Omollo - Haramaya - Health OER Intro


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Workshop given at Haramaya University College of Health Sciences and College of Medical Sciences on 29 April 2012.

CC BY The Regents of the University of Michigan.

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Omollo - Haramaya - Health OER Intro

  1. 1. Introduction to Open Educational Resources for Health Training Kathleen Ludewig Omollo International Program Manager University of Michigan Medical School Office of Enabling Tech.April 29, 2012 – Haramaya University – Health and Medical Sci. Slides at: Except where otherwise noted, this work is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License( Copyright 2012 The Regents of the University of Michigan. Cover image CC:BY-SA Jessica Duensing (Flickr) 1
  2. 2. Free Public Under some licenses to use, adapt, redistributeImage CC:BY-SA Colleen Simon (Flickr) 2
  3. 3. 3PATH•Overview of the African Health Open EducationalResources (OER) Network•Existing Maternal and Child Health OER That You CanUse and Adapt•Copyright Trivia•What is “Open”?•How to Create Your Own OER•Discussion: Using, Adapting, and Creating OER at YourInstitution Image CC:BY-NC-SA werkunz (Flickr)
  4. 4. Case Study: African Health OER NetworkImage CC:BY-NC Jon Milet Baker (Flickr) 4
  5. 5. Motivations: Challenges to Health Education in Africa•low budget, small workforce, high diseaseburden•scarce, aging, and emigrating teaching staff•not enough instructors or classroom spaces•repetitive instructional responsibilities•and….Image CC:BY Phil Roeder (Flickr) 5
  6. 6. large lectures & crowded clinical situations6 Image CC:BY-NC University of Ghana
  7. 7. 7When you look intextbooks it’s difficult tofind African cases. Thecases may be prettysimilar but sometimes itcan be confusing whenyou see something thatyou see on white skin sonicely and very easy topick up, but on the darkskin it has a differentmanifestation that may bedifficult to see.-Richard Phillips, lecturer,Department of Internal Image CC:BY-NC-SA Kwame NkrumahMedicine, KNUST (Ghana) University of Science and Technology
  8. 8. The mission of the AfricanHealth Open EducationalResources (OER) Network (est.2008) is to advance healtheducation in Africa by creatingand promoting free, public,openly licensed teachingmaterials created by Africansto share knowledge, addresscurriculum gaps, and supporthealth education communities. 8
  9. 9. Founding members (2008):  Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)  University of Ghana (UG)  University of Cape Town (UCT)  University of the Western Cape (UWC)  South African Institute for Distance Education (Saide)  University of Michigan (U-M)We aim to scale to continent-wide, eventually, a global Network. 9
  10. 10. ApproachUse simple, low-cost technology to createmultimedia-rich learning materials that arelower-cost and more contextually relevantthan previously available educationalresources. 10
  11. 11. ApproachThe materials created will be useful to notonly the other institutions, but others in theNetwork as well as people at otherinstitutions worldwide.So we make the materials public and includea simple license (terms of use) that allowsanyone world to use, copy, adapt, andredistribute. 11
  12. 12. Gather Existing Materials Assist health professionals in finding materials that are free, electronic, and openly licensed (i.e. expressly allow the general public to use, adapt, copy, and redistribute) APPROACH Facilitate Discussion Foster dialogue Publicly between health Adapt and Create Distribute professionals around New Materials Materials pedagogy, policy, Provide tools andPromote the materials peer review, and openness guides for educators worldwide through via onsite consultation, and students to design, multiple online and discussion lists, conference license, and share offline methods calls, and newsletters learning materials 12
  13. 13. Demo 13 13
  14. 14. 14Community Usage• 160 people • 8500 views/mo trained in open on website licenses • Accessed in• 115 authors 190+ countries• 12 institutions • 861K views on YouTubeCollection • 795 favorites• 135 modules on YouTube• 339 materials • 173 comments• 144 videos on YouTube (906 minutes) Image CC:BY-NC-SA HeyThereSpaceman (flickr)
  15. 15. Visualization of greatest word frequency in Youtube comments – from 15
  16. 16. 16Remix Example Image CC:BY-NC-SA Saide and University of Botswana
  17. 17. Remix Example: From This 17
  18. 18. 18 Remix Example: To This
  19. 19. Remix Example: From This 19
  20. 20. Remix Example: To This 20
  21. 21. So, what makes theseOpen EducationalResources (OER)? 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Existing Maternal and Child Health OER 23
  24. 24. There are hundreds (thousands?) of existingmaterials (e.g. lecture slides, animations,videos, quizzes, image collections) for healtheducation that are freely and publiclyavailable and that also give you explicitpermission to use, share, copy, and adapt thecontent with no or minimal restrictions. 24
  25. 25. Obstetrics and Gynaecology OER from African Health OERNetwork or Caesarean Section2. Episiotomy & Repair3. Examination of the Pregnant Woman4. Procedures in Obstetrics and Gynaecology5. Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and Pelvic Infections6. Total Abdominal Hysterectomy7. University Certificate in Midwifery8. Textbook of Urogynaecology9. Surgical Repair of Vesico-Vaginal Fistulae (VVF)10. Clinical Examinations in Gynaecology Collection, including: 1. Basic Guidelines and History Taking 2. General Physical Examination in Gynaecology 3. Examination of the Abdomen 4. Pelvic Examination 25
  26. 26. Pediatrics OER from African Health OER Network or Clinical Examinations in Paediatrics Collection, including: 1. General Physical Examination 2. Examination of the Respiratory System 3. Examination of the Cardiovascular System 4. Examination of the Abdomen 5. Overview of the Central Nervous System (CNS) 6. CNS Examination of Smell and Sight 7. CNS Examination of Facial Nerve and Hearing 8. Examination of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 9. CNS Examination of the Legs 10. Examination of the Musculoskeletal System 11. Examination of the New Born: Part 1 12. Examination of the New Born: Part 2 13. Examination of the Ear, Nose, and Throat Systems2. Case Scenarios In Pediatric Practices3. Gastric Lavage Procedure Animation4. South African Child Gauge 2009/2010 26
  27. 27. Relevant Pharmacology OER from African Health OER Network or One Step Pregnancy Dipstick Test 27
  28. 28. Community Healthcare Worker materials from Open UniversityUK Health Education and Training in Africa (HEAT) Adolescent and Youth Reproductive Health2. Antenatal Care3. Communicable Diseases4. Family Planning5. Health Education, Advocacy and Community Mobilisation6. Health Management, Ethics and Research7. Hygiene and Environmental Health8. Immunization9. Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness10. Labour and Delivery Care11. Non-Communicable Diseases, Emergency Care and Mental Health12. Nutrition13. Postnatal Care 28
  29. 29. M1 Endrochrinology and Reproduction from University ofMichigan Medical School Syllabus2. 01.26.09: Histology of the Endocrine System3. 01.28.09(a): Nutrition Assessment4. 01.28.09(b): Histology of the Male Reproductive System 29
  30. 30. M2 Reproduction from University of Michigan Medical School Lab2.Gestational Lab3.Ovary Testes Lab4.Uterine Lab5.03.15.11: Your Patient Has Breast Cancer Until You Prove She Doesn’t6.03.16.09: Clinical Aspects of the Menstrual Cycle7.03.18.09: Clinical Aspects of Gynecologic Diseases8.03.19.09: Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Testis and Scrotum9.Ob/Gyn Learning Resources from the African Health OER Network10.Surgical Excision of a Multi-Lobular, Recurrent, Bartholin Duct Cyst11.Daily Schedule: M2 Reproduction12.03.18.09(a): Gynecologic Diseases13.03.18.09(b): Abortion14.03.18.09(c): Ovary Pathology15.03.19.09(a): Testicular Disease16.03.19.09(b): Testicular Pathology17.03.20.09: Androgens 30
  31. 31. Image CC:BY gmahender (Flickr) 31
  32. 32. What rights are included in copyright?(hint: there are 5) Image CC:BY Ute Hagen (Flickr) 32
  33. 33. Copyright holders have the exclusive right todo and to authorize others to do thefollowing:1. Reproduce the work in whole or in part2. Prepare derivative works, such as translations, dramatizations, and musical arrangements3. Distribute copies of the work by sale, gift, rental, or loan4. Publicly display the work5. Publicly perform the work Image CC:BY OpenCage (wikipedia) 33
  34. 34. Copyright Exceptions and LimitationsThere are some exceptions and limitations tothe 5 rights. Some of these enable *limited*use of copyrighted material withoutpermission within the confines of aneducational classroom. Once you makematerials public though, those exceptionsand limitations may not apply. 34
  35. 35. 35Notable International Treaties RegardingCopyright:• 1886: Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works• 1952: Universal Copyright Convention• 1988: Berne Convention Implementation Act• 1995: Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Image CC:BY tuppus (Flickr)
  36. 36. 36What is the purpose of ©? Image CC:BY ewiemann (Flickr)
  37. 37. • Goal: To advance knowledge (“encouragement of learning”) • How: Exclusive rights on creative works for limited times37 Image CC:BY-NC Cayusa (Flickr)
  38. 38. “Limited times” = ?38 Image CC:BY TJ Morris (Flickr)
  39. 39. “Limited times” >= Life + 50 years39 Image CC:BY TJ Morris (Flickr)
  40. 40. Which of these is necessary tocopyright a work? (hint there are 2)A. Tangible form?B. Publication?C. Copyright symbol ©?D. Registration?E. Effort?F. Creative Expression? 40
  41. 41. Which of these is necessary to copyright a work?A. Tangible formB. PublicationC. Copyright symbol ©D. RegistrationE. EffortF. Creative Expression 41
  42. 42. Copyright occurs automatically at the creation of a new work, when it is fixed in tangible form. This means that almostImage CC:BY Horia Varlan(flickr) everything is copyrighted-- not just published material but also your lecture slides, your speaker notes, your drafts, your whiteboard/blackboard drawings, your snapshots... 42
  43. 43. What is a license?Licenses let people know how they may use a copyrighted work. Image CC:BY-SA lumaxart (Flickr) 43
  44. 44. Free Public Under some licenses to use, adapt, redistributeImage CC:BY-SA Colleen Simon (Flickr) 44
  45. 45. All Rights Reserved (default) 45
  46. 46. Types of Open Licenses:Creative Commons is one example Some Rights Reserved ( 46
  47. 47. BY :: Attribution You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work but only if they give you credit. 47
  48. 48. NC :: Noncommercial You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work but for noncommercial purposes only. 48
  49. 49. SA :: Share Alike You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work as long as any derivative work is licensed under the same license. 49
  50. 50. Learning Creativity Sharing Public All Rights Domain Reservedleast restrictive most restrictive Adaptability means… Translation Localization Bridge materials Innovation Collaboration 50
  51. 51. Why make public and add anopen license?•Time (build on others’ effort)•Money (free to access)•Quality of content (more eyes toreview)•Recognition & collaboration(worldwide visibility of authors) 51
  52. 52. How to share your own content52 Image CC:BY-NC-SA 10000spoons (Flickr)
  53. 53. Its easiest to create open content from the start. 53
  54. 54. Start now by making a smallchange in how you create your own content. 54
  55. 55. What does this mean for you? 55
  56. 56. 1. License your own work2. Use openly licensed works3. Attribute authors of the worksfrom step 2.4. Share your work publicly online 56
  57. 57. 1. LICENSE:EXAMPLE DISCLAIMER & TITLE SLIDEAuthor(s): John Doe, MD; Jane Doe, PhD, 2009License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms ofthe Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License: license (name and link)We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximizeyour ability to use, share, and adapt it.Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact withany questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content.For more information about how to cite these materials visit medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcareprofessional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition.Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers. 57
  58. 58. Learning about Orchids2, 3: Use, Attribute Lady Finger Phalaenopsis A Phalaenopsis hybrid add some extra information in the attribution: author, source (name and link), license Lady Finger Orchid CC:BY aussiegall (flickr) phalaenopsis CC:BY audreyjm529 (flickr) Phalaenopsis hybrid CC:BY-SA Zizonus (flickr) 58
  59. 59. Additional Source Information Slide 3: Janeway. Immunobiology : The Immune System in Health and Disease. Current Biology Ltd./Garland Publishing, Inc. 1997 Slide 4: Spinach is Good” Center for Disease Control; Life Magazine. January 17, 1938; rejon, Slide 5: Goody Two Shoes - McLoughlin Bros (New-York) 1888 Slide 6: Jot Powers, “Bounty Hunter”, Wikimedia Commons,, CC: BY- SA 2.0 Format:Attributions at the end of the presentation 59
  60. 60. 4. Share 60
  61. 61. What if you want to make yourexisting work available under an open license? 61
  62. 62. What types of third-party(i.e. created by someone other than you) objects might you encounter? 62
  63. 63. main policy concerns to publicly sharing content :: copyright : copyright law grants limited exclusive rights to authors of creative works :: privacy : the protection of an individual’s (student, instructor, patient) privacy :: product endorsement : avoiding the appearance of endorsing a product or organization 63
  64. 64. What should you do with them? 64
  65. 65. possible actions :: retain : keep the content because it is licensed under an open license or is in the public domain :: replace : you may want to replace content that is not openly licensed (and thus not shareable) :: remove : you may need to remove content due to privacy, endorsement, or copyright concerns 65
  66. 66. Discussion: OER for Your Institution 66
  67. 67. Content1.Which key elements in core curricula are amenableto self-learning?2.What are the relevant learning objectives for theOER modules used/created?3.In what ways can you use or adapt OER fromanother institution to fit your institution’s context? 67
  68. 68. Policy1.Who owns the copyright to the materials intended tobe shared as OER – the lecturer(s) or the institution?2.Under which Creative Commons license will the OERbe shared?3.How will you ensure the quality of the OER?4.If you intend to include record video or audio for ademonstration (e.g. surgical procedure), how will youobtain permission from patients or students? 68
  69. 69. Example: KNUST and UG Challenge Would like to focus materials development on clinical exams and surgical procedures Approach Update informed consent procedures to allow for public use69 Image CC:BY Alan Cleaver (Flickr)
  70. 70. Professional Development1. Are teaching staff familiar with multimedia and instructional design principles to make effective learning materials? Do teaching staff know where to find OER and other open content to adapt for their own OER? Who will be responsible for assisting and training faculty with technology and instructional design for OER? (e.g. existing technology or library staff) 70
  71. 71. Example: KNUST and UG (Ghana)ChallengeElectronic learning activities arenot widespread; health instructorsdo not have time to learnmultimedia skills.Approach• KNUST: Multidisciplinary collaborations with the College Image CC:BY-NC-SA Kwame Nkrumah of Art University of Science and Technology• University of Ghana (UG): Hire (KNUST) external multimedia specialists 71
  72. 72. Technological Infrastructure1. What is the desired format of the OER (e.g. text- based, narrated lectures, video)?2. How will you use to distribute the OER (e.g. media types, file formats, soft copy or hard copy)?3. What are the technological factors affecting OER production and dissemination? (e.g. student and faculty access to & attitudes toward technology, classroom environment, network instrastructure, technology support staff) 72
  73. 73. Concluding RemarksOER and content development are not an end but onefacet of an approach to enhancing instruction. • Collection of 19 video interviews in Ghana about OER: 2B54D6112 • Open Health at UMMS Video: CC:BY Willi Heidelbach (Flickr) 73
  74. 74. By making a small change in how you create your own content… 74
  75. 75. …and licensing yourcreations as OER… 75
  76. 76. …you can gain recognition, publish andpromote your research and teaching materials,connect with collaborators, and preserve and apply knowledge. 76
  77. 77. 77 Opportunities to Collaborate communities: audio conference + email list•Partners Forum (senior leadership)•Tech (multimedia and tech support staff)•dScribe (students, ©)Newsletter( Service ( > Request OER) Image CC:BY-SA lumaxart (Flickr)
  78. 78. Image CC:BY Karrie Nodalo (flickr)This presentation builds upon slides from otherOpen.Michigan team members, including:Emily Puckett Rodgers, Pieter Kleymeer, GarinFons, Greg Grossmeier, Susan Topol, DaveMalicke, Ted Hanss, and Erik Hofer 78
  79. 79. Questions? Kathleen Omollo: kludewig@umich.edu79 Image CC:BY-NC-SA Oberazzi (Flickr)