History of Psychology McGourty


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Mrs. McGourty's AP Psychology Assignment. Complete the fill-in handout as you view this powerpoint. Due Wednesday, September 7th.

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History of Psychology McGourty

  1. 1. The History of Psychology Mrs. McGourty
  2. 2. When did we recognize that mental health was important? <ul><li>387 BC Plato states “know Thyself” </li></ul>
  3. 4. Plato and Aristotle <ul><li>Plato suggested that the brain is the mechanism of all mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle suggested that the heart is the mechanism of all mental processes </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Middle Ages <ul><li>People with mental illnesses were thought to have been possessed by evil spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>People were not treated for their illness, but in order to expel the demons. </li></ul><ul><li>Trephining: Dates back to Pre-Historic (Drilling hole in skull to release demons) </li></ul><ul><li>Many ended up dying in a gruesome way. </li></ul>
  5. 9. The Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Search for scientific meaning in all aspects of life </li></ul><ul><li>Mesmer: Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Pinel: DEMANDED humane treatment of the mentally challenged </li></ul>
  6. 10. Phillipe Pinel 1774 AD <ul><li>Phillipe Pinel, a French Doctor, released the first mental patients from confinement. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, most mentally ill patients were chained to a wall or room (no kidding!) </li></ul><ul><li>Pinel began the first massive movement for more humane treatment of the mentally ill. </li></ul>
  7. 14. Wilhelm Wundt-1879 <ul><li>Known as the father of modern day psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Opened the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig, marking the beginning of the formal study of human behaviors, emotions and cognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Structuralism: Studied the basic elements of consciousness </li></ul>
  8. 16. William James 1890’s <ul><li>Along with John Dewey </li></ul><ul><li>Published “Principles of Psychology” </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey: Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism: Mental processes help/cause human beings to adapt to their everyday environment </li></ul>
  9. 18. Phineas Gage <ul><li>Gage suffered brain damage when an iron pole pierced his brain and stuck in his head. </li></ul><ul><li>His personality changed completely but his intellect remained intact suggesting that there is a part of the brain which controlls personality. </li></ul>
  10. 20. Sigmund Freud: 1886 <ul><li>Freud began performing TALK THERAPY in Vienna, marking the beginning of PERSONALITY THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>In 1900 he published The Interpretation of Dreams , marking the beginning of psychoanalytical thought </li></ul>
  11. 22. Turn of the Century Strides: Behavioral Psychology <ul><li>1906: Pavlov- Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Thorndike: Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>1913: John Watson began to expand the field of behavioral psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung departed from Freud and created Analytical Psychology </li></ul>
  12. 23. Mid Century Strides in Psychology <ul><li>Piaget: Pioneers the field of Child Development and Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers: Counseling Psychology and Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Horney: Feminist view of Freud’s Personality Theories. She and many others expanded the field towards women and claimed that Freud was sexist in his views. </li></ul>
  13. 30. Mid-Century Strides (Continued) <ul><li>Erikson: Moral Development and Child Development (Also: Personality) </li></ul><ul><li>BF Skinner: Added to Behavior Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow: Humanist/Existential Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Festinger: Social Psychology (Sociology) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later Cultural and socio-cultural influences </li></ul></ul>
  14. 31. Slow Progress??? <ul><li>In 1938 Psychologists started using electric shock therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Lobotomies were commonly used to control aggressive people with mental handicaps </li></ul><ul><li>Many mentally ill people were sent to asylums to be hidden from society </li></ul><ul><li>Even people with low IQ’s and mental retardation were sent to asylums </li></ul><ul><li>Often the conditions were terrible. </li></ul>
  15. 39. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1945 <ul><li>The field begins to grow, and with the publishing of the journal, psychology finally becomes a respected science. </li></ul>
  16. 40. 1953: Ethics <ul><li>The Code of Ethics for Psychologists was developed by the American Psychological Association </li></ul><ul><li>Still, at this time, mentally challenged people were being voluntarily sterilized (by parents permission) in many institutions all over the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>It still happens in some parts of the world (Indonesia). </li></ul>
  17. 42. Recent Advances <ul><li>1952: Medications such as Thorazine for schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>DSM Published by the APA </li></ul><ul><li>Today: DSM IV </li></ul><ul><li>2103 : DSM V </li></ul><ul><li>1967: Beck’s studies on depression </li></ul>
  18. 44. 1970’s to the Present <ul><li>Medication Studies: Ex. Zoloft </li></ul><ul><li>Group Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Push for mandatory mental health care coverage </li></ul><ul><li>E-THERAPY?????????? </li></ul>