Journalism news&democracy chapters 1- 3(2)


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  • As you move through these metaphors, you’ll want to offer lots of current examples of stories that show the metaphor in action.
  • Here it might be useful to use the maps and rankings of press freedom created by Freedom House or Reporters Without Borders to illustrate the basic point that the press seems to be most free in those places with democratic forms of government and, beyond that, to discuss differences in those democratic nations’ approaches to press freedom.
  • As you go through these, you might consider not only giving examples of stories that perform each of these functions, but stories that at first glance look like they’re doing so, but are actually not/ This is a way of talking about the distinctions – visited again in Chapter 2 – among news, information and journalism, as well as of talking about all the kinds of things masquerading as journalism in the media.
  • Journalism news&democracy chapters 1- 3(2)

    1. 1. The Mirror, the Watchdog and the Marketplace Principles of News JOUR 2300 Professor Neil Foote Mayborn School of Journalism
    2. 2. 2 Group Assignments • Each group leader is responsible for: 1. Leading his/her group in a 20 – 30 minute discussion during class time to respond to the assigned questions based on the readings 2. Be ready – upon request – to personally respond or have a team member respond to key questions about the readings, e.g. offering a summary of an article, highlighting major themes or findings or identifying the most significant sources or people featured in story 3. Report attendance of group to the Graduate Assistant
    3. 3. 3 Group Assignments • Each group should choose only one of the following questions to prepare for:  Chapter One, Question No. 1, p. 27  Chapter Two, Question No. 2, p. 57  Chapter Three, Question No. 1, p. 81
    4. 4. Lasantha Wickramatunga “The free media serve as a mirror in which the public can see itself sans mascara and styling gel.”
    5. 5. 5 Journalism a key player in democracy Information dissemination Representation Deliberation Conflict resolution Accountability Needs of self-governance include:
    6. 6. 6 Information dissemination • Democracy requires a method for distributing all the information people need to make decisions and govern themselves
    7. 7. 7 Accountability • Holding the power accountable, responsible for their actions – actions that affect all members of societies
    8. 8. 8 Representation • All people have a chance to be heard – regardless of race, income, education attainment • Providing voice to voiceless
    9. 9. 9 Deliberation • Create a forum in which the interests of the public can be aired and debated
    10. 10. 10 Conflict resolution • Allow for the diversity of ideas to be discussed so some kind of conclusion can be reached
    11. 11. 11 Three common metaphors • The Mirror • Journalism shows us who we are • The Watchdog • Journalism alerts us to what needs attention • The Marketplace • Journalism offers us ideas to consider and a place to discuss options
    12. 12. 12 The press as a mirror • Fulfills democratic needs for: •Information dissemination •Representation
    13. 13. 13 The press as a watchdog •Fulfills democratic needs for: •Accountability •Information dissemination
    14. 14. 14 The press as a marketplace •Fulfills democratic needs for: •Representation •Deliberation •Conflict resolution
    15. 15. Is the role of journalism more or less important than 200 years ago?
    16. 16. 16 Journalism and democracy around the world • What does it mean for the press in a country to be free? • Free from what? • Free to do what? • Which nation’s press is most free? Least free? • What kinds of challenges to press freedom exist in countries, both free and not so free? • Why is press freedom important?
    17. 17. 17 The vanguard of liberties • “A popular Government, without popular information, or the means of acquiring it, is but Prologue to a Farce or a Tragedy; or, perhaps both.” James Madison
    18. 18. Journalism Investigates Creates conversation Generates social empathy Encourages accountability Informs
    19. 19. 19 Social responsibility theory • What happens when the press doesn’t perform those functions? • Hutchins Commission: Free press in danger • In danger of what? • What was to blame? • “Behave, or else!” • Gave rise to the idea of journalism as a profession • Along with freedoms come (public) responsibilities
    20. 20. 20 Freedom and responsibility But if we say it MUST perform them, then how free is it, really? Has to be FREE to perform those functions Performs necessary functions “The press” is important to democracy
    21. 21. 21 Chapter 1 - KEY Takeaways • Journalism plays an important role in democratic self-governance • Performs functions related to information dissemination, accountability, representation, deliberation and conflict resolution • The mirror, watchdog and marketplace metaphors are common ways of describing those functions
    22. 22. 22 Chapter 1 - KEY Takeaways •Journalism must be free to perform those functions, but also responsible for doing so •A key tension in journalism •Many barriers to performing necessary functions • Elements of Hutchins Commission still ring true today
    23. 23. 23 What Is Journalism? •You Define?????
    24. 24. 24 Our definition • Journalism is a set of transparent, independent procedures aimed at gathering, verifying and reporting truthful information of consequence to citizens in a democracy.
    25. 25. Key adjectives Transparent • About what? • Open • Accountable • Similar to…? • Necessary, but difficult Independent • From whom? • Free • No divided loyalties • Similar to…? • Also difficult
    26. 26. 26 Kovach & Rosentiel: Elements of journalism 1. Obligation to truth 2. Loyalty to citizens 3. Discipline of verification 4. Independence from those they cover 5. Monitor of power 6. Forum for criticism/compromise 7. Make the significant interesting and relevant 8. Comprehensive and proportional 9. Personal conscience
    27. 27. 27 Let’s discuss • Which news organizations do you consider the most accurate and credible? Why? • What makes one news organization more credible than the other? • What drives the perception? • Types of stories? Political viewpoint? Quality of writing/reporting? Pictures?
    28. 28. What does the definition omit? Objective • What does that really mean? • What’s in the definition that addresses objectivity-like concerns? Professional • Suggests status or authority • Implies standards are a defining feature • So why not include?
    29. 29. 29 Aren’t “news” and “journalism” the same thing? • Check out this definition: • “A current, reasoned reflection, in print or telecommunications, of society’s events, needs and values” • News can mean different things in different places • Our definition suggests information is the raw material of journalism. • Is news the output? Why or why not?
    30. 30. 30 A person or a practice? • Less concerned about whether or not to label a person a “journalist” • More concerned about whether the process is “journalistic” • People committing “acts” of journalism
    31. 31. Citizen journalism • The idea behind citizen journalism is that people without professional journalism training can use the tools of modern technology and the global distribution of the Internet to create, augment or fact-check media on their own or in collaboration with others.
    32. 32. 32 Credibility based on… • Trustworthiness • Expertise • How do we know? • Interestingly, the cues we’ve used for a long time might be getting lost in the shuffle
    33. 33. Journalism is not… PR or Advertising • First loyalty to client, not the public Entertainment • Entertainment, not democratic information, is primary function
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    41. 41. 44 Chapter 3 – How News is Made • Distinctions among news, information and journalism • Criteria of newsworthiness • The news-making process • Beats • Enterprise stories • Pseudo events • News as a construction • Commodification of news
    42. 42. 45 Newsworthiness Timeliness Proximity Unique Human Interest Impact Helpfulness Celebrities Entertainment Dramatic
    43. 43. 46 Where does news come from? • Spontaneous • Random • Extraordinary • Planned/staged: Press releases, press conferences • Beats • Enterprise/investigative
    44. 44. News v. information? • News • Reported: interviews with knowledgeable sources • Requires judgment • Verified • Transparent • Organized • Answers the questions: who? What? Where? Why? When? • Information • Anyone can share information • It’s everywhere – become a commodity • Not always fact- based
    45. 45. 48 What’s news? • Rescued Subway Kitties, Arthur and August, Getting "Much-Needed TLC": ACC • Service was suspended for about an hour on the B and Q lines when the kittens ran on the tracks last week • Subway-Tracks-Brooklyn-MTA-Delays-Shut- Down--221662261.html
    46. 46. 49 Let’s discuss… • Do readers and viewers understand the difference between information? News? Journalism? • Examples????
    47. 47. 50 Let’s discuss… • Are certain types of media better at conveying stories with certain types of news values? • Examples????