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Open source movement khalid-revised feb 2012


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Open source movement khalid-revised feb 2012

  1. 1. Open Source Movement in Libraries Khalid Mahmood, PhD Professor of Library and Information Science University of the Punjab 1
  2. 2.  1950s ◦ Companies were selling low priced software with hardware 1960s ◦ On limited scale ◦ Developers at universities and research organizations shared code 1970s ◦ Idea ended as programmers joined commercial firms to produce proprietary softwareHistory 2
  3. 3.  1985 ◦ Richard Stallman disagreed with proprietary philosophy, left MIT, and founded the Free Software Foundation (FSF) ◦ Authored GNU manifesto ◦ GNU project developed many complimentary programsHistory… 3
  4. 4.  1991 ◦ Linus Torvalds, a 21-year old computer science student of Finland ◦ Started developing Linux/GNU operating systemHistory… 4
  5. 5.  1998 ◦ Netscape announced to release its web browser “Netscape Communicator 4.0” as an open source product 1998 ◦ The Open Source Initiative (OSI) was started by a group including Eric S. Raymond and Bruce Perens 2002 ◦ Mozilla was released based on Netscape code Recent years ◦ The movement has grown and produced many alternatives to well known proprietary productsHistory… 5
  6. 6. Web Server Market Share 6
  7. 7.  The philosophy includes freedoms and collaborative processes to knowledge creation and dissemination. Like open content and open publishingOpen Movement Today 7
  8. 8.  Free redistribution Source code Derived works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. Integrity of the authors source code The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form ‘only’ if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. No discrimination against persons or groups The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons. No discrimination against fields of endeavor The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.Open Source Definition 8
  9. 9.  Distribution of license The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. License must not be specific to a product The rights attached to the program must not depend on the programs being part of a particular software distribution. License must not restrict other software The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open- source software. License must be technology-neutral No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interfaceOpen Source Definition… 9
  10. 10.  Ability to fit local needs Availability of the source code means that you can modify and enhance the software to more closely fit your own needs. No restrictions on use No restrictions on how the software is used and no invoices for each user license. Low cost No charge for the software itself. If other libraries share their efforts, each user’s cost is reduced. Pay only for needed support or any additional products & services if required. Even then huge savings than commercial software. Innovation With open source code, users keep-up innovating, improving which means often much faster development cycle when compared to proprietary software.Open Source Strengths 10
  11. 11.  User-driven Traditional vendors focus on providing functionality meeting needs of the majority of their customers. In contrast, OSS features emerge from the community of users. This makes OSS development user-driven: you decide what features are important and deserve attention rather than a vendor. Collaboration Vibrant local, national and global user groups collaborate in creativity, development and trouble shooting. Transfer of technical know-how Being active member and part of OSS community, your team members will learn the minimum required know-how of software & technologies in use.Open Source Strengths… 11
  12. 12.  Reliability OSS is peer-reviewed software, exposed to extreme scrutiny, with problems being found and fixed instead of being kept secret until the wrong person discovers. So the code base is more reliable than closed, proprietary software. Mature open-source code is as bulletproof as software ever gets. OSS evolves at astonishing speed. People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs. Security and stability Proprietary software, with closed source code, support and future development rely solely on the resources of a single vendor. If the vendor goes down, so does your product support. In contrast, OSS rely on stable code bases developed and supported by many providers worldwide. As a result, libraries using OSS have more support options than those using proprietary software. No supplier lock-in Unlike proprietary software formats, Open Source software allows you to access the source code for your applications and store your data in open standard (non-proprietary) formats. As a result, you are not tied to any particular supplier.Open Source Strengths… 12
  13. 13.  Unanticipated efforts An organization may find that it needs to do a great deal more work than anticipated to adapt the software exactly to the local needs.  Lack of coordination The decentralized development of open source software means that progress can be chaotic and there may be delays in addressing bugs.  Inadequate technical support Documentation tends to be limited and aimed at developers. There usually is limited technical support, especially for users of the software.  Risk of discontinuation Development or support may discontinue. The same risk exists with commercial options.Open Source Weaknesses 13
  14. 14.  Integrated library management system  Koha  Evergreen Digital library and repositories  Dspace  Eprints  Fedora  GreenstoneOpen Source Movement inLibraries 14
  15. 15.  Metasearch resolver  LibraryFind  CUFTS OPACs  VuFind  SOPAC  BacklightOpen Source Movement inLibraries… 15
  16. 16.  LIS curriculum  Koha and Greenstone at Punjab University Seminars  LISolutions Training programs  Koha, Greenstone, Zebra Server, MARCEdit by PakLAG  Koha and Dspace by LISolutions and PLWO  Greenstone by Mehran UETOpen Source Movement inPakistani Libraries 16
  17. 17.  Projects  Koha at UMT, IIU, etc.  Koha in Pakistan Legislative Strengthening Project (PLSP) of the USAID  PakLAG Koha  Koha by LISolutions  Greenstone at Akhtar Hameed Khan Resource Center and United Nations  Dspace in LUMS and Bahria University Research  Muhammad Rafiq, Ata ur Rehman, Farasat ShafiullahOpen Source Movement inPakistani Libraries… 17
  18. 18.  Emerging movement in Pakistan Suitable for financially weak libraries Needs institutional support  Higher education commission  Professional associations  Library schools  Software houses for pay-for-support model  Library consortiaConclusion 18
  19. 19. Thanks for your patience andBest wishes for this workshop 19