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Ph chem chap 18 - rates of reaction b

Reaction Rates, things that affect reaction rates, gibbs energy, le chatlier principal

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Reaction Rates
and
Equilibrium
Essential Question:
How is the rate of a chemical
change expressed, and what
four factors influence the rate
of a chemical reaction?
Rates of Reaction
Reaction Rates
• The speed of chemical reactions
can vary from instantaneous to
extremely slow.
• A rate is a measure of the speed
of any change per interval time.
• Reaction rate = amount of
reactant changing per unit time.
Collision Theory
• Particles react when they collide
with one another.
• The collision must have
sufficient kinetic energy to break
existing bonds.
• This minimum energy is called
activation energy.
Energy Diagrams
Energy Diagrams
• Activation Energy – minimum
energy that colliding particles
must have in order to react.
• Activated Complex – unstable
arrangement of atoms that
forms momentarily
• Transition State – synonym for
the activated complex

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Ph chem chap 18 - rates of reaction b

  • 2. Essential Question: How is the rate of a chemical change expressed, and what four factors influence the rate of a chemical reaction? Rates of Reaction
  • 3. Reaction Rates • The speed of chemical reactions can vary from instantaneous to extremely slow. • A rate is a measure of the speed of any change per interval time. • Reaction rate = amount of reactant changing per unit time.
  • 4. Collision Theory • Particles react when they collide with one another. • The collision must have sufficient kinetic energy to break existing bonds. • This minimum energy is called activation energy.
  • 6. Energy Diagrams • Activation Energy – minimum energy that colliding particles must have in order to react. • Activated Complex – unstable arrangement of atoms that forms momentarily • Transition State – synonym for the activated complex
  • 7. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates • Temperature • Concentration • Particle Size • Presence of a catalyst (or inhibitor)
  • 8. Effect of a Catalyst
  • 9. Essential Question • How do the amounts of reactants and products change at equilibrium, and what three stresses can cause a change in the equilibrium position? Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium
  • 10. At Chemical Equilibrium • Products are being formed… • …reactants are being formed… • …but no net change occurs in the actual amounts of either the reactants or products.
  • 13. Equilibrium Position • Expresses the relative concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium. A B A B 1% 99% 99% 1% Certain factors can affect this position
  • 14. Le Châtelier’s Principle • “If a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system changes in a way that relieves the stress.”
  • 15. Equilibrium Constants • The ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium • Each concentration is raised to a power equal to their coefficient in a balance chemical equation.
  • 17. What Keq Tells Us • Keq greater than 1 means that products are favored • Keq less than 1 means that reactants are favored • Keq equal to 1 means that products and reactants are equally favored
  • 18. Factors Affecting Equilibrium • Changes in concentration of reactants or products • Changes in temperature • Changes in pressure (of gases)
  • 22. Effect of Pressure on Equilibrium
  • 23. Essential Question • What does the solubility product constant tell you about the solubility of a compound, and how can you predict whether a precipitate will form when salt solutions are mixed? Solubility Equilibrium
  • 24. Solubility Product Constant • Takes the same form as equilibrium constants • AgCl(s) Ag→ + (aq) + Cl− (aq)
  • 26. Common Ion Effect • Lowering the solubility of an ionic compound as a result of the addition of a common ion • If the product of the concentrations of two ions in the mixture is greater than Ksp of the compound formed from the ions, a precipitate will form.
  • 27. Essential Question • What two factors determine the spontaneity of a reaction, and what are the characteristics of spontaneous reactions? Entropy and Free Energy
  • 28. Spontaneous Reactions • Occur naturally and favor the formation of products • Produce substantial amounts of products at equilibrium
  • 29. Nonspontaneous Reactions • Does not favor the formation of products • Do not produce substantial amounts of products at equilibrium • Note: Speed is NOT a factor
  • 30. Entropy Changes • A measure of the disorder of a system • Law of Disorder: the natural tendency is for systems to move in the direction of maximum disorder or randomness • An increase in entropy favors spontaneous chemical reactions
  • 33. Enthalpy Changes • The decrease in enthalpy (exothermic reactions) indicates a spontaneous reaction. • An increase in enthalpy (endothermic reactions) indicates a non-spontaneous reaction.
  • 34. Gibbs Free-Energy • The maximum amount of energy that can be use to do work. • ΔG is negative in spontaneous reactions because the system loses free energy.
  • 36. Essential Question • What does the specific rate constant, k, communicate and how does one interpret a reaction progress curve? The Progress of Reactions
  • 37. Specific Rate Constant • The value of the specific rate constant, k, is large if the products form quickly • The value is small if the products form slowly.