Presenter: Kathleen As I trying to decide what image to include for the opening slides of this presentation, I remembered a presentation given by one of my Ghanaian colleagues in 2009 at one our project meetings. He chose to begin his presentation with a photo of the entrance to the canopy walk in Kakum National Park located in southern Ghana. Kakum is home to a canopy walk, consisting of a series of 7 bridges over 300m in total length, made of only rope, wooden boards, and metal chains. Each bridge is 40-50 m above the ground. This photo shows the entrance to the bridge, which can be quite daunting. The Ghanaian professor said that he chose this photo because he was intimidated by the technology and policy aspects of OER when approached the year before and was uncertain about where it would lead. Now that he was one year into the project, he realized that…
01/26/10 01/26/10 Presenter: Kathleen … It was worth taking those steps into unknown territory, for now he realized the potential of OER to enhance the landscape of teaching and training in medicine.
Presenter: Kathleen The Network began in mid 2008 at a workshop that included 27 participants from across Africa, who gathered to discuss the relevance and potential of OER to advance health education on the continent. During that initial workshop, the participants identified existing challenges to health education in Africa. Those challenges vary by country but generally include: - Low government budget for health Low health worker to population ratio, with disproportionate concentration of health professionals in urban areas High disease burden, particularly among infectious diseases Scarce, aging, and emigrating lecturers for basic sciences Demand for higher education in Africa has increased substantially over the past several decades. There are not enough instructors or physical classroom spaces to meet demand. For example, in Ghana, the national government aims to triple the number of healthcare workers, but the Ghanaian medical schools can only admit one-third of qualified applicants due to limited faculty size. Additionally, the existing instructors often must balance heavy of workloads research, service, and administrative duties with repetitive instructional responsibilities across the expanding enrollment
Presenter: Kathleen Another challenge in some of the universities is crowded lab demonstrations and clinical demonstrations in teaching hospitals. These crowded and often noisy conditions limit student’s ability to see, hear, or ask questions.
Presenter: Kathleen Lastly, another barrier that we realized was often overlooked was a lack of contextually appropriate instructional materials. Many of the most widely used textbooks and medical videos used worldwide are from European or U.S. publishers. This means that the books may promote different processes, have different cultural influences and practices, neglect tropical diseases, and rely more heavily on expensive tests and equipment to guide diagnoses compared to how those same topics would be taught by in African countries. Additionally, those textbooks often use images of Caucasian patients, which may occasionally be problematic. For example, certain dermatological diseases may manifest themselves differently in dark compared to light skin.
Presenter: Kathleen The 2008 workshop included participants from ten African universities and institutes, three foundations, and one U.S. university. A subset of those institutions formed the partnership that would later become the African Health OER Network. Founding African health science schools include University of Cape Town, University of the Western Cape, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST for short), and the University of Ghana. The Network is co-facilitated by the South African Institute for Distance Education and the University of Michigan. Other partners added since 2008 include University of Malawi, University of Botswana, EBW Healthcare in South Africa, the East Africa HEALTH Alliance of 7 schools of public health, and the Global Health Informatics Partnership. One of our goals is strategically draw in more African and, eventually, global participants, while developing models of collaboration and sustainability that can be replicated in other regions of the world.
Presenter: Kathleen The approach that we’ve taken is four-fold. First, we strive to gather relevant existing OER. Then we train individuals how to adapt those materials as well as to create new materials if there no existing suitable materials. Then we distribute the materials as widely as possible through a variety of websites as well as offline methods such as sampler DVDs or external hard drive. Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, we try to facilitate dialogue around health education, quality assurance and instructional design of materials, and institutional OER practices and policies. The dialogue is essential, as we view Open Licenses as a means to streamlining education, not an end in itself.
01/26/10 01/26/10 Presenter: Greg Now we’ll take a look at case studies of 3 of the universities, beginning with my institution, University of Cape Town in South Africa.
Presenter: Greg Joined the open movement by signing the Cape Town Open Education Declaration in April 2008 Created UCT OpenContent in February 2010 to share a selection of its teaching and learning materials - funded by Shuttleworth Objectives- develop a central UCT-branded searchable directory of OERs created by UCT staff and students 2)Provide process and infrastructure support to UCT staff to facilitate sharing. 3) Promote the visibility of UCT-published OERs on appropriate search engines, OER aggregators and amongst appropriate target communities Keep in mind: Lecturers in the Physics Department had been making most of their teaching materials, laboratory practicals freely available on the Internet long before the term Open Educational Resources was coined by UNESCO in 2002. A colleague in Microbiology had already been sharing materials on Molecular Virology on the Internet, while colleague from Information Systems had been producing online textbooks to offer his students more locally relevant and less costly textbooks. For these colleagues “ open ” was their default strategy for most of their scholarly activities)
Presenter: Greg OER Africa history - started in 2008 in the Education Development Unit Objectives 1) publication 2) advocacy 3) usage 4) use OER to strengthen relationships in Africa - EDU has been coordinating project activities in the Faculty, working with a team of five part-time staff, all Masters and PhD students in various disciplines at UCT, two of whom have published their own teaching resources as OER. - Most production of OER in the faculty is from different units within public health. - Most OER published are also based on existing lecture materials. - Publishing OER is voluntary, and lecturers self-select to produce OER, it ’ s people showing interest and we have had conversations, workshops, seminars and it ’ s always that there are some people who are just interested – for some people it makes sense, the whole idea of OER. But for some people … we have not been able to coerce everyone.
Presenter: Greg One of our greatest stories of reuse was that or Matumo Ramafekeng, whose materials which were published as OER on OpenContent, were selected for publishing in the Journal of Occupational Therapy of Galicia, an open access journal for occupational therapists in the Spanish speaking world Other success stories : DOH is illustrative of the realisation of the role that OERs have played in African collaboration. These resources were developed in collaboration between by lecturers at UCT and University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN) and . These materials have been shared with University of Zimbabwe, University of Zambia, Muhimbili University in Tanzania, and Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique.
Presenter: Greg Aside from the obvious sites such as UCT, UCT libraries and other internal referrals. Much traffic comes to the site via Google.
Presenter: Greg 1) Many lecturers were under the impression that as long as they correctly referenced graphics such as photographs, illustrations and cartoons, that they were free to use these materials within their teaching and learning materials and redistribute these) 2) Sustainability which can be addressed through a culture change at UCT where the idea is that “ open ” will be the default for teaching and learning materials as well as for research publications and possibly even original data. We therefore trust that Friesen ’ s prediction (2009) that OER projects can accrue tangible benefits to educational institutions, such as student recruitment and marketing (2009) is correct. 3) Culture of not sharing since t&l material are not valued as research output- Champions of OER help. Using Google analytics give individual feedback and note areas of interest ie what is downloaded most. 4) Teaching 2 nd to research - t&l is not promotion related - change teaching track and research track, possible remuneration of producing open material 5) Labour intensive - - Division of labour - Decrease 1-1 support and increase self-help options 8) Approach - who had not previously thought of sharing their materials on an open platform. Key enablers included grants, champions and presence of support from the OER team 10) Policy - The UCT IP Policy has been updated. It now includes explicit references to Creative Commons and Open Source: a) Copyright for course materials is still assigned automatically by UCT to the creator while UCT retains rights to use materials internally: b) Content creators may use CC to publish their work: c) RCIPS may grant permission for other types of materials to be published with a CC license (where UCT holds copyright). d) For open source, this policy does not remove the requirement for contributions to open source projects to be vetted by NIPMO: Open Source. UCT has adopted Open Source as the default for research and teaching related to software development at the university. At the outset of a project involving Open Source licensing,
Presenter: Greg 1) There is awareness amongst faculty that teaching materials created with the objective of being shared under an open license will be subject to far greater scrutiny than those created only for use within the relative privacy of the classroom. This realization has encouraged faculty to focus more on the overall quality of the finished OER 2) Building a good publishing profile is a critical aspect of being a lecturer in a university. Publishing in peer-reviewed journals increases the lecturer ’ s visibility as well as that of the institution. 3) Several of the OER in the FHS are co-authored, encouraging collegial collaboration in the production of teaching materials both among FHS faculty and with those from other universities. 4) OER, though not synonymous with e-learning, are often published digitally and have a strong multimedia component to their design, which can make them more dynamic than paper-based printed teaching resources. Including multimedia features in their resources gives lecturers an opportunity to inject new life into their teaching materials, and use the OER to tackle teaching and learning challenges like language barriers and poor concept formation. 5) During the copyright clearing process, lecturers learned that there are useful sites that can be used to access OER to replace copyrighted content. 6) The OER module on Occupation Focused Conceptual Frameworks by Matumo Ramafikeng has received international recognition from two platforms. In 2010, the resource was published in the Journal of Occupational Therapy of Galiaia in September 2010. This is a research journal, making Ramafikeng ’ s work a rare example of teaching resources being recognised in a research space 7) What is perhaps a very significant achievement in FHS OER development is that those who were first in transforming teaching materials into OER have not ended with the initial effort, but have followed their efforts with the development of more OER. During the process, they have actively sought to learn new skills
Presenter: Kathleen Challenge: Both universities had nascent e-learning activities prior to engaging with OER, but many lecturers still relied on low-tech delivery methods, such as, paper notes, dry-erase boards, and PowerPoint slides. Physicians have many strains on their time, and while doctors can provide content, they rarely possess acute technological skill. Training doctors to be experts in multimedia production would be an expensive and inefficient use of their time. Thus, both universities sought alternatives to relieve the health educators of doing technical production . At KNUST in Ghana, the health OER initiative found expertise within the university in the College of Art. In the Department of Communication Design, recent graduates or final-students working on their capstone projects assist lectures with photos, videos, sound, and packaging for the learning modules . The Department of sculpture has also been involved in shaping 3-D sculptures of the top and bottom of the brain in order to converted to electronic 3D representation to teach about the central nervous system. University of Ghana adopted a similar approach, but hired out the university. They hired a media specialist who worked in the commercial film and television industry in Accra, a database specialist, and a graphic artist specializing in 3D animation.
Presenter: Kathleen Challenge: Each institution chose to focus its OER production on clinical videos and laboratory procedures since those are the most difficult to see up close in large classes. Many of the clinical videos require filming of patients. In those cases, obtaining informed consent and upholding patient privacy are essential. KNUST and UG each have affiliated teaching hospitals, and it is expected that large groups of students will be shadowing physicians on ward rounds. At the outset of the projects, though, neither hospital nor university had existing consent forms or even informal accepted standards that would permit patient recordings for any use other than internal viewing among hospital staff. Each university had to therefore develop new practices for informed consent and request explicit permission to record. At University of Ghana, physicians opted to create a formal, written consent form for patients to sign. At KNUST, they currently rely primarily on oral permission but are currently exploring adapting University of Ghana ’ s written patient consent form for their OER productions .
Presenter: Kathleen As is the tradition in many universities, faculty performance evaluation at UG and KNUST emphasized research and publication in frequently-cited, proprietary peer-reviewed scholarly journals over teaching a nd learning materials developed. In 2009, the OER teams at the two universities each established a small committee of lectures, support staff, and librarians to examine existing university policies regarding performance reviews, ownership of intellectual property, and quality assurance of OER. Both policies advocate for internal peer review of OER before it is made public and assign a Creative Commons Attribution license as the default for OER, though authors may choose another CC license. Both policies had to go through three levels of committees, all the way up to the academic board. KNUST passed their policy in August 2010. The UG policy is currently at the third and final stage. (If time: Here is a two minute clip featuring KNUST staff discussing the preliminary impact of their OER policy: http://youtu.be/aIZAJsHtl5I )
Presenter: Kathleen Here are some of our preliminary results, over 160 people trained, 115 authors spanning 12 institutions, 135 learning modules. The vast majority of our materials are in English, since that was the common language among the founding partners. We do, however, have one bilingual English-Portuguese gynecology guide from Mozambique and a resource from University of Cape Town was translated from English into Spanish for the Journal of Occupational Therapy of Galicia. Our demonstration videos and animations have been especially popular on YouTube, with over 860,000 views in approximately 15 months.
Presenter: Kathleen Speaking of YouTube, we have 173 comments on our videos. This is a visualization of word frequency from our comments. You can see that among the most common words are thanks, thank you, and understand.
Presenter: Kathleen We offer a number of opportunities for health educators and support staff to interact. We have three communities, each consisting of an audio conference every 2-3 months with a complementary mailing list. There’s a community for senior leaders, such as heads of departments. There’s one for multimedia and technology specialists. Lastly, there’s a third called dScribe, named for a distributed OER publishing model developed by University of Michigan. During that call, we discuss copyright education and clearance, as well as methods to engage students as producers and advocates of OER. We also coordinate a quarterly newsletter, which is sent to nearly 700 subscribers worldwide.
Presenter: ?? Thank you very much for the opportunity to tell you about our experiences with the African Health OER Network. We also thank our funders, past and present – the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Presenter: ?? Here are our email addresses if you would like learn more about the project. We also brought some handouts with us as well as some sampler DVDs of the learning modules from African universities.
African Health OER Network - UNESCO Regional Forum, March 2012
1 The African Health OER Network:Motivations, Challenges, and Approach Greg Doyle University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences Kathleen Ludewig OmolloUniversity of Michigan, Medical School Office of Enabling Tech. March 28, 2012 – UNESCO Latin America OER Forum Slides at http://tinyurl.com/healthoernetwork-oerforum Except where otherwise noted, this work is available under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0).Copyright 2012 The Regents of the University of Michigan and the University of Cape Town. Image of Kakum Park: CC:BY-NC-SA Civitas Veritas
2View from the bridge: the surrounding landscape Kakum National Park (Ghana)Image CC:BY-NC-SA Kalyan Neelamraju (Flickr)
3 Motivations: Challenges to Health Education in Africa•low budget, small workforce, high diseaseburden•scarce, aging, and emigrating teaching staff•not enough instructors or classroom spaces•repetitive instructional responsibilities•and….Image CC:BY Phil Roeder (Flickr)
4 large lectures &crowded clinical situations Image CC:BY-NC University of Ghana
5When you look intextbooks it’s difficult tofind African cases. Thecases may be prettysimilar but sometimes itcan be confusing whenyou see something thatyou see on white skin sonicely and very easy topick up, but on the darkskin it has a differentmanifestation that may bedifficult to see.-Richard Phillips, lecturer,Department of Internal Image CC:BY-NC-SA Kwame NkrumahMedicine, KNUST (Ghana) University of Science and Technology
6The mission of the AfricanHealth Open EducationalResources (OER) Network (est.2008) is to advance healtheducation in Africa by creatingand promoting free, openlylicensed teaching materialscreated by Africans to shareknowledge, address curriculumgaps, and support healtheducation communities. www.oerafrica.org/healthoer
7 Gather Existing Materials Assist health professionals in finding materials that are free, electronic, and openly licensed (i.e. expressly allow the general public to use, adapt, copy, and redistribute)APPROACH Facilitate Discussion Foster dialogue between health professionals around pedagogy, policy, peer review, and openness via onsite consultation, discussion lists, conference calls, and newsletters
8 Case Study: University of Cape Town (South Africa)Image CC:BY Olibac (Flickr)
10 Raise OER awareness and Source content Clear copyright interest (volunteers) (dScribe)(seminars & w/s) UCT OER Production Package OER Process Publish OER Review OER Publicize OER (repository) (internal)
11OpenContent becomes a Journal Article• Materials published as OER on OpenContent selected for publishing in the Journal of Occupational Therapy of Galicia, an open access journal for occupational therapists in the Spanish speaking world http://blogs.uct.ac.za/blog/oer-uct/2010/12/06/sharing-knowledge-leads-to-opportunities
12How do people find us? 7,2 64 0 77 3,105 201 18 4 2 30
14University of Cape Town (S. Africa)Challenges Approach•Unaware of OER •Awareness & advantages•Sustainability•Culture of not sharing •Encourage lecturers•Teaching 2nd to research •Revise Policy•Labour intensive •Self-help, manuals, 1-many•Inadequate & part time staff •Full time technology expert•Not including students •Proposals
15 Advantages for UCT faculty• Improvement in quality of resources• Increased visibility for the authors and their institutions• Fosters collaboration among faculty members and staff• Provides opportunity to solve teaching and learning challenges• Raises awareness of OER developed elsewhere• International recognition by the international OER community• Development of additional OER by early adopters
16 GhanaChallengeElectronic learning activities arenot widespread; healthinstructors do not have time tolearn multimedia skills.Approach•KNUST: Multidisciplinarycollaborations with the College of Image CC:BY-NC-SA Kwame NkrumahArt University of Science and Technology•University of Ghana (UG): Hire (KNUST)external multimedia specialists
17 GhanaChallengeWould like to focusmaterials development onclinical exams and surgicalproceduresApproachUpdate informed consentprocedures to allow forpublic use Image CC:BY Alan Cleaver (Flickr)
18 GhanaChallengeFaculty promotion and tenure policies favor research overteaching, journal publications over learning modules.Approach•Revise institutional policies to include OER amongperformance criteria and as a qualifying activity forreserved/protected time for lecturersVideo excerpt from KNUST: http://youtu.be/aIZAJsHtl5ICollection of 19 OER video interviews in Ghana:http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLF4EC45F2B54D6112 Image CC:BY-NC-SA Stephanie Pakrul (Flickr)
19Community Usage•160 people •8500 views/motrained in open on websitelicenses •Accessed in 190+•115 authors countries•12 institutions •861K views on YouTubeCollection •795 favorites on•135 modules YouTube•339 materials •173 comments•144 videos (906 on YouTubeminutes) Image CC:BY-NC-SA HeyThereSpaceman (flickr)
20Visualization of greatest word frequency in Youtube comments – from wordle.com.http://wiki.datawithoutborders.cc/index.php?title=Project:Current_events:A2_DD
22 Image CC:BY Karrie Nodalo (flickr)Thanks to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation andthe Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for their financialsupport, as well the founding members of the Network:University of Cape Town, University of the Western Cape,Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,University of Ghana, the South African Institute for DistanceEducation, and University of Michigan.