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Information Searching &
Retrieving Techniques

        Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood
  Department of Library & Information Science
          University of the Punjab




                                                1
Information Retrieval: Key
Concepts and Components
   Information
   Information representation
   Information retrieval
   Database
   Search mechanism
   Browsing
   Language
   Interface
   Search strategy
   Retrieval performance
                                 2
Information
   Contrasted with data, knowledge and
    wisdom

   Interchangeably used with document,
    text and passage (including multi-
    media)


                                          3
Information Representation
   Extraction of some elements from a
    document (keywords or phrases) or the
    assignment of terms (descriptors or subject
    headings) to a document so that its essence
    can be characterized and presented
   Can be done via abstracting, indexing,
    categorization, summarization, and extraction
   Information processing and information
    management are the synonyms
                                                4
Information Retrieval
   Synonymous with
       Information access
       Information seeking
       Information searching
       Data mining
       Resource discovery



                                5
Database
   Record
   Field
       Title, Author, etc.
   Sequential file
   Inverted file



                              6
Search Mechanism
   Information in a database can only be
    searched and retrieved when a
    corresponding search mechanism is
    provided
   Is defined by search algorithms and
    procedures
       Basic
       Advanced
                                            7
Browsing
   Seeking and selecting information by
    skimming, scanning, and other similar
    activities
   Is needed when
       Topic is not clear
       Information is hard to be specified explicitly
       Obtaining an overview of information
       Discovering new information
       Differentiating between relevant and irrelevant
        items
                                                          8
Language

   Natural language

   Controlled vocabulary




                            9
Interface
   What the user sees, hears, and touches
    while interacting with a computer
    system
   The quality of an interface is decided by
       Interaction mode (menu selection) and
       Display features (screen layout and font
        type)


                                                   10
Search Strategy
The approaches people take when conducting
  searches.
1.   Identification of the information need of the user and the
     keywords that express the main concepts of the
     information need.
2.   Identification and selection of the most suitable
     database.
3.   Selection and execution of the query (basic or
     advanced search).
4.   Review of the references in the database results page.
5.   Occasionally, refinement of the query and obtaining
     new keywords to repeat the process.
                                                            11
Retrieval Performance

   Recall =       Number of relevant items retrieved       X 100
           Total number of relevant items in the collection



   Precision =    Number of relevant items retrieved
                                                           X 100
                    Total number of items retrieved




                                                                    12
Retrieval Techniques
   Basic
       Boolean operators
       Phrase searching
       Truncation / Wildcard searching
       Proximity searching
       Focusing / Limiting a search
   Advanced
       Fuzzy searching
       Weighted searching
       Query expansion
       Multiple database searching
                                          13
Boolean Operators
Boolean operators allow you to join terms together, widen a search
or exclude terms from your search results. This means you can be
more precise in locating your information.




         AND

         OR

         NOT
                                                                     14
Phrase Searching
It narrows your search down by searching
   for an exact phrase or sentence. It is
   particularly useful when searching for a
   title or a quotation. Usually quotation
   marks are used to connect the words
   together.
For example
“Towards a healthier Scotland”

                                          15
Truncation / Wildcard
These search techniques retrieve information on similar
  words by replacing part of the word with a symbol
  usually a * or ?. However, different databases use
  different symbols, so check what is used.

   In truncation the end of the word is replaced.
       For example physiother* will retrieve physiotherapy,
        physiotherapeutic, physiotherapist and so on.
   In wildcard searching, letters from inside the word are
    replaced.
       For example wom*n will retrieve the terms woman and
        women.

                                                               16
Proximity Searching
It looks for documents where two or more
   separately matching term occurrences
   are within a specified distance, where
   distance is the number of intermediate
   words or characters
 For example

     Term A NEAR Term B
     Term A ADJ Term B

                                        17
Focusing / Limiting a Search
There are many ways to focus your search and all
  search tools offer different ways of doing this. Some
  of the ways of limiting your search are as follows:
 Date

 Language

 Place

 Publication type

 Age groups

 Type of material e.g. you could just need to find case

  studies

                                                       18
Fuzzy Searching
   It is designed to find terms that are
    spelled incorrectly at data entry or
    query input
   For example, the term computer could
    be misspelled as compter, compiter,
    comptuer, or compyter
   “Did you mean” at Google is an
    example
                                            19
Weighted Searching
   Puts different emphasis or significance
    on each term in a query
   Prerequisite is that weighting has been
    applied at indexing stage
   A weighting scale can be used
   For example
       filtering3 AND controversy6

                                              20
Query Expansion

   Allows the end-user to improve retrieval
    performance by revising search queries
    based on results already retrieved




                                           21
Multiple Database Searching

   Searching in more than one IR systems
    simultaneousely




                                        22
Thanks for your patience




                           23

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Information searching & retrieving techniques khalid

  • 1. Information Searching & Retrieving Techniques Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood Department of Library & Information Science University of the Punjab 1
  • 2. Information Retrieval: Key Concepts and Components  Information  Information representation  Information retrieval  Database  Search mechanism  Browsing  Language  Interface  Search strategy  Retrieval performance 2
  • 3. Information  Contrasted with data, knowledge and wisdom  Interchangeably used with document, text and passage (including multi- media) 3
  • 4. Information Representation  Extraction of some elements from a document (keywords or phrases) or the assignment of terms (descriptors or subject headings) to a document so that its essence can be characterized and presented  Can be done via abstracting, indexing, categorization, summarization, and extraction  Information processing and information management are the synonyms 4
  • 5. Information Retrieval  Synonymous with  Information access  Information seeking  Information searching  Data mining  Resource discovery 5
  • 6. Database  Record  Field  Title, Author, etc.  Sequential file  Inverted file 6
  • 7. Search Mechanism  Information in a database can only be searched and retrieved when a corresponding search mechanism is provided  Is defined by search algorithms and procedures  Basic  Advanced 7
  • 8. Browsing  Seeking and selecting information by skimming, scanning, and other similar activities  Is needed when  Topic is not clear  Information is hard to be specified explicitly  Obtaining an overview of information  Discovering new information  Differentiating between relevant and irrelevant items 8
  • 9. Language  Natural language  Controlled vocabulary 9
  • 10. Interface  What the user sees, hears, and touches while interacting with a computer system  The quality of an interface is decided by  Interaction mode (menu selection) and  Display features (screen layout and font type) 10
  • 11. Search Strategy The approaches people take when conducting searches. 1. Identification of the information need of the user and the keywords that express the main concepts of the information need. 2. Identification and selection of the most suitable database. 3. Selection and execution of the query (basic or advanced search). 4. Review of the references in the database results page. 5. Occasionally, refinement of the query and obtaining new keywords to repeat the process. 11
  • 12. Retrieval Performance  Recall = Number of relevant items retrieved X 100 Total number of relevant items in the collection  Precision = Number of relevant items retrieved X 100 Total number of items retrieved 12
  • 13. Retrieval Techniques  Basic  Boolean operators  Phrase searching  Truncation / Wildcard searching  Proximity searching  Focusing / Limiting a search  Advanced  Fuzzy searching  Weighted searching  Query expansion  Multiple database searching 13
  • 14. Boolean Operators Boolean operators allow you to join terms together, widen a search or exclude terms from your search results. This means you can be more precise in locating your information. AND OR NOT 14
  • 15. Phrase Searching It narrows your search down by searching for an exact phrase or sentence. It is particularly useful when searching for a title or a quotation. Usually quotation marks are used to connect the words together. For example “Towards a healthier Scotland” 15
  • 16. Truncation / Wildcard These search techniques retrieve information on similar words by replacing part of the word with a symbol usually a * or ?. However, different databases use different symbols, so check what is used.  In truncation the end of the word is replaced.  For example physiother* will retrieve physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic, physiotherapist and so on.  In wildcard searching, letters from inside the word are replaced.  For example wom*n will retrieve the terms woman and women. 16
  • 17. Proximity Searching It looks for documents where two or more separately matching term occurrences are within a specified distance, where distance is the number of intermediate words or characters  For example  Term A NEAR Term B  Term A ADJ Term B 17
  • 18. Focusing / Limiting a Search There are many ways to focus your search and all search tools offer different ways of doing this. Some of the ways of limiting your search are as follows:  Date  Language  Place  Publication type  Age groups  Type of material e.g. you could just need to find case studies 18
  • 19. Fuzzy Searching  It is designed to find terms that are spelled incorrectly at data entry or query input  For example, the term computer could be misspelled as compter, compiter, comptuer, or compyter  “Did you mean” at Google is an example 19
  • 20. Weighted Searching  Puts different emphasis or significance on each term in a query  Prerequisite is that weighting has been applied at indexing stage  A weighting scale can be used  For example  filtering3 AND controversy6 20
  • 21. Query Expansion  Allows the end-user to improve retrieval performance by revising search queries based on results already retrieved 21
  • 22. Multiple Database Searching  Searching in more than one IR systems simultaneousely 22
  • 23. Thanks for your patience 23