Teaching Kids and Students


Published on

Teaching kids and students with limited technical backgrounds requires an interactive hands-on approach. This presentation gives some tips for being successful in the classroom.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This slide must be left in for AIA accreditation.
  • This slide must be left in for AIA accreditation.
  • This slide must be left in for AIA accreditation.
  • This is what we want our students to think when they leave our course.
  • Students may come from very diverse backgrounds and may not have any previous experience with engineering, architecture, or the construction industry.
  • Do not take teaching skills for granted. It is difficult to manage an effective classroom.
  • Long classes present a major challenge.
  • Students will loose focus after about 15 minutes. Change activities frequently. Don’t be afraid to go back to an activity that was working well, as a way to reinforce concepts.
  • Try to engage each student. Don’t let the teacher’s pet dominate. Find ways of letting the students self-police those not paying attention.
  • Divide and conquer.
  • Make sure that all students participate in group work. Provide incentive for leaders to demand participation of their teammates.
  • Everybody makes mistakes at the blackboard. Don’t feel overwhelmed or put on the spot. Engage the students and encourage them to be active participants in your lectures.
  • Don’t set unrealistic expectations. Understand the difficulty of the material for beginners. Focus on concepts over number crunching.
  • Focus your lessons on these four points.
  • Vocabulary is very important. Be careful about using engineering jargon before explaining what if means. Don’t take any terms for granted.
  • Basic concepts are easy to illustrate with fun graphics and demonstrations
  • Ask students to compute the density of a material by weighing and measuring a sample.
  • Throw in a location, see how they adjust for the change in gravity. Give some other examples of design live loads and ask students to interpolate other scenarios from them.
  • Find creative ways to get students out of their seats on occasion. Ask them to make decisions in class and get immediate feedback.
  • Many students believe that engineering is all about looking up the right equation is some massive volume. Break that stereotype and emphasize concepts. Be prepared to give reasons for every part of an equation that you put up on the board.
  • Students love real examples. Attempt to use lots of visuals. Take them for a walk and point out all the structure. A walking tour is probably the easiest class you can prepare for.
  • Ask them to make the kinds of decisions that you do. Encourage them to consider the effects of architectural decisions on structure.
  • Computer programs can help illustrate concepts, but don’t get too carried away. These are best when each student is able to work in the program individually. Be ware of software glitches and OS conflicts.
  • In less than an hour students can be designing realistic bridges. It’s a real winner (but only for PC).
  • If you’re going to break samples, have the students assist in creating the specimines.
  • Design challenges really energize the class. The students will remember these lessons.
  • Do not underestimate the value of a good text book. Many students are eager to have a reference that they can thumb through (even the Millenials). Students rarely check out the websites that you recommend.
  • ASCE has some fantastic resources for outreach and teaching to pre-college students. Email outreach@asce.org or go to http://www.asce.org/kids
  • Be clear on your requirements. Students will try to take advantage of poor instructions. Expect messy work unless you set a strong policy up front for neatness.
  • This slide must be left in for AIA accreditation.
  • This slide must be left in for AIA accreditation.
  • Teaching Kids and Students

    1. 1. <ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Maschke, P.E, Project Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Yasmin Rehmanjee, P.E., S.E., Project Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>November 19, 2008 </li></ul>Engineers Teaching Structural Principles To Architecture Students
    2. 2. <ul><li>Thornton Tomasetti Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. </li></ul><ul><li>This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Copyright Materials </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>© Thornton Tomasetti Inc. 2008 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Teaching considerations when students have non-technical backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Key teaching points for structures </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple parallel teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing/ attention span </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate projects and tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>The idea that we could help shape things – all that was in the air.” </li></ul> Image by Santiago Calatrava LLC “ I realized that engineering was more than calculating. I became intrigued with the way that forces shaped things, the way you assemble structures in series. ~ Cecil Balmond, Structural Engineer
    6. 6. The Instructors <ul><li>Practicing Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>3 - 8 years of work experience </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Masters Degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring experience </li></ul>Kevin Jackson JiYoung Moon Mark Koenigs Yasmin Rehmanjee Ken Maschke Joe Shields
    7. 7. SAIC Program Overview <ul><li>Two Degree Programs: </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Architecture with Emphasis in Interior Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking NAAB Accreditation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected by March 2009 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Student Backgrounds <ul><li>Previous Careers </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Design </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Bike Mechanic </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Intern </li></ul><ul><li>Interior Design </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-Adventure Tour Guide </li></ul>
    9. 9. Classroom Basics <ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Class Size </li></ul><ul><li>Standing in Front of a Black Board </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul>
    10. 10. Timing <ul><li>One 3-Hour Class per Week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to Hold Student’s Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Retention of Complex Material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better Results with Two 1.5-Hour Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Opportunity for 1-on-1 Tutoring </li></ul>
    11. 11. Timing <ul><li>Attention span ~ 18 Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Change activities or teaching methods frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t ride too long with an activity students enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Always leave them wanting more </li></ul>
    12. 12. Class Size <ul><li>20+ Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture and presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to assess individual comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toss Around a Stuffed Animal –Whoever Has Holds the Animal Must Answer the Question. Let Students Decide who Answers the Next Question </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Class Size <ul><li>Divide into small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix high achievers with poor performers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix creatively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race to form groups of 5, then 2, then 4, then the desired number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretly distribute animal group names, form their groups making animal sounds </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Class Size <ul><li>Avoid one student doing all work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students define responsibilities in group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold them to it! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students self-evaluate for part of grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat like a real life project team </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. While Standing at the Board… <ul><li>Write down all key terms </li></ul><ul><li>Stop and ask students questions </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t skip “obvious” math steps </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get flustered by your mistakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage students to catch your mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Fellow instructors can offer valuable suggestions </li></ul>
    16. 16. Content <ul><li>Establish reasonable expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long ‘till you became a Structural Engineer? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on a few key points </li></ul><ul><li>Use long equations sparingly </li></ul><ul><li>Get “real!” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers not coefficients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasize and be consistent with units </li></ul>
    17. 17. Content <ul><li>Key points to understand the Built World </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Loads </li></ul><ul><li>Load Path </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul>
    18. 18. Vocabulary <ul><li>Structural Elements </li></ul>
    19. 19. Vocabulary The Pantheon: 125 BC <ul><ul><li>Use classical examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand out one photo per student </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students to line up in chronological order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each to research his or her structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Nature of Forces <ul><li>Basic Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Axial </li></ul><ul><li>Bring Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension = Rubber Band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression = Marshmallow </li></ul></ul>Rubber Band Hanging Monkey compression tension
    21. 21. Nature of Forces <ul><li>Link visual aids and key concepts </li></ul>
    22. 22. Nature of Forces <ul><li>Creative scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to real life case </li></ul>Moon Base #1
    23. 23. Load Path <ul><li>Masking Tape layout of fictitious framing plan on the floor </li></ul><ul><li>Students mingle or dance on floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>“Stop.” Each then traces load path back to a column </li></ul>
    24. 24. Use Long Equations Sparingly <ul><li>Member Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce Concepts before Calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on important parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly give reasons for concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R comp yield = F y * A g </li></ul>R comp buckle =
    25. 25. Get “Real!” <ul><li>Focus on Design and Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Load Path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction Methods </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Structural Design <ul><li>Steel Floor Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor/Roof Deck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Web Joist Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steel Braced Frames </li></ul>
    27. 27. Structural Design <ul><li>Floor Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally Reinforced Beams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-way Slabs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R/C Columns </li></ul><ul><li>Shearwalls </li></ul>
    28. 28. Teaching Methods <ul><li>Computer Programs </li></ul><ul><li>In-class Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Give Examples from Personal Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Design Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for Creative Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Share Student’s Solutions </li></ul>
    29. 29. Arcade http://www.arch.virginia.edu/arcade/index.html
    30. 30. West Point Bridge Design <ul><li>http://bridgecontest.usma.edu/ </li></ul>
    31. 31. Physical Demonstrations <ul><li>Influence Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Shear </li></ul>
    32. 32. Physical Demonstrations <ul><li>Buckling </li></ul>
    33. 33. Structures II – Class Activities <ul><li>Mini design challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete casting and testing </li></ul><ul><li>Laying-out steel floor systems </li></ul><ul><li>Walking tour of Chicago construction </li></ul>
    34. 34. In-Class Design Challenges <ul><li>Foundation on ‘packing peanuts’ </li></ul><ul><li>Paper bridge design </li></ul><ul><li>Twizzler tension connections </li></ul>
    35. 35. Concrete Table Project <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Create working drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Fabricate formwork </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion and mix Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Cast tables </li></ul>
    36. 36. Concrete Table Project
    37. 37. Resources <ul><li>Text Book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students Want to have a Reference to Supplement Lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Websites are Overrated! </li></ul>
    38. 38. Resources <ul><li>ASCE Outreach Guides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email: outreach@asce.org </li></ul></ul>Curious George K-2 Zoom & Building Big 3-8 Fetch 4-6 Design Squad 6-9
    39. 39. Assessment <ul><li>Give clear instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Set basic requirements and penalties early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late, messy, no name, on napkin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish a grading rubric and follow it! </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent feedback on student performance </li></ul>
    40. 40. Structures II Midterm <ul><li>Use real-world references and problems </li></ul>
    41. 41. Structures II Midterm Success! Failure.
    42. 42. Integration With Architectural Studio <ul><li>Architectural Materials Studio </li></ul>Structures II Design Project
    43. 43. Conclusions <ul><li>Focus on key points </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a variety of teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>Change topic and/or method frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Mix up participants </li></ul><ul><li>Visual, intuitive explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on demos, projects, challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Clear rules and responsibilities </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Program </li></ul>Thank you Ken Maschke, P.E. Yasmin Rehmanjee, P.E., S.E. Thornton Tomasetti 14 East Jackson Boulevard Suite 1100 Chicago, IL 60604
    46. 46. Appendix <ul><li>Syllabus Structures I </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus Structures II </li></ul><ul><li>More about ARCADE </li></ul><ul><li>More Concrete Table Pics </li></ul>
    47. 47. Syllabus <ul><ul><li>Class Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Introduction to Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Introduction to Engineering Physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Statics and Equilibrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Loads and Load Path Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Tension/Compression/Bending/Shear/Torsion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Material Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Internal Forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Deformation and Deflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 Arches and Trusses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Compression and Tension Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Flexural Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 Foundations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 Structural Failures and Structural Forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 Final Project Due </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Structures II Syllabus <ul><li>Class Subjects </li></ul><ul><li>1 Steel Beams & Columns </li></ul><ul><li>CDs – Structural Plans </li></ul><ul><li>2 Steel Trusses, Joists, and Roof Deck </li></ul><ul><li>3 Steel Braced Frames & Moment Frames; </li></ul><ul><li>CDs – Structural Elevations </li></ul><ul><li>4 Concrete Materials and Testing </li></ul><ul><li>5 Concrete Beams; </li></ul><ul><li>CDs – Structural Details & Sections </li></ul><ul><li>6 Concrete Slabs and Walls </li></ul><ul><li>7 CDs – 3D Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>8 Geotechnical Bearing and Retaining Structures </li></ul><ul><li>9-10 Concrete Table Design Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>11–13 Concrete Table Construction Sessions </li></ul>
    49. 49. Use Computer Programs <ul><li>Statics using Arcade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Teaching Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics Engine to Model Structural Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Dr. Martini at University of Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed using NSF Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Download at </li></ul></ul><ul><li> http://www.arch.virginia.edu/arcade/index.html </li></ul>
    50. 50. Concrete Table Project <ul><li>Finished Products </li></ul>
    51. 51. Concrete Table Project <ul><li>Spring 2008 Casting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Concrete Materials </li></ul></ul>