTHS FACTS Violence only affects a small 25-50% of all women are part of the population abused. Battering deaths are more common than cancer and car accidents combined Fights in relationships Disagreements occur but are normal and natural “heated” arguments must be analyzed for signs of violence
Myths vs. Facts Sexual assault & domestic violence Sexual assault & domestic do occur in LGBTQ relationships Domestic violence occurs in LGBTQ violence dont occur in LGBTQ relationships as frequently and as severely as it does in heterosexual relationships (denial) relationships Level of trauma of sexual violence is not defined by whether or not the weapon was a penis LGBTQ survivors also need support in healing Some key dynamics of domestic violence are the same in all relationships (violence is about power & control, violence occurs in a cycle, violence escalates over time, etc.
Myths vs. Facts Sexual & domestic violence There is nothing inherently occurs in LGBTQ relationships unhealthy about these because there is something relationships inherently unhealthy with these People do not abuse because they relationships are LGBTQ (or heterosexual). People abuse to have power & control over another person. LGBTQ people can have healthy relationships
Myths vs. Facts The bigger, more masculine or Size, masculinity/femininity and masculine identified person is gender identity are not causes of always the abusive partner in a abuse and do not determine who domestic violence relationship is the abusive partner Sexual and domestic violence does not occur in butch/femme relationships more frequently
Myths vs. Facts Sexual and domestic violence in In all relationships, both partners LGBTQ relationships is "mutual" can have unhealthy behavior. But (both partners are abusive to each in domestic violence relationships, other) mutual abuse rarely happens. Its easier for an LGBTQ person The reasons why it is difficult to to leave an abusive relationship leave an abusive relationship are similar for all abusive relationships. Homo/bi/transphobic & heterosexism also contribute to difficulties leaving an abusive relationship
Myths vs. Facts Sexual & domestic violence Sexual & domestic violence occurs in LGBTQ relationships does not occur in LGBTQ that engage in SM play more relationships that engage in frequently SM play more frequently SM play is sexual and domestic SM play is consensual so it is violence not abuse Children are never an issue in LGBTQ people have LGBTQ relationships children in their lives
Conclusion The small amount of local resources must include cultural competency in order to address violence as a larger social epidemic Violence transcends all identity categories. It’s necessary to examine the specific manifestations of violence in each individual and intersecting community.
Resources on and off campus The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center SSC A RM 255, 895-4475 Counseling and Psychological Services SWRC Third floor, 895-3627 Police Services Confidential reporting: 895-3668 The Rape Crisis Center 24 hr hotline: 366-1640 S.A.F.E House 24 hr hotline: 564-3227 Nevada Network Against Domestic Violence: http://www.nnadv.org/