Newspapers part1-newsrooms jobsnewsstorystructure(1)


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Newspapers part1-newsrooms jobsnewsstorystructure(1)

  1. 1. NEWSPAPERS – PART 1 NEWSROOMS, ROLES, STRUCTURES JOUR 2300 – Principles of News Professor Neil Foote Mayborn School of Journalism
  2. 2. 2 Newspapers: Key Concepts • Newspapers are highly profitable businesses, but they are facing an uncertain future because fewer and fewer young people seem to be reading them regularly. • One of the major trends for newspapers during the last half of the 20th century was concentration of ownership; that is, fewer and fewer companies are owning more and more newspapers. • Newspapers get revenue from two sources: 60 to 80 percent from advertising and 20 to 40 percent from sales and circulation. Source:
  3. 3. 3 The ―Traditional‖ Cycle • Daily news meetings in morning and afternoon • Morning meeting discusses major stories • Afternoon meeting discusses what goes on front page and section fronts • Weekend sections meetings typically on Wednesday to discuss what‘s going in Sunday‘s newspaper • Reporters generate their own ideas OR are assigned • Editors are working on stories for the daily newspaper, and many days in advance
  4. 4. 4 The ―Traditional‖ Cycle cont. • Reporters work independently throughout the day • Coordinate with photographers and graphic artists as needed • File stories by mid to late afternoon • Editors work on stories throughout the day, pushing towards evening deadlines for various editions: • One Star – prints by 7 pm • Two Star – prints by 9 pm • Three Star – prints by 11 • Final Edition – prints by 1 a.m.
  5. 5. 5 Need to Know Terms • Circulation • The average number of copies of a newspaper distributed or sold in a given time period. Often expressed as daily circulation (Monday-Saturday) or Sunday circulation. • Paywall • A policy of limiting access to a website (or a part of a website) to users who pay a fee or purchase a subscription. • E-editions • E-editions include paid online subscriptions, subscriptions on e-readers (Kindles, iPads, Nooks or others) and e-replica editions (full online reproductions of newspapers, typically viewed on a computer). Source:
  6. 6. 6 Major Trends Paywalls • Digital pay plans are being adopted at 450 of the country‘s 1,380 dailies and appear to be working not just at The New York Times but also at small and mid-sized papers.1 • digital paywall movement has circulation revenues holding steady or rising with the help of increases in print subscriptions and single-copy price. • Together with the other new revenue streams, these added circulation revenues are rebalancing the industry‘s portfolio from its historic over-dependence on advertising.
  7. 7. 7 Today‘s Strategy for Survival Generate New Revenue Paywalls New Ad Models New Distribution Methods Online Mobile Reduce Expenses Reduce Staff Eliminate Sections
  8. 8. 8 Circulation Stabilizes
  9. 9. 9 Source: news/blog/top25-usnewspapersfor-march2013.aspx
  10. 10. 10 • Newspapers may include digital editions — tablet or smartphone apps, PDF replicas, metered or restricted-access websites, or e-reader editions — in their total circulation. • Digital editions now account for 19.3 percent of U.S. daily newspapers‘ total average circulation, up from 14.2 percent in March 2012. • Branded editions, which are newspaper-owned products such as commuter, community, alternative-language or Sunday-Select type newspapers, may also be included in total circulation. Branded editions account for 5.1 percent of U.S. newspapers‘ total average circulation, up from 4.5 percent in March 2012. • - See more at:
  11. 11. 11 Print to Digital: The Slow Transition
  12. 12. 12 Shrinking Newsroom Workforce
  13. 13. 13 Why Newspapers Matter • Newspaper Association of America – NAA • Newspaper industry trade group NAA Introductory Video: =YBJ3S1InGXk&list=PL4cY4TLC UVY_Mo9mHR_bBCL74FPE9a6- Jim Moroney III, Chairman/Publisher, Dallas Morning News 0RPx8&list=PL4cY4TLCUVY_Mo9mHR_b BCL74FPE9a-6-
  14. 14. 14 Newsroom Culture???: Source:
  15. 15. 15 Defining Key Newsroom Positions PUBLISHER • The publisher is responsible for all of the operations of the newspaper, both editorial and business. The main job of the publisher is to see that the newspaper remains financially healthy. EDITOR The editor is responsible for all of the editorial content of the newspaper and for the budgets and money spent by the editorial side of the newspaper. Often on smaller papers, the publisher and editor are the same person. Source:
  16. 16. 16 Defining Key Newsroom Positions EDITORIAL PAGE EDITOR • The editorial page editor is responsible for the editorial page and the "op-ed" page of the newspaper. These pages are where the newspaper's editorials are printed as well as letters to the editor, columns by syndicated columnists and guest columns by local people. MANAGING EDITOR The is the person who is in charge of the day-to-day production of the newspaper. Source:
  17. 17. 17 Defining Key Newsroom Positions CITY EDITOR • The city editor -sometimes called the metro editor -- is in charge of the news coverage of the area in which the newspaper is located. That position is one of the most important on the staff. The city editor usually has the largest staff and assigns most of the local news reporters. NEWS REPORTER A news reporter rather information about news stories in the local area. A beat reporter covers the same subject or location all the time; a general assignment reporter covers any story assigned by the city editor or assistant city editor. Source:
  18. 18. 18 Defining Key Newsroom Positions CHIEF COPY EDITOR • The chief copy editor is in charge of the newspaper's copydesk. The people on the copydesk read news stories (and sometimes stories from other sections) to make sure they are written according to the newspaper's standards. The chief copy editor makes final decisions about the copy and is in charge of the staffing of the desk. NEWS REPORTER A news reporter rather information about news stories in the local area. A beat reporter covers the same subject or location all the time; a general assignment reporter covers any story assigned by the city editor or assistant city editor. Source:
  19. 19. 19 Defining Key Newsroom Positions COPY EDITOR • A copy editor is specially trained to read the stories that other have written and make sure they conform with the rules of grammar and style. A copy editor also writes headlines and performs other duties that help produce the newspaper every day. PHOTO EDITOR • A photo editor is not a photographer, although it is often the case that the photo editor is a former photographer. This editor assigns photographers and helps select the photos that the newspaper prints.
  20. 20. 20 Defining Key Newsroom Positions PHOTOGRAPHER • A photographer takes pictures of local news events for the newspaper. A photographer might have a variety of assignments each day. Larger newspapers have a staff of sports photographers, but on most newspaper, a photographer will be assigned to shoot sports stories as well as news events. GRAPHICS EDITOR • The graphics editor is the head of the graphics department, sometimes called the "art department." This editor is in charge of all of the graphics and illustrations produced for the newspaper.
  21. 21. 21 Defining Key Newsroom Positions GRAPHICS REPORTER GRAPHICS EDITOR • A graphics reporter • The graphics editor is researches and designs the head of the graphics informational graphics department, sometimes that support news called the "art stories the paper. A department." This editor graphics reporter is an is in charge of all of the expert in graphic forms graphics and illustrations and also must be able to produced for the local information that newspaper. can be used to build graphics. Source:
  22. 22. The Journalists‘ Flow Chart Idea Publish Report Revise Write Edit
  23. 23. Newsworthiness Timeliness Unique Proximity Helpfulness Impact Human Interest Entertainment Celebrities Dramatic
  24. 24. 24 The Inverted Pyramid The Lead Backing Up the Lead The Nut Graph – ‘So What Graph?’ Lead Quote Impact
  25. 25. 25 Typical News Story Structure A student at a Nevada middle school opened fire with a semi-automatic handgun on campus just before the starting bell Monday, wounding two 12-year-old boys and killing a math teacher who was trying to protect children from their classmate. The unidentified shooter killed himself with the gun after a rampage that occurred in front of 20 to 30 horrified students who had just returned to school from a weeklong fall break. Authorities did not provide a motive for the shooting, and it's unknown where the student got the gun. Lead Nut Graf Teacher Michael Landsberry was being hailed for his actions during the shooting outside Sparks Middle School. "In my estimation, he is a hero. ... We do know he was trying to intervene," Reno Deputy Police Chief Tom Robinson said. Both wounded students were listed in stable condition. One was shot in the shoulder, and the other was hit in the abdomen. Lead Quote Backing up the lead
  26. 26. 26 What Every News Story Has • Headline • Sometimes a subhead • Quotes from key sources • People, documents or live events • Attribution • Who said what • Background / Details / History • Facts / Analysis • AP Style
  27. 27. 27 Newspaper Writing Style • Eliminate unnecessary words Bad Best Appoint to the post of appoint Conduct an investigation into Investigate Rose to the defense of defended Succeed in doing do Shot to death shot Devoured by flames burned
  28. 28. 28 Basic To-Dos of a Journalist • Be concise • Verify Check, double- • Be specific check and check again • Keep it simple: ―If I were telling this story to a friend, how would I tell it …‖ • Avoid exaggeration • Always remember the readers • Use strong, active verbs • Focus on ‗so what‘ • Be objective • Attribute opinions • Do extensive, exhaustive reporting
  29. 29. 29 21st Century Newspapers & Newsrooms • Convergence is a reality • Multiplatform gathering and presentation of news the norm • Adapt or die • The Guardian Newspapers in London: yXT_1pvDv4
  30. 30. 30 The Newsroom – Converged /Multiplatform In 2006, Gannett restructured all of its news operations into seven desks: Digital - Accelerates the speed and volume of news and information posted on multiple digital and print platforms. - The heart of the newsroom Source: Principles of Convergent Journalism, p. 56 Local - Focus is to expand the coverage so it includes hyper-local stories. - MoJos: mobile journalists providing coverage of breaking news
  31. 31. 31 The Newsroom – Converged /Multiplatform – Gannett‘s strategy cont. Data - Figuring out ways to present the information gathered in new ways - Taking events, entertainment news and presenting it in searchable, interactive formats Source: Principles of Convergent Journalism, p. 56 Multimedia - Visual presentation: photos and video - Photographers responsible for both stills and video
  32. 32. 32 The Newsroom – Converged /Multiplatform – Gannett‘s strategy cont. Custom Content - Create content that targets certain types of readership, like niche magazines - Define targeted audiences to generate loyal readers on specific topics Source: Principles of Convergent Journalism, p. 56 Public Service - Engaging readers / citizen journalists to ―crowd source‖ stories - Create interactive, searchable databases of information - Tapping into the community to help the newspaper fulfill its watchdog role
  33. 33. 33 The Newsroom – Converged /Multiplatform – Gannett‘s strategy cont. Community Conversation - Expanding editorial page using blogs and other online forms as well as traditional editorial columns. - Inviting public to create and host forums to discuss community issues Source: Principles of Convergent Journalism, p. 56
  34. 34. 34 Today‘s Discuss Question • Publisher Jim Moroney says that in 10 years he and other newspaper publishers will be drinking champagne while the critics will be eating crow. He says newspaper folks have to rally together to fight off the naysayers and give them a dose of ―whipa—‖ • Pick a side: A newspaper proponent or a newspaper naysayer. • Give three reasons why you support or don‘t support the future of newspapers