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WU 8841 Diffusion and Integration of Educational Technology
Synchronous Professional Development
Kalman Mannis
Digitally Delivered Professional Development,
Provided synchronously
Definitions to Insure Common Understanding:
Innovation Bias
Pro Innovation Bias
Business success depends on human interaction. You can often get
more done with a few ...
Innovation Analysis
using McLuhan’s Tetrad
Enhancement
• Fiber Optic telecommunications backbone
• Increase in computer pr...
Innovation Decision Process
Diffusion
Consequences
Need
KnowledgeStage
Distance Professional Development for
K-12 Districts provided synchronously:
1.Financial Consideration...
Research
Distance Professional Development for
K-12 Districts provided synchronously:
1.Emerging Technology’s affective
ba...
Development
Distance Professional Development for
K-12 Districts provided synchronously:
1.Fiber Optic Backbone deployment...
Commercialization
Persuasion Stage
Distance Professional Development for
K-12 Districts provided synchronously:
1.First Ad...
Diffusion
• Decision Stage – Adoption/Rejection
Communication Channels
– Mass Media (Knowledge Stage)
• Lack of centralize...
Hype Cycle
Entering Slope of Enlightenment
Usage of Web Conferencing 2000-2010
Data on ‘Ease of Use’
Variable to Adoption
Wainhouse Research, 2009
Affective Barriers as a
Variable to Adoption
Wainhouse Research, 2009
3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8
Web conferencing should be eas...
Consequences
Implementation Stage
• As a product in the market since the late 1990s (WebEx, the first
large scale provider...
Consequences
Confirmation Stage
• Adoption of the evolving tool is still a factor across the private and public sectors. M...
Commercialization/Implementation
USTREAM
Ustream was founded in the summer of 2006 by John Ham,
Brad Hunstable, and Dr. Gyula Feher as way to help
overseas...
Commercialization
USTREAM has a multilayered interaction
approach with both free and pay per use
offerings. With the expan...
Need
This program originated in 1989 as a by
product of the increased use of the
internet for information delivery. The
fo...
Commercialization
GoToMeeting has used both Mass Media
and personal communication channels.
This company uses radio, t.v.,...
Originating in 1996 as an outgrowth of the founders work in collaboration software. The
founders and their technical staff...
Commercialization
WebEx uses a combination of mass media and
interpersonal communication channels. Its
advertising include...
Need
VIACK Corporation was formed in 1999 in
San Jose, CA. They currently are
headquartered in Scottsdale, AZ with a
satel...
Commercialization
There is no mass media involvement by
VIACK. They appear to be heavily invested in
interpersonal communi...
According to Michael Tomey of WebEx (personal communication, October 26,
2010), Greg Smith of Webconferencing.com (persona...
Webconferencing Links
• VIA3 – www.via3.com
• WebEx – www.webex.com
• GoToMeeting – www.citrix.com
• iLink – www.ilink.com...
References
• Citrix Brochure. (2010). Corporate Brochure. Retrieved from:
http://www.citrix.com/site/resources/dynamic/med...
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Wu8841 diffusion project mannis_k

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Look at web conferencing as a tool to augment educational professional development

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  1. 1. WU 8841 Diffusion and Integration of Educational Technology Synchronous Professional Development Kalman Mannis
  2. 2. Digitally Delivered Professional Development, Provided synchronously Definitions to Insure Common Understanding:
  3. 3. Innovation Bias Pro Innovation Bias Business success depends on human interaction. You can often get more done with a few minutes meeting face to face than you can in strings of emails or trying to explain things over a telephone. VIA3 (http://www.via3.com/Info/Products/Features/Default.aspx) Everyone in the meeting sees the same presentation as the presenter, including animations, video clips etc. The presentation is automatically scaled to fit each audience member's screen so everyone sees the entire slide without having to scroll. Small webinars and collaborative presentations show all meeting members video and audio in the meeting. The presenters see the audience video next to the presentation, and can use it with chat message feedback and spoken questions from the audience to pace the presentation similarly to face to face meetings. VIA3 (http://www.via3.com/Info/Products/Features/Pres entations.aspx)
  4. 4. Innovation Analysis using McLuhan’s Tetrad Enhancement • Fiber Optic telecommunications backbone • Increase in computer processing speed • Greater access to broadband • Fiscal constraints on travel • Globalization pressures • Increase in long distance collaboration Obsolescence •The need to travel for meetings • The need to be away from home and the workplace to be involved with valuable professional development. • Reliance on third party providers of Professional Development. Retrieval •Ability to meaningfully interact with experts • Ability to develop collegial contacts and collaborative partners. • Sense of partnership in a community of learners Reversal •Increased use of 3 dimensional projection for a holographic format for participation. • Better tools /equipment will allow more efficient image and audio transfer, making the format more common and less emerged. Web Conferencing: Synchronously Delivered Professional Development
  5. 5. Innovation Decision Process Diffusion Consequences
  6. 6. Need KnowledgeStage Distance Professional Development for K-12 Districts provided synchronously: 1.Financial Considerations for providing quality P.D. without the need to send staff away from campus. Thus incurring travel expenses, and time lost to travel. 2.Staff’s desire to remain close to home to maintain domestic harmony. 3.Ability to encourage staff collaboration internally by providing the P.D. when multiple members can attend. 4.Encouraging collaboration of district team with distant colleagues. 5.Provide up to date information to staff on relevant issues and research. 6.Inefficiencies of travel 7.Protection from communicable diseases. 8.Fear of Travel long distances following attacks of 9/11 ( Mayrhofer, Back, & Hubschmid, 2004) 9.Globalization of experts
  7. 7. Research Distance Professional Development for K-12 Districts provided synchronously: 1.Emerging Technology’s affective barriers to implementation. 2.Authoritative pressures to implement the technology 3.Social pressures to accept the use of delivery format for Professional Development. 4.Institutional pressure for using the format. 5.Research on format successes
  8. 8. Development Distance Professional Development for K-12 Districts provided synchronously: 1.Fiber Optic Backbone deployment 2.Software 3.VOIP 4.Connectivity/Bandwidth needs 5.Implementation samples 6.Pros and Cons of the format
  9. 9. Commercialization Persuasion Stage Distance Professional Development for K-12 Districts provided synchronously: 1.First Adopters 2.Demonstration Locations 3.Mass Media advertising 4.Innovative advertising – podcast support (GoToMeeting.com) 5. Exploitation of format as a financial center. 6.Various pricing and delivery models. 7.Implementation as a delivery format for higher education and corporate distance training. 8.Archiving of meetings 9.Increase in collaborative productivity
  10. 10. Diffusion • Decision Stage – Adoption/Rejection Communication Channels – Mass Media (Knowledge Stage) • Lack of centralized advocate – Interpersonal Channel (Persuasion Stage) • Perceived value • Organizational Resistance • Ease of Use • Affective Barriers
  11. 11. Hype Cycle Entering Slope of Enlightenment
  12. 12. Usage of Web Conferencing 2000-2010
  13. 13. Data on ‘Ease of Use’ Variable to Adoption Wainhouse Research, 2009
  14. 14. Affective Barriers as a Variable to Adoption Wainhouse Research, 2009 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 Web conferencing should be easy to use b/c mishapscan potentiallywastetime Offer with fewer features but greater ease of use can be of higher valuethen one with more features that is… Users who are uncomfortable with tech are reluctantto host onlinemeetings becausethey don’t want to look… 3=Neutral, 4=SomewhatAgree, 5=StronglyAgree
  15. 15. Consequences Implementation Stage • As a product in the market since the late 1990s (WebEx, the first large scale provider of web conferencing was founded in 1996) implementation was first adopted by corporate and government entities. Web conferencing obsolesced video conferencing equipment by incorporating a web based platform and by placing collaborative tools into the hands of the user (WebEx, 2010). • Its use was boosted by the terror attacks of September 11th , especially for European companies and those who were required to travel to and from large metropolitan centers. (Mayrhofer, Back, & Hubschmid, 2004). • From 2002 – 2007 there was a 40% per annum on use of the products across the business, government, and education sectors. By 2009 the business model was earning nearly one billion dollars per year ((Mayrhofer, Back, & Hubschmid, 2004; Wainhouse, 2009). • In 2009 access to the internet during airplane flights provided an additional boost to productivity, collaboration and connectivity to members of private and public sectors (Web Conferencing Council, 2009).
  16. 16. Consequences Confirmation Stage • Adoption of the evolving tool is still a factor across the private and public sectors. Major barriers are affective and ease- of-use obstacles (Wainhouse, 2009). • White papers by the Web Conferencing Council (2010), discuss the pros and cons of the top 10 (according to their rubric) web conferencing providers. A quick analysis of the topics covered refer back to ease of use, customer service, and security as key distinctions between companies. This level of discussion would indicate that the tool has reached a level of integration into the business and public cultures. They are at the point of minor difference. The pressure appears to be driven by Increasing Return (Thornburg, 2008), where competing companies are vying with each other for predominance. Web Conferencing Council’s 2009 Ranking of top 10 Web Conferencing Companies (pg 8).
  17. 17. Commercialization/Implementation
  18. 18. USTREAM Ustream was founded in the summer of 2006 by John Ham, Brad Hunstable, and Dr. Gyula Feher as way to help overseas soldiers connect more efficiently with their families. (Ustream, 2010) The founders noticed an opportunity for revolutionizing communication. Soldiers were limited by the phone or instant messenger to connect with family and friends back home. They could only talk with one person at a time. John and Brad wanted to find a way to allow soldiers to connect with all of their loved ones at the same time. The goal was to create a way for them to stream with family members in cities all over the U.S. and the world. 2003 Ham and Hunstable worked with Dr. Gyula Feher on a photo sharing site developed by Dr. Feher. In 2006 the trio used Dr. Feher’s work as the base of their video streaming venture. Beta testing was done in privately in 2006 then publically in 2007.
  19. 19. Commercialization USTREAM has a multilayered interaction approach with both free and pay per use offerings. With the expansion of 3G networking USTREAM has downloadable apps for Android and iPhone. Diffusion With little mass media except international technology awards, this company relied/relies heavily on interpersonal communication streams for diffusion. The company is often mentioned in technology related podcasts (this week in tech, Leo Laporte, tech chicks, etc.) and has been used by politicians (Mrs. Clinton, Mr. Obama), entertainers, news production companies, and countless military personnel stationed oversees. Consequences For the tech savvy this is a site that is well used and could be considered emerged. For the early and late majority this format is still emerging. While the site has an ease of use that supersedes most web conferencing tools this site does not have many of their collaboration functions. Because of this the tool does have a niche use for education as a tool for distance classroom interactions . Thus making it a tool for global citizen development, a standard set forth by ISTE in their technology standards.
  20. 20. Need This program originated in 1989 as a by product of the increased use of the internet for information delivery. The founders wanted to create a system that would help unfetter IT workers from their offices. This idea evolved into what is commonly viewed to be cloud computing. Research The platform has evolved to develop a collaboration format that would be both cost effective and useful. The idea was to allow companies to reach new markets and new clients. This was done initially with mainframe computing, then moved to distributed computing in the early 2000s. Development Platform has been kept current with the change from mainframe to distributed computing to cloud computing. The idea is to free the employee, sales staff, or IT professionals from the office.
  21. 21. Commercialization GoToMeeting has used both Mass Media and personal communication channels. This company uses radio, t.v., cable, and internet based advertising. They also heavily sponsor podcasts targeting the more educated oriented programs (quickanddirtytips.com, universetoday.com) Diffusion More than 230,000 organizations worldwide use gotomeeting.com . Citrix partners with over 10,000 companies worldwide in more than 100 countries. Founded in 1989, annual revenue in 2009 was $1.61 billion. (Citrix, 2010) Consequences Citrix is spending research and development time and money to focus on developing a platform that will augment and support the virtual workplace. With the infusion of capital from Citrix, the gotomeeting product will likely remain a leader in the web conferencing industry.
  22. 22. Originating in 1996 as an outgrowth of the founders work in collaboration software. The founders and their technical staff developed the platform that was to become webex in 1995 and distributed it for the first time in 1996. They did this as an outgrowth of the growing popularization of the internet and their background in collaboration software. Background on collaborative software (non-internet based) was the industry that the founders come from. They segued their research and development background into a web-based, on –demand product targeting companies with less then 100 employees. In 1995 the company developed a web-based platform for collaborative software. This was distributed starting in 1996. In 2005 WebEx expanded and started targeting medium and large companies. By its 2007 acquisition by CISCO Systems WebEx was a leader in the web conferencing industry.
  23. 23. Commercialization WebEx uses a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication channels. Its advertising includes internet advertising, and the sponsorship of innovative outlets like podcasts and corporate sponsorships. Diffusion In 2009 over 7 million monthly users, 35,000+ unique customers. Purchased by CISCO Systems in 2007 and integrated into CISCO business services programs. Targets include Education, Financial sector, Healthcare, High Tech, and Manufacturing. Consequences As a leader in an industry still developing, WebEx was aided by its 2007 sale to CISCO Systems. Through the incorporation into CISCO the platform moves into a multinational information systems corporation. This should boost both continued research and development as well as market access.
  24. 24. Need VIACK Corporation was formed in 1999 in San Jose, CA. They currently are headquartered in Scottsdale, AZ with a satellite office in Redmond, WA. According to their mission statement VIACK developed VIA3 ‘’to meet the need for a complete, fully secure, and affordable online collaboration service.” Their idea appears to be making available a product that provides a conduit for secure internet based collaborative that simulates a natural work environment. By doing this they can assist clients to with bottom line savings and increased productivity. Research This company emphasizes its time spent learning how people interact , They used their research to create a format that encourages collaboration by incorporating multi directional audio and video feeds. Their stated goal is to have a product that mimics a natural working style even if the interaction is over large distances and web-augmented. Development VIA3 is developed to be easy to use and intuitive in the implementation. This while being secure. The sites also allows for private archiving conferences for later access. Of the many programs this one has the most to offer at a competitive price point (Web Conferencing Council, 2009).
  25. 25. Commercialization There is no mass media involvement by VIACK. They appear to be heavily invested in interpersonal communication channels mainly focused on Government and Military contracts due to their emphasis on high security. Diffusion This company maintains a user friendly website, but does very little mass media advertising. Even though it was incorporated in 1999 it is not mentioned in the web conferencing link on wikipedia, nor does it come up in the first two pages of web conferring tools searches. The product is good but mainly relies on interpersonal communication and government and military contracts. Consequences VIA3 along with its competitors are still evolving and developing new products to entice the public and private sector to use their tools. VIACK notes in its mission statement that it is constantly looking to meet the changing needs of its customers by adding and upgrading its various conferencing and collaborative tools.
  26. 26. According to Michael Tomey of WebEx (personal communication, October 26, 2010), Greg Smith of Webconferencing.com (personal communication, October 15, 2010), and Teresa Lockhard of VIA3 (personal communication, November 2, 2010) the majority of webconferencing companies use the same technology. The variations exist in their business models and add-on choices. They suggest factoring the following concepts before deciding on a company: 1. How is the product licensed? 2. Does the product require a download? 3. Can the product function with your district’s security protocols? 4.Can your conferences be archived, if so where, and is this an extra cost or included? 5.What is the quality of the Audio and Video? 6.Does the system use VOIP or phone only? 7.Is video collaboration included or exta? 8.Price 9.Product utilization (where can it be used – desktop only or mobile apps) 10.What is included in the fee and what is an add-on.
  27. 27. Webconferencing Links • VIA3 – www.via3.com • WebEx – www.webex.com • GoToMeeting – www.citrix.com • iLink – www.ilink.com • Ustream – www.ustream.com • DIMDIM – www.dimdim.com
  28. 28. References • Citrix Brochure. (2010). Corporate Brochure. Retrieved from: http://www.citrix.com/site/resources/dynamic/mediaResources/CitrixBrochure.pdf • Citrix About. (2010). The virtual computing revolution. Retrieved from: http://www.citrix.com/lang/English/aboutCitrix.asp • Coleman, D. and Young, J. (2004). Critical Factors for Adoption of Collaborative Technologies . Retrieved from: http://collaborate.com/white_papers/mem/white_papers/new_CriticalFactorsforAdoptionofCollaborativeTechnologies082404.pdf • Library and Archive Canada (2010). Old Messengers, New Media: The Legacy of Innis and McLuhan. Retrieved from: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/innis-mcluhan/030003-2030-e.html • Mayrhofer, D., Back, A., and Hubschmid, R. (2004). Web-Conferencing software tools: A comprehensive market survey. St. Gallen, Switzerland: Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik. • Nilsson, A. and Greenburg, A. (2009). Ease of use in web-conferencing: Why it matters. Duxbury, MA: Wainhouse Research. Retrieved from: http://www.wrplatinum.com/Downloads/9854.aspx • Think of it. (2004). Conferencing on the web. Available: http://www.thinkofit.com/webconf/index.htm 8 January 2004]. • Thornburg, D. (2008) Red queens, butterflys, and strange attractors: Imperfect lenses into emergent technologies. Retrieved from: //sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/courses/14936/crs-wueduc8812-3730077/red_queens,_butterflys,_ and strange_attractors.pdf • USTREAM. (2010). About USTREAM. Retrieved from: www.ustream.com/about • Web Conferencing (2010). Wikipedia: Webconferencing Companies. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_conferencing • Web Conferencing Council. (2010). Top 10 web conferencing vendors for 2009. Retrieved from: http://webconferencingcouncil.com/Whitepapers/Web%20Conferencing%20Council%20Top%2010%20Web %20Conferencing%20Vendors%202009.pdf • WebEx. (2010). Company Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.webex.com.au/companyinfo/company-overview.html

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