INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
Leif Ericson and the Vikings?Leif Ericson and the Vikings?
L’Anse aux Meadows inL’Anse aux Meadows in
NewfoundlandNewfoundland
Restoration of L’Anse auxRestoration of L’Anse aux
MeadowsMeadows
Christopher Columbus?Christopher Columbus?
Jamestown, Virginia?Jamestown, Virginia?
(the first successful English colony)(the first successful English colony)
Models for M C HammerModels for M C Hammer
at early Jamestownat early Jamestown
The American Revolution?The American Revolution?
Who were the first Americans andWho were the first Americans and
when did they arrive?when did they arrive?
Aleuts (aka Es...
The first Americans were fromThe first Americans were from
Siberia?!Siberia?!
Early Americans were in the StoneEarly Americans were in the Stone
Age, technologicallyAge, technologically
Stone Age hand...
Early Americans migrated throughEarly Americans migrated through
the ice fields of North America . . .the ice fields of No...
Part of the ice field still exists, stillPart of the ice field still exists, still
1,000 feet thick1,000 feet thick
. . . through Central and South. . . through Central and South
AmericaAmerica
North American Plains IndiansNorth American Plains Indians
Many varieties of Indians by 1492Many varieties of Indians by 1492
Central
America
Brazil
Florida New Mexico
BrazilBrazil
EUROPEANEUROPEAN
DISCOVERY ANDDISCOVERY AND
COLONIZATIONCOLONIZATION
Gold, Glory, and GodGold, Glory, and God
Gold from the New World Glory for the mother
country
Bringing God to the Indians
New World claimed by severalNew World claimed by several
European countriesEuropean countries
Portuguese in Brazil
Spanish...
English colonies of North AmericaEnglish colonies of North America
Three types of colonial governmentThree types of colonial government
Royal: owned and controlled by king/queenRoyal: owned...
Roanoke Island: first EnglishRoanoke Island: first English
attempt at colonization failsattempt at colonization fails
(158...
The “Lost Colony” of RoanokeThe “Lost Colony” of Roanoke
Sir Walter Raleigh, fancy
dresser and founder
of the colony of Ro...
The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
Jamestown, VirginiaJamestown, Virginia (1607)(1607)
The first successful English colonyThe first successful English colony
Virginia, the First English ColonyVirginia, the First English Colony
(1607)(1607)
 Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded...
King James IKing James I
Early JamestownEarly Jamestown
Established on low, swampy, unhealthy site
Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony
(1607)(1607)
 Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded...
““Smith – John Smith”Smith – John Smith”
The James Bond of the 1600sThe James Bond of the 1600s
Like James Bond, taken in andLike James Bond, taken in and
protected by half-naked womenprotected by half-naked women
Like James Bond, a knight inLike James Bond, a knight in
shining armor who always wonshining armor who always won
Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony
(1607)(1607)
 Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded...
Wars with the local Indians, includingWars with the local Indians, including
two massacrestwo massacres (1611, 1622)(1611,...
Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony
(1607)(1607)
 Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded...
From failure to successFrom failure to success
 Developed tobacco as a cash cropDeveloped tobacco as a cash crop (1612)(1...
John RolfeJohn Rolfe
Cartoon character, farmer, husbandCartoon character, farmer, husband
Putting the moves
on Pocahontas
...
PocahontasPocahontas
From failure to successFrom failure to success
 Developed tobacco as a cash cropDeveloped tobacco as a cash crop (1612)(1...
Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony
(1607)(1607)
 Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded...
First Africans landed at JamestownFirst Africans landed at Jamestown
in 1619in 1619
The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
Colonies in New EnglandColonies in New England
PlymouthPlymouth (1620)(1620)
 Settled by the Pilgrims (aka Separatists) to escapeSettled by the Pilgrims (aka Separatist...
The First Thanksgiving?The First Thanksgiving?
Pilgrims and friendly Indians celebrate in 1621
Earlier ThanksgivingsEarlier Thanksgivings
 Native American tribes had similarNative American tribes had similar
celebrat...
The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
Colonies in New EnglandColonies in New England
MassachusettsMassachusetts (1630)(1630)
 Settled by the Puritans for religious reasonsSettled by the Puritans for religio...
The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
New YorkNew York (1624 or 1664)(1624 or 1664)
 Settled by the Dutch for riches and empireSettled by the Dutch for riches ...
The purchase of Manhattan Island:The purchase of Manhattan Island:
Indians scam the EuropeansIndians scam the Europeans (1...
New YorkNew York (1624 or 1664)(1624 or 1664)
 Settled by the Dutch for riches and empireSettled by the Dutch for riches ...
The Duke of York:The Duke of York:
proprietor and fashion victimproprietor and fashion victim
The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
PennsylvaniaPennsylvania (1682)(1682)
 Founded by William Penn as a religiousFounded by William Penn as a religious
haven...
William PennWilliam Penn
Proprietor of PennsylvaniaProprietor of Pennsylvania
Notice any similarity?
Quaker women allowed to speakQuaker women allowed to speak
up in religious services!up in religious services!
The Quakers were moreThe Quakers were more
enlightened than their dogs.enlightened than their dogs.
Penn’sPenn’s Frame of GovernmentFrame of Government
The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
GeorgiaGeorgia (1733)(1733)
 Founded by wealthy EnglishFounded by wealthy English
philanthropists, led by James Oglethorp...
The Trustees (aka proprietors) ofThe Trustees (aka proprietors) of
GeorgiaGeorgia
James OglethorpeJames Oglethorpe
The Lon...
Silk worms were supposed toSilk worms were supposed to
support the settlers of Georgiasupport the settlers of Georgia
Silk...
GeorgiaGeorgia (1733)(1733)
 Founded by wealthy EnglishFounded by wealthy English
philanthropists, led by James Oglethorp...
THE COLONIES AS PARTTHE COLONIES AS PART
OF THE ENGLISH EMPIREOF THE ENGLISH EMPIRE
MercantilismMercantilism
 Definition: an economic system to increase nationalDefinition: an economic system to increase n...
Enumerated commoditiesEnumerated commodities
sugarsugar cottoncotton
indigoindigo
tobaccotobacco
Shipbuilding in EnglandShipbuilding in England
No direct trade from other EuropeanNo direct trade from other European
countries to English coloniescountries to English c...
THE ANGLO-FRENCHTHE ANGLO-FRENCH
CONFLICTCONFLICT (1680s-1780s)(1680s-1780s)
British and French struggle forBritish and French struggle for
control of North Americacontrol of North America
Competition for dominanceCompetition for dominance
between British and Frenchbetween British and French
Forming allies thr...
Five warsFive wars (1680s-1780s)(1680s-1780s)
 King William’s WarKing William’s War (1689-97)(1689-97)
 Queen Anne’s War...
Iroquois warriorsIroquois warriors
Treaty of UtrechtTreaty of Utrecht (1713)(1713)
France loses territory in CanadaFrance loses territory in Canada
page178.j...
French & Indian War begins inFrench & Indian War begins in
southwest Pennsylvaniasouthwest Pennsylvania (1754)(1754)
page1...
Where the French & Indian WarWhere the French & Indian War
began: Fort Necessity in PAbegan: Fort Necessity in PA
Prime Minister William PittPrime Minister William Pitt
The Battle of QuebecThe Battle of Quebec (1759)(1759)
French & Indian War removesFrench & Indian War removes
French from North AmericaFrench from North America (1763)(1763)
Ad for Franklin’s Plan of UnionAd for Franklin’s Plan of Union
THE AMERICANTHE AMERICAN
REVOLUTION AS ANREVOLUTION AS AN
AFTERMATH OF THEAFTERMATH OF THE
FRENCH & INDIAN WARFRENCH & IND...
The French RevolutionThe French Revolution (1789-99)(1789-99)
The Bolshevik Revolution in RussiaThe Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
(1917)(1917)
The Chinese RevolutionThe Chinese Revolution (1949)(1949)
Protesting the writs of assistanceProtesting the writs of assistance
Patrick Henry, denouncer of thePatrick Henry, denouncer of the
royal vetoroyal veto
The French threat is goneThe French threat is gone
Colonists protest British taxesColonists protest British taxes
THE EVENTS LEADINGTHE EVENTS LEADING
TO THE REVOLUTIONTO THE REVOLUTION
One of several stampsOne of several stamps
of the infamous Stamp Actof the infamous Stamp Act (1765)(1765)
““Can you believe this #x~+$!”Can you believe this #x~+$!”
““Damn if I pay that tax!”Damn if I pay that tax!”
Collecting the Townshend taxesCollecting the Townshend taxes
could get you tarred and featheredcould get you tarred and fe...
The “Boston massacre”The “Boston massacre”
Resistance to the Tea ActResistance to the Tea Act
Coercive (aka Intolerable) ActsCoercive (aka Intolerable) Acts
 Boston Port ActBoston Port Act: closed port of Boston: cl...
A political cartoon protesting theA political cartoon protesting the
Intolerable ActsIntolerable Acts
The 1The 1stst
Continental Congress metContinental Congress met
in Philadelphia’s Carpenter’s Hallin Philadelphia’s Carpen...
The midnight ride of Paul RevereThe midnight ride of Paul Revere
(and Samuel Prescott and William Dawes)(and Samuel Presco...
The shooting startsThe shooting starts
at Lexington and Concordat Lexington and Concord
The “battle” of LexingtonThe “battle” of Lexington
Battle of Bunker HillBattle of Bunker Hill
British soldiers march up the hill inBritish soldiers march up the hill in
the Battle of Bunker Hillthe Battle of Bunker H...
Thomas Paine and his pamphletThomas Paine and his pamphlet
Amendments to Jefferson’s draft ofAmendments to Jefferson’s draft of
the Declaration of Independencethe Declaration of Ind...
Jefferson and his committee presentJefferson and his committee present
the Declaration of Independencethe Declaration of I...
Was the American RevolutionWas the American Revolution
“conservative”?“conservative”?
Purpose: toPurpose: to hold ontohold...
THE AMERICAN WARTHE AMERICAN WAR
OF INDEPENDENCEOF INDEPENDENCE
Von Steuben curses his AmericanVon Steuben curses his American
students at Valley Forgestudents at Valley Forge
The Marquis de Lafayette: a majorThe Marquis de Lafayette: a major
general at age 20general at age 20
The first U.S. constitution:The first U.S. constitution:
The Articles of ConfederationThe Articles of Confederation
Washington crosses the DelawareWashington crosses the Delaware
River on his way toRiver on his way to
the Battle of Trento...
George and the Americans kickGeorge and the Americans kick
some Hessian butt at Trentonsome Hessian butt at Trenton
Horatio Gates and “GentlemanHoratio Gates and “Gentleman
Johnny” BurgoyneJohnny” Burgoyne
The Battle of SaratogaThe Battle of Saratoga
Who could fight in hats like those?Who could fight in hats like those?
Washington and Lafayette shiverWashington and Lafayette shiver
with the troops at Valley Forgewith the troops at Valley Fo...
The Americans and the FrenchThe Americans and the French
close in on Cornwallis at Yorktownclose in on Cornwallis at Yorkt...
Washington and CornwallisWashington and Cornwallis
The British surrenderThe British surrender
at Yorktown, Virginiaat Yorktown, Virginia (1781)(1781)
The guy who really defeated theThe guy who really defeated the
British at Yorktown and won theBritish at Yorktown and won ...
U.S. representatives at Paris peaceU.S. representatives at Paris peace
talks: Franklin, Jay, Adamstalks: Franklin, Jay, Ad...
Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris (1783)(1783)
 British recognized U.S. independenceBritish recognized U.S. independence
 B...
The Treaty of Paris changed theThe Treaty of Paris changed the
map of North Americamap of North America
THE CRITICAL PERIODTHE CRITICAL PERIOD
OF AMERICANOF AMERICAN
HISTORYHISTORY
The Critical PeriodThe Critical Period
Thumbs up or down on the USA?Thumbs up or down on the USA?
The Articles of ConfederationThe Articles of Confederation
The Northwest TerritoryThe Northwest Territory
Mt. VernonMt. Vernon
Independence Hall in PhiladelphiaIndependence Hall in Philadelphia
Site of the constitutional conventionSite of the consti...
George Washington presides at theGeorge Washington presides at the
Philadelphia ConventionPhiladelphia Convention
The room where the constitutionThe room where the constitution
was written, as it appeared in 1787was written, as it appea...
Players at the constitutionalPlayers at the constitutional
conventionconvention
James MadisonJames Madison
Roger ShermanRo...
Patrick Henry didn’t attend. Said hePatrick Henry didn’t attend. Said he
“smelled a rat.”“smelled a rat.”
The FederalistThe Federalist and its authorsand its authors
HamiltonHamilton MadisonMadison
JayJay
Ratification celebration in New YorkRatification celebration in New York
George Mason & James MadisonGeorge Mason & James Madison
Authors of the Bill of RightsAuthors of the Bill of Rights
THE NEW NATIONTHE NEW NATION
STRUGGLES TOSTRUGGLES TO
SURVIVESURVIVE
Alexander HamiltonAlexander Hamilton
11stst
Secretary of the TreasurySecretary of the Treasury
Hamilton’s fiscal planHamilton’s fiscal plan
 Pay off the entire debt, federal and statePay off the entire debt, federal ...
Funding and assumptionFunding and assumption
 Funding: accumulating enough money toFunding: accumulating enough money to
...
Bank of the United StatesBank of the United States
in Philadelphiain Philadelphia
Strict and loose constructionStrict and loose construction
 Strict constructionStrict construction: if X isn’t listed in ...
The Jay Treaty made JayThe Jay Treaty made Jay
unpopularunpopular
Damn John Jay! Damn everyone that won'tDamn John Jay! Da...
Pres. John Adams kept the navalPres. John Adams kept the naval
war with France undeclaredwar with France undeclared
Jefferson and Hamilton led the firstJefferson and Hamilton led the first
two political partiestwo political parties
Leader...
The visions of Jefferson andThe visions of Jefferson and
Hamilton for the new nationHamilton for the new nation
 Jefferso...
Pres. Washington reviews thePres. Washington reviews the
troops sent to suppress thetroops sent to suppress the
whiskey re...
Pres. John Adams signed the AlienPres. John Adams signed the Alien
& Sedition Acts& Sedition Acts (1798)(1798)
Authors of the Kentucky & VirginiaAuthors of the Kentucky & Virginia
Resolutions and best budsResolutions and best buds
Th...
THE NEW NATIONTHE NEW NATION
GROWS UPGROWS UP
The Virginia DynastyThe Virginia Dynasty
1801-251801-25
Candidates in the election of 1800Candidates in the election of 1800
JeffersonJefferson
Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-Re...
MarburyMarbury vsvs. Madison. Madison
Justice of the PeaceJustice of the Peace
William MarburyWilliam Marbury
Secretary of...
Chief Justice John MarshallChief Justice John Marshall
Key figuresKey figures
in the Louisiana Purchasein the Louisiana Purchase
Key figuresKey figures
in the Louisiana Purchasein the Louisiana Purchase
Napoleon wanted to sellNapoleon wanted to sell J...
The Louisiana PurchaseThe Louisiana Purchase
Raising of the U.S. flag over theRaising of the U.S. flag over the
Louisiana PurchaseLouisiana Purchase
Trail of Lewis & Clark (1804-06)Trail of Lewis & Clark (1804-06)
The War of 1812The War of 1812
 CausesCauses
 U.S. advantages and disadvantagesU.S. advantages and disadvantages
 Treat...
The HMSThe HMS LeopardLeopard fires on the USSfires on the USS
ChesapeakeChesapeake (1807)(1807)
The British navy “impresses” sailorsThe British navy “impresses” sailors
on U.S. shipson U.S. ships
The British burn Washington, DCThe British burn Washington, DC
18141814
The British approach New OrleansThe British approach New Orleans
General Andrew JacksonGeneral Andrew Jackson
The British attack Gen. Jackson’sThe British attack Gen. Jackson’s
“motley crew”“motley crew”
The Battle of New OrleansThe Battle of New Orleans
Down go the British! Down go theDown go the British! Down go the
British!British!
The 2The 2ndnd
Bank of the United StatesBank of the United States
PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia (1816-36)(1816-36)
Old Supreme Court chamber whereOld Supreme Court chamber where
McCulloch vs. Maryland was decidedMcCulloch vs. Maryland wa...
Chief Justice John MarshallChief Justice John Marshall
The 36-30 line split the LouisianaThe 36-30 line split the Louisiana
PurchasePurchase
President James Monroe warnedPresident James Monroe warned
the Euroweenies to back offthe Euroweenies to back off
THE RISE OF THETHE RISE OF THE
“COMMON MAN”“COMMON MAN”
The Jacksonian PeriodThe Jacksonian Period
1820s-1830s1820s-1830s
Major candidates in the presidentialMajor candidates in the presidential
election of 1824election of 1824
Secretary of the...
Nationalist wing of the partyNationalist wing of the party
 22ndnd
Bank of the United StatesBank of the United States
 P...
Traditional wing of the partyTraditional wing of the party
Suspicious of all banksSuspicious of all banks
Low (revenue) ta...
An ad for Andrew Jackson, “theAn ad for Andrew Jackson, “the
man of the people”man of the people”
Jackson’s political philosophyJackson’s political philosophy
 States rightsStates rights
 Laissez faireLaissez faire
 S...
The “common man” at Jackson’sThe “common man” at Jackson’s
inauguration partyinauguration party (1828)(1828)
The 2The 2ndnd
B.U.S. and its presidentB.U.S. and its president
Nicholas BiddleNicholas Biddle
Andy Jackson fights “the monster”Andy Jackson fights “the monster”
Jackson the way his opponentsJackson the way his opponents
saw him – as “King Andrew” thesaw him – as “King Andrew” the
ty...
Jackson and Calhoun disagreed onJackson and Calhoun disagreed on
nullificationnullification
President Andrew JacksonPresid...
ANTI-SLAVERY ANDANTI-SLAVERY AND
PRO-SLAVERYPRO-SLAVERY
Slavery has existed for thousandsSlavery has existed for thousands
of yearsof years
Where the slaves came from andWhere the slaves came from and
where they wentwhere they went
Quakers openly criticized slaveryQuakers openly criticized slavery
as early as the 1750sas early as the 1750s
““All men are created equal. . .”All men are created equal. . .”
The American Colonization SocietyThe American Colonization Society
William Lloyd Garrison and hisWilliam Lloyd Garrison and his
newspaper,newspaper, The LiberatorThe Liberator
The Nat Turner uprising in Virginia:The Nat Turner uprising in Virginia:
Contemporary news accountContemporary news account
The “positive good” defense ofThe “positive good” defense of
slavery painted slaves as happyslavery painted slaves as happy
THE NATION BEGINSTHE NATION BEGINS
TO CRACKTO CRACK
The Sectional CrisisThe Sectional Crisis
1840s-1850s1840s-1850s
Stephen F. Austin broughtStephen F. Austin brought
immigrants from U.S. to Texasimmigrants from U.S. to Texas
Leaders at the Battle of the AlamoLeaders at the Battle of the Alamo
William TravisWilliam Travis James BowieJames Bowie D...
Scenes from the Battle of theScenes from the Battle of the
AlamoAlamo
The Battle of San JacintoThe Battle of San Jacinto
Americans fulfilled their “ManifestAmericans fulfilled their “Manifest
Destiny” by moving westDestiny” by moving west
Border dispute: the Rio Grande orBorder dispute: the Rio Grande or
the Nueces?the Nueces?
Three theaters of combat in theThree theaters of combat in the
U.S.-Mexican WarU.S.-Mexican War
Gen. Winfield Scott leads anGen. Winfield Scott leads an
amphibious invasion into Mexicoamphibious invasion into Mexico
The U.S. Army captured MexicoThe U.S. Army captured Mexico
City in September 1847City in September 1847
Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
 Mexico cedes 525,000 square miles to U.S.Mexico cedes 525,000 squ...
The Mexican CessionThe Mexican Cession (1848)(1848)
Should slavery be allowed toShould slavery be allowed to
spread into Mexican Cession?spread into Mexican Cession?
 Wilmot...
Another sectional disagreement:Another sectional disagreement:
fugitive slavesfugitive slaves
Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850
 California admitted into Union as free stateCalifornia admitted into Union as free ...
The Compromise of 1850The Compromise of 1850
changed the mapchanged the map
Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850
 California admitted into Union as free stateCalifornia admitted into Union as free ...
Buying and selling of slaves nowBuying and selling of slaves now
banned in District of Columbiabanned in District of Colum...
New fugitive-slave law made it easierNew fugitive-slave law made it easier
for owners to catch runawaysfor owners to catch...
Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850
 California admitted into Union as free stateCalifornia admitted into Union as free ...
Texas accepted its smaller, presentTexas accepted its smaller, present
borders for $10 millionborders for $10 million
Harriet Beecher Stowe and anHarriet Beecher Stowe and an
advertisement for her noveladvertisement for her novel
Senator Stephen A. Douglas of IllinoisSenator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois
The gold rush showed the need forThe gold rush showed the need for
a transcontinental railroada transcontinental railroad
A transcontinental railroad fromA transcontinental railroad from
Chicago would have to crossChicago would have to cross
un...
Woman gathering “buffalo chips” forWoman gathering “buffalo chips” for
fuel in the unorganized wildernessfuel in the unorg...
Sen. Douglas created two newSen. Douglas created two new
territories with popular sovereigntyterritories with popular sove...
Dred Scott andDred Scott and
Chief Justice Roger B. TaneyChief Justice Roger B. Taney
Scott and his owner’s family movedScott and his owner’s family moved
to free territory (now Minnesota)to free territory (n...
Dred Scott’s courthouse is in theDred Scott’s courthouse is in the
shadow of the St. Louis archshadow of the St. Louis arch
The U.S. Supreme Court chamberThe U.S. Supreme Court chamber
for the Dred Scott casefor the Dred Scott case
John BrownJohn Brown
Harpers FerryHarpers Ferry
Robert E. Lee before the Civil WarRobert E. Lee before the Civil War
The Marines assault the fire stationThe Marines assault the fire station
The fire station later became aThe fire station later became a
tourist attractiontourist attraction
The courtroom for John Brown’sThe courtroom for John Brown’s
trial in Virginiatrial in Virginia
Four major candidates for presidentFour major candidates for president
in 1860in 1860
Senator Stephen A. DouglasSenator St...
Platforms of the four partiesPlatforms of the four parties
 Douglas Democrats: popular sovereigntyDouglas Democrats: popu...
The Democratic party pulling apartThe Democratic party pulling apart
Lincoln won the electoral vote byLincoln won the electoral vote by
winning in the Northwinning in the North
South Carolina seceded firstSouth Carolina seceded first
The southern states seceded in twoThe southern states seceded in two
waves (winter & spring 1860-61)waves (winter & spring...
Spelling is importantSpelling is important
 Secede – not “succeed”Secede – not “succeed”
 Secession – not “succession”Se...
THE CIVIL WARTHE CIVIL WAR
1861-18651861-1865
Trouble at Fort Sumter inTrouble at Fort Sumter in
Charleston, SCCharleston, SC
Commanders at Fort Sumter:Commanders at Fort Sumter:
Robert Anderson and P.G.T. BeauregardRobert Anderson and P.G.T. Beaur...
First shots of the Civil War fired atFirst shots of the Civil War fired at
Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861Fort Sumter, April 1...
Location of the Battle of AntietamLocation of the Battle of Antietam
(aka Sharpsburg)(aka Sharpsburg)
Commanders at Antietam:Commanders at Antietam:
Robert E. Lee and George B. McClellanRobert E. Lee and George B. McClellan
Antietam: first battlefield in historyAntietam: first battlefield in history
photographed soon after the shootingphotograp...
Significance of the AntietamSignificance of the Antietam
campaigncampaign
 Bloodiest day of war and U.S. historyBloodiest...
The Emancipation ProclamationThe Emancipation Proclamation
freed most (not all) of the slavesfreed most (not all) of the s...
The Confederate view of LincolnThe Confederate view of Lincoln
and the Emancipation Proclamationand the Emancipation Procl...
A northern cartoon celebrating theA northern cartoon celebrating the
Emancipation ProclamationEmancipation Proclamation
The commanders at Gettysburg:The commanders at Gettysburg:
George G. Meade & Robert E. LeeGeorge G. Meade & Robert E. Lee
How the two armies arrived atHow the two armies arrived at
GettysburgGettysburg
Some of the dead at GettysburgSome of the dead at Gettysburg
Pickett’s ChargePickett’s Charge
High tide of the ConfederacyHigh tide of the Confederacy
18631863
1913 re-enactment by fo...
Commanders at VicksburgCommanders at Vicksburg
U.S. Grant and John C. PembertonU.S. Grant and John C. Pemberton
Vicksburg, MississippiVicksburg, Mississippi
A roundabout way to VicksburgA roundabout way to Vicksburg
The long siege forced civilians toThe long siege forced civilians to
live in caves they duglive in caves they dug
The capture of Vicksburg split theThe capture of Vicksburg split the
Confederacy in twoConfederacy in two
Commanders at Chattanooga:Commanders at Chattanooga:
U.S. Grant & Braxton BraggU.S. Grant & Braxton Bragg
Chattanooga was a barrier to theChattanooga was a barrier to the
heart of the Confederacyheart of the Confederacy
The charge up Missionary Ridge atThe charge up Missionary Ridge at
the Battle of Chattanoogathe Battle of Chattanooga
Significance of the ChattanoogaSignificance of the Chattanooga
campaigncampaign
 Cut lines of communication inCut lines o...
Sherman’s “March to the Sea”Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
Commanders at the siege ofCommanders at the siege of
Petersburg: Grant and LeePetersburg: Grant and Lee
Trenches around Petersburg andTrenches around Petersburg and
RichmondRichmond
The Petersburg mine explosionThe Petersburg mine explosion
Union soldiers trapped in the craterUnion soldiers trapped in the crater
at Petersburgat Petersburg
Typical Confederate soldier at TheTypical Confederate soldier at The
Crater and his typical squeezeCrater and his typical ...
Lee’s surrender at AppomattoxLee’s surrender at Appomattox
GOOD LUCK ON YOURGOOD LUCK ON YOUR
FINAL EXAMS!FINAL EXAMS!
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2610 power point(2)

  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
  2. 2. Leif Ericson and the Vikings?Leif Ericson and the Vikings?
  3. 3. L’Anse aux Meadows inL’Anse aux Meadows in NewfoundlandNewfoundland
  4. 4. Restoration of L’Anse auxRestoration of L’Anse aux MeadowsMeadows
  5. 5. Christopher Columbus?Christopher Columbus?
  6. 6. Jamestown, Virginia?Jamestown, Virginia? (the first successful English colony)(the first successful English colony)
  7. 7. Models for M C HammerModels for M C Hammer at early Jamestownat early Jamestown
  8. 8. The American Revolution?The American Revolution?
  9. 9. Who were the first Americans andWho were the first Americans and when did they arrive?when did they arrive? Aleuts (aka Eskimos) arrived in what is now Alaska about 12,000 to 20,000 years ago
  10. 10. The first Americans were fromThe first Americans were from Siberia?!Siberia?!
  11. 11. Early Americans were in the StoneEarly Americans were in the Stone Age, technologicallyAge, technologically Stone Age hand axes Stone Age hunter (original color photo from 12,000 BC, taken with Stony digital camera)
  12. 12. Early Americans migrated throughEarly Americans migrated through the ice fields of North America . . .the ice fields of North America . . .
  13. 13. Part of the ice field still exists, stillPart of the ice field still exists, still 1,000 feet thick1,000 feet thick
  14. 14. . . . through Central and South. . . through Central and South AmericaAmerica
  15. 15. North American Plains IndiansNorth American Plains Indians
  16. 16. Many varieties of Indians by 1492Many varieties of Indians by 1492 Central America Brazil Florida New Mexico BrazilBrazil
  17. 17. EUROPEANEUROPEAN DISCOVERY ANDDISCOVERY AND COLONIZATIONCOLONIZATION
  18. 18. Gold, Glory, and GodGold, Glory, and God Gold from the New World Glory for the mother country Bringing God to the Indians
  19. 19. New World claimed by severalNew World claimed by several European countriesEuropean countries Portuguese in Brazil Spanish in North, Central, and South America Russians in Alaska (1740s) French in Canada and Louisiana Several nations in Caribbean
  20. 20. English colonies of North AmericaEnglish colonies of North America
  21. 21. Three types of colonial governmentThree types of colonial government Royal: owned and controlled by king/queenRoyal: owned and controlled by king/queen Corporate: owned by settlers’ corporationCorporate: owned by settlers’ corporation Proprietary: owned by individual or small groupProprietary: owned by individual or small group
  22. 22. Roanoke Island: first EnglishRoanoke Island: first English attempt at colonization failsattempt at colonization fails (1584-1587)(1584-1587)
  23. 23. The “Lost Colony” of RoanokeThe “Lost Colony” of Roanoke Sir Walter Raleigh, fancy dresser and founder of the colony of Roanoke Only clue to disappearance of colonists: the word “Croatoan”
  24. 24. The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
  25. 25. Jamestown, VirginiaJamestown, Virginia (1607)(1607) The first successful English colonyThe first successful English colony
  26. 26. Virginia, the First English ColonyVirginia, the First English Colony (1607)(1607)  Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded by the Virginia Company (1607)(1607)  Mistakes and problems at JamestownMistakes and problems at Jamestown  John Smith to the rescueJohn Smith to the rescue (1608-09)(1608-09)  ““The Starving Time”The Starving Time” (1609-10)(1609-10)  Indian wars and massacresIndian wars and massacres (1611, 1622)(1611, 1622)  Failure turns into successFailure turns into success (1612-)(1612-)  Birth of slavery in the English coloniesBirth of slavery in the English colonies (1660s)(1660s)
  27. 27. King James IKing James I
  28. 28. Early JamestownEarly Jamestown Established on low, swampy, unhealthy site
  29. 29. Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony (1607)(1607)  Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded by the Virginia Company (1607)(1607)  Mistakes and problems at JamestownMistakes and problems at Jamestown  John Smith to the rescueJohn Smith to the rescue (1608-09)(1608-09)  ““The Starving Time”The Starving Time” (1609-10)(1609-10)  Indian wars and massacresIndian wars and massacres (1611, 1622)(1611, 1622)  Failure turns into successFailure turns into success (1612-)(1612-)  Birth of slavery in the English coloniesBirth of slavery in the English colonies (1660s)(1660s)
  30. 30. ““Smith – John Smith”Smith – John Smith” The James Bond of the 1600sThe James Bond of the 1600s
  31. 31. Like James Bond, taken in andLike James Bond, taken in and protected by half-naked womenprotected by half-naked women
  32. 32. Like James Bond, a knight inLike James Bond, a knight in shining armor who always wonshining armor who always won
  33. 33. Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony (1607)(1607)  Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded by the Virginia Company (1607)(1607)  Mistakes and problems at JamestownMistakes and problems at Jamestown  John Smith to the rescueJohn Smith to the rescue (1608-09)(1608-09)  ““The Starving Time”The Starving Time” (1609-10)(1609-10)  Indian wars and massacresIndian wars and massacres (1611, 1622)(1611, 1622)  Failure turns into successFailure turns into success (1612-)(1612-)  Birth of slavery in the English coloniesBirth of slavery in the English colonies (1660s)(1660s)
  34. 34. Wars with the local Indians, includingWars with the local Indians, including two massacrestwo massacres (1611, 1622)(1611, 1622)
  35. 35. Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony (1607)(1607)  Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded by the Virginia Company (1607)(1607)  Mistakes and problems at JamestownMistakes and problems at Jamestown  John Smith to the rescueJohn Smith to the rescue (1608-09)(1608-09)  ““The Starving Time”The Starving Time” (1609-10)(1609-10)  Indian wars and massacresIndian wars and massacres (1611, 1622)(1611, 1622)  Failure turns into successFailure turns into success (1612-)(1612-)  Birth of slavery in the English coloniesBirth of slavery in the English colonies (1660s)(1660s)
  36. 36. From failure to successFrom failure to success  Developed tobacco as a cash cropDeveloped tobacco as a cash crop (1612)(1612)  Developed the first representativeDeveloped the first representative legislature in the New Worldlegislature in the New World (1619)(1619)  Taken over by King James I and made aTaken over by King James I and made a royal colonyroyal colony (1624)(1624)
  37. 37. John RolfeJohn Rolfe Cartoon character, farmer, husbandCartoon character, farmer, husband Putting the moves on Pocahontas Experimenting with tobacco Marrying Pocahontas
  38. 38. PocahontasPocahontas
  39. 39. From failure to successFrom failure to success  Developed tobacco as a cash cropDeveloped tobacco as a cash crop (1612)(1612)  Developed the first representativeDeveloped the first representative legislature in the New Worldlegislature in the New World (1619)(1619)  Taken over by King James I and made aTaken over by King James I and made a royal colonyroyal colony (1624)(1624)
  40. 40. Virginia, the first English colonyVirginia, the first English colony (1607)(1607)  Founded by the Virginia CompanyFounded by the Virginia Company (1607)(1607)  Mistakes and problems at JamestownMistakes and problems at Jamestown  John Smith to the rescueJohn Smith to the rescue (1608-09)(1608-09)  ““The Starving Time”The Starving Time” (1609-10)(1609-10)  Indian wars and massacresIndian wars and massacres (1611, 1622)(1611, 1622)  Failure turns into successFailure turns into success (1612-)(1612-)  Birth of slavery in the English coloniesBirth of slavery in the English colonies (1660s)(1660s)
  41. 41. First Africans landed at JamestownFirst Africans landed at Jamestown in 1619in 1619
  42. 42. The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
  43. 43. Colonies in New EnglandColonies in New England
  44. 44. PlymouthPlymouth (1620)(1620)  Settled by the Pilgrims (aka Separatists) to escapeSettled by the Pilgrims (aka Separatists) to escape religious persecutionreligious persecution  The Mayflower CompactThe Mayflower Compact  The First Thanksgiving? (nope)The First Thanksgiving? (nope)  Eventually absorbed into MassachusettsEventually absorbed into Massachusetts (1691)(1691)
  45. 45. The First Thanksgiving?The First Thanksgiving? Pilgrims and friendly Indians celebrate in 1621
  46. 46. Earlier ThanksgivingsEarlier Thanksgivings  Native American tribes had similarNative American tribes had similar celebrations for hundreds of yearscelebrations for hundreds of years  Spanish explorers near El PasoSpanish explorers near El Paso (1598)(1598)  English settlers at JamestownEnglish settlers at Jamestown (1619)(1619)
  47. 47. The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
  48. 48. Colonies in New EnglandColonies in New England
  49. 49. MassachusettsMassachusetts (1630)(1630)  Settled by the Puritans for religious reasonsSettled by the Puritans for religious reasons  Started on a much larger scaleStarted on a much larger scale  Spun off other colonies in New EnglandSpun off other colonies in New England  Second only to Virginia in wealth and powerSecond only to Virginia in wealth and power
  50. 50. The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
  51. 51. New YorkNew York (1624 or 1664)(1624 or 1664)  Settled by the Dutch for riches and empireSettled by the Dutch for riches and empire (1624)(1624) Fur tradersFur traders Farmers (patroons)Farmers (patroons)  Captured by the EnglishCaptured by the English (1664)(1664)  Duke of York = proprietorDuke of York = proprietor  Along with Virginia, Pennsylvania, &Along with Virginia, Pennsylvania, & Massachusetts, one of the larger colonies by 1776Massachusetts, one of the larger colonies by 1776
  52. 52. The purchase of Manhattan Island:The purchase of Manhattan Island: Indians scam the EuropeansIndians scam the Europeans (1626)(1626)
  53. 53. New YorkNew York (1624 or 1664)(1624 or 1664)  Settled by the Dutch for riches and empireSettled by the Dutch for riches and empire (1624)(1624) Fur tradersFur traders Farmers (patroons)Farmers (patroons)  Captured by the EnglishCaptured by the English (1664)(1664)  Duke of York = proprietorDuke of York = proprietor  Along with Virginia, Pennsylvania, &Along with Virginia, Pennsylvania, & Massachusetts, one of the larger colonies by 1776Massachusetts, one of the larger colonies by 1776
  54. 54. The Duke of York:The Duke of York: proprietor and fashion victimproprietor and fashion victim
  55. 55. The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
  56. 56. PennsylvaniaPennsylvania (1682)(1682)  Founded by William Penn as a religiousFounded by William Penn as a religious haven for the Society of Friends (Quakers)haven for the Society of Friends (Quakers)  Frame of GovernmentFrame of Government (1682)(1682)  Quakers eventually outnumbered by non-Quakers eventually outnumbered by non- QuakersQuakers
  57. 57. William PennWilliam Penn Proprietor of PennsylvaniaProprietor of Pennsylvania Notice any similarity?
  58. 58. Quaker women allowed to speakQuaker women allowed to speak up in religious services!up in religious services!
  59. 59. The Quakers were moreThe Quakers were more enlightened than their dogs.enlightened than their dogs.
  60. 60. Penn’sPenn’s Frame of GovernmentFrame of Government
  61. 61. The thirteen original coloniesThe thirteen original colonies
  62. 62. GeorgiaGeorgia (1733)(1733)  Founded by wealthy EnglishFounded by wealthy English philanthropists, led by James Oglethorpephilanthropists, led by James Oglethorpe  Motives for settlement of GeorgiaMotives for settlement of Georgia  Dreamy, idealistic motives mostly failedDreamy, idealistic motives mostly failed  Became royal colonyBecame royal colony (1753)(1753)
  63. 63. The Trustees (aka proprietors) ofThe Trustees (aka proprietors) of GeorgiaGeorgia James OglethorpeJames Oglethorpe The London Trustees meet Indians from GeorgiaThe London Trustees meet Indians from Georgia
  64. 64. Silk worms were supposed toSilk worms were supposed to support the settlers of Georgiasupport the settlers of Georgia Silk worms eat mulberry leavesSilk worms eat mulberry leaves A mulberry leaf’s view ofA mulberry leaf’s view of a silk worma silk worm
  65. 65. GeorgiaGeorgia (1733)(1733)  Founded by wealthy EnglishFounded by wealthy English philanthropists, led by James Oglethorpephilanthropists, led by James Oglethorpe  Motives for settlement of GeorgiaMotives for settlement of Georgia  Dreamy, idealistic motives mostly failedDreamy, idealistic motives mostly failed  Became royal colonyBecame royal colony (1753)(1753)
  66. 66. THE COLONIES AS PARTTHE COLONIES AS PART OF THE ENGLISH EMPIREOF THE ENGLISH EMPIRE
  67. 67. MercantilismMercantilism  Definition: an economic system to increase nationalDefinition: an economic system to increase national wealth and power by heavy government regulationwealth and power by heavy government regulation and control of the nation’s economyand control of the nation’s economy  Aim: accumulate gold and silverAim: accumulate gold and silver  Three elements:Three elements: National self-sufficiencyNational self-sufficiency Favorable balance of tradeFavorable balance of trade Monopoly of trade in own empireMonopoly of trade in own empire
  68. 68. Enumerated commoditiesEnumerated commodities sugarsugar cottoncotton indigoindigo tobaccotobacco
  69. 69. Shipbuilding in EnglandShipbuilding in England
  70. 70. No direct trade from other EuropeanNo direct trade from other European countries to English coloniescountries to English colonies
  71. 71. THE ANGLO-FRENCHTHE ANGLO-FRENCH CONFLICTCONFLICT (1680s-1780s)(1680s-1780s)
  72. 72. British and French struggle forBritish and French struggle for control of North Americacontrol of North America
  73. 73. Competition for dominanceCompetition for dominance between British and Frenchbetween British and French Forming allies through tradeForming allies through trade Building fortsBuilding forts Fighting warsFighting wars
  74. 74. Five warsFive wars (1680s-1780s)(1680s-1780s)  King William’s WarKing William’s War (1689-97)(1689-97)  Queen Anne’s WarQueen Anne’s War (1702-13)(1702-13)  King George’s WarKing George’s War (1740-48)(1740-48)  French & Indian WarFrench & Indian War (1754-63)(1754-63)  American War for IndependenceAmerican War for Independence (1776-83)(1776-83)
  75. 75. Iroquois warriorsIroquois warriors
  76. 76. Treaty of UtrechtTreaty of Utrecht (1713)(1713) France loses territory in CanadaFrance loses territory in Canada page178.jpg
  77. 77. French & Indian War begins inFrench & Indian War begins in southwest Pennsylvaniasouthwest Pennsylvania (1754)(1754) page173.jpg
  78. 78. Where the French & Indian WarWhere the French & Indian War began: Fort Necessity in PAbegan: Fort Necessity in PA
  79. 79. Prime Minister William PittPrime Minister William Pitt
  80. 80. The Battle of QuebecThe Battle of Quebec (1759)(1759)
  81. 81. French & Indian War removesFrench & Indian War removes French from North AmericaFrench from North America (1763)(1763)
  82. 82. Ad for Franklin’s Plan of UnionAd for Franklin’s Plan of Union
  83. 83. THE AMERICANTHE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AS ANREVOLUTION AS AN AFTERMATH OF THEAFTERMATH OF THE FRENCH & INDIAN WARFRENCH & INDIAN WAR
  84. 84. The French RevolutionThe French Revolution (1789-99)(1789-99)
  85. 85. The Bolshevik Revolution in RussiaThe Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (1917)(1917)
  86. 86. The Chinese RevolutionThe Chinese Revolution (1949)(1949)
  87. 87. Protesting the writs of assistanceProtesting the writs of assistance
  88. 88. Patrick Henry, denouncer of thePatrick Henry, denouncer of the royal vetoroyal veto
  89. 89. The French threat is goneThe French threat is gone
  90. 90. Colonists protest British taxesColonists protest British taxes
  91. 91. THE EVENTS LEADINGTHE EVENTS LEADING TO THE REVOLUTIONTO THE REVOLUTION
  92. 92. One of several stampsOne of several stamps of the infamous Stamp Actof the infamous Stamp Act (1765)(1765)
  93. 93. ““Can you believe this #x~+$!”Can you believe this #x~+$!”
  94. 94. ““Damn if I pay that tax!”Damn if I pay that tax!”
  95. 95. Collecting the Townshend taxesCollecting the Townshend taxes could get you tarred and featheredcould get you tarred and feathered
  96. 96. The “Boston massacre”The “Boston massacre”
  97. 97. Resistance to the Tea ActResistance to the Tea Act
  98. 98. Coercive (aka Intolerable) ActsCoercive (aka Intolerable) Acts  Boston Port ActBoston Port Act: closed port of Boston: closed port of Boston  Justice ActJustice Act: moved some trials to England: moved some trials to England  Government ActGovernment Act: focused power on governor: focused power on governor  Quartering ActQuartering Act: required colonists to provide: required colonists to provide housing in their homes for British soldiershousing in their homes for British soldiers
  99. 99. A political cartoon protesting theA political cartoon protesting the Intolerable ActsIntolerable Acts
  100. 100. The 1The 1stst Continental Congress metContinental Congress met in Philadelphia’s Carpenter’s Hallin Philadelphia’s Carpenter’s Hall
  101. 101. The midnight ride of Paul RevereThe midnight ride of Paul Revere (and Samuel Prescott and William Dawes)(and Samuel Prescott and William Dawes)
  102. 102. The shooting startsThe shooting starts at Lexington and Concordat Lexington and Concord
  103. 103. The “battle” of LexingtonThe “battle” of Lexington
  104. 104. Battle of Bunker HillBattle of Bunker Hill
  105. 105. British soldiers march up the hill inBritish soldiers march up the hill in the Battle of Bunker Hillthe Battle of Bunker Hill
  106. 106. Thomas Paine and his pamphletThomas Paine and his pamphlet
  107. 107. Amendments to Jefferson’s draft ofAmendments to Jefferson’s draft of the Declaration of Independencethe Declaration of Independence
  108. 108. Jefferson and his committee presentJefferson and his committee present the Declaration of Independencethe Declaration of Independence to Congressto Congress
  109. 109. Was the American RevolutionWas the American Revolution “conservative”?“conservative”? Purpose: toPurpose: to hold ontohold onto, to, to keepkeep, to, to preservepreserve the oldthe old ways (pre-1750s) before all the recent troublesways (pre-1750s) before all the recent troubles No taxation without representationNo taxation without representation No strict enforcement of trade lawsNo strict enforcement of trade laws No aggressive searchesNo aggressive searches No king’s veto of colonial lawsNo king’s veto of colonial laws No quartering of British soldiers in homesNo quartering of British soldiers in homes
  110. 110. THE AMERICAN WARTHE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCEOF INDEPENDENCE
  111. 111. Von Steuben curses his AmericanVon Steuben curses his American students at Valley Forgestudents at Valley Forge
  112. 112. The Marquis de Lafayette: a majorThe Marquis de Lafayette: a major general at age 20general at age 20
  113. 113. The first U.S. constitution:The first U.S. constitution: The Articles of ConfederationThe Articles of Confederation
  114. 114. Washington crosses the DelawareWashington crosses the Delaware River on his way toRiver on his way to the Battle of Trentonthe Battle of Trenton
  115. 115. George and the Americans kickGeorge and the Americans kick some Hessian butt at Trentonsome Hessian butt at Trenton
  116. 116. Horatio Gates and “GentlemanHoratio Gates and “Gentleman Johnny” BurgoyneJohnny” Burgoyne
  117. 117. The Battle of SaratogaThe Battle of Saratoga Who could fight in hats like those?Who could fight in hats like those?
  118. 118. Washington and Lafayette shiverWashington and Lafayette shiver with the troops at Valley Forgewith the troops at Valley Forge
  119. 119. The Americans and the FrenchThe Americans and the French close in on Cornwallis at Yorktownclose in on Cornwallis at Yorktown
  120. 120. Washington and CornwallisWashington and Cornwallis
  121. 121. The British surrenderThe British surrender at Yorktown, Virginiaat Yorktown, Virginia (1781)(1781)
  122. 122. The guy who really defeated theThe guy who really defeated the British at Yorktown and won theBritish at Yorktown and won the war: The Patriotwar: The Patriot
  123. 123. U.S. representatives at Paris peaceU.S. representatives at Paris peace talks: Franklin, Jay, Adamstalks: Franklin, Jay, Adams
  124. 124. Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris (1783)(1783)  British recognized U.S. independenceBritish recognized U.S. independence  Boundaries: Great LakesBoundaries: Great Lakes Mississippi RiverMississippi River Spanish FloridaSpanish Florida  British agreed to leave U.S. soil immediatelyBritish agreed to leave U.S. soil immediately  Americans’ debts to British = validatedAmericans’ debts to British = validated  Congress urged states to restore rights ofCongress urged states to restore rights of the Loyalists (aka Tories)the Loyalists (aka Tories)
  125. 125. The Treaty of Paris changed theThe Treaty of Paris changed the map of North Americamap of North America
  126. 126. THE CRITICAL PERIODTHE CRITICAL PERIOD OF AMERICANOF AMERICAN HISTORYHISTORY
  127. 127. The Critical PeriodThe Critical Period Thumbs up or down on the USA?Thumbs up or down on the USA?
  128. 128. The Articles of ConfederationThe Articles of Confederation
  129. 129. The Northwest TerritoryThe Northwest Territory
  130. 130. Mt. VernonMt. Vernon
  131. 131. Independence Hall in PhiladelphiaIndependence Hall in Philadelphia Site of the constitutional conventionSite of the constitutional convention
  132. 132. George Washington presides at theGeorge Washington presides at the Philadelphia ConventionPhiladelphia Convention
  133. 133. The room where the constitutionThe room where the constitution was written, as it appeared in 1787was written, as it appeared in 1787
  134. 134. Players at the constitutionalPlayers at the constitutional conventionconvention James MadisonJames Madison Roger ShermanRoger Sherman Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin George WashingtonGeorge Washington
  135. 135. Patrick Henry didn’t attend. Said hePatrick Henry didn’t attend. Said he “smelled a rat.”“smelled a rat.”
  136. 136. The FederalistThe Federalist and its authorsand its authors HamiltonHamilton MadisonMadison JayJay
  137. 137. Ratification celebration in New YorkRatification celebration in New York
  138. 138. George Mason & James MadisonGeorge Mason & James Madison Authors of the Bill of RightsAuthors of the Bill of Rights
  139. 139. THE NEW NATIONTHE NEW NATION STRUGGLES TOSTRUGGLES TO SURVIVESURVIVE
  140. 140. Alexander HamiltonAlexander Hamilton 11stst Secretary of the TreasurySecretary of the Treasury
  141. 141. Hamilton’s fiscal planHamilton’s fiscal plan  Pay off the entire debt, federal and statePay off the entire debt, federal and state  Raise revenue with high tariff + new taxesRaise revenue with high tariff + new taxes  Create a national bankCreate a national bank
  142. 142. Funding and assumptionFunding and assumption  Funding: accumulating enough money toFunding: accumulating enough money to pay off a debtpay off a debt  Assumption: the federal government paysAssumption: the federal government pays off (assumes) debts owed by the statesoff (assumes) debts owed by the states
  143. 143. Bank of the United StatesBank of the United States in Philadelphiain Philadelphia
  144. 144. Strict and loose constructionStrict and loose construction  Strict constructionStrict construction: if X isn’t listed in plain: if X isn’t listed in plain language in the Constitution as a power oflanguage in the Constitution as a power of the federal government, then the federalthe federal government, then the federal government has no power to do Xgovernment has no power to do X  Loose constructionLoose construction: the federal government: the federal government does have the power to do X ifdoes have the power to do X if (1) X isn’t(1) X isn’t prohibitedprohibited in the Constitution andin the Constitution and (2) X helps the government carry out any of(2) X helps the government carry out any of its regular, listed (i.e., specified) powersits regular, listed (i.e., specified) powers
  145. 145. The Jay Treaty made JayThe Jay Treaty made Jay unpopularunpopular Damn John Jay! Damn everyone that won'tDamn John Jay! Damn everyone that won't damn John Jay! Damn every one that won'tdamn John Jay! Damn every one that won't put lights in his window and sit up allput lights in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!night damning John Jay! A common complaint at the time:A common complaint at the time:
  146. 146. Pres. John Adams kept the navalPres. John Adams kept the naval war with France undeclaredwar with France undeclared
  147. 147. Jefferson and Hamilton led the firstJefferson and Hamilton led the first two political partiestwo political parties Leader of the Democratic RepublicansLeader of the Democratic Republicans Leader of the FederalistsLeader of the Federalists Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson Alexander HamiltonAlexander Hamilton
  148. 148. The visions of Jefferson andThe visions of Jefferson and Hamilton for the new nationHamilton for the new nation  Jefferson:Jefferson: democratic, agrarian societydemocratic, agrarian society broad diffusion of wealthbroad diffusion of wealth sympathies with debtorssympathies with debtors feared centralized powerfeared centralized power trusted people’s abilitiestrusted people’s abilities  Hamilton:Hamilton: balanced economybalanced economy federal aid to industry, commercefederal aid to industry, commerce sympathies with creditorssympathies with creditors favored centralized powerfavored centralized power distrusted people’s abilities to govern themselvesdistrusted people’s abilities to govern themselves
  149. 149. Pres. Washington reviews thePres. Washington reviews the troops sent to suppress thetroops sent to suppress the whiskey rebelswhiskey rebels
  150. 150. Pres. John Adams signed the AlienPres. John Adams signed the Alien & Sedition Acts& Sedition Acts (1798)(1798)
  151. 151. Authors of the Kentucky & VirginiaAuthors of the Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions and best budsResolutions and best buds Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson James MadisonJames Madison
  152. 152. THE NEW NATIONTHE NEW NATION GROWS UPGROWS UP The Virginia DynastyThe Virginia Dynasty 1801-251801-25
  153. 153. Candidates in the election of 1800Candidates in the election of 1800 JeffersonJefferson Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-Republican BurrBurr Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-Republican AdamsAdams FederalistFederalist
  154. 154. MarburyMarbury vsvs. Madison. Madison Justice of the PeaceJustice of the Peace William MarburyWilliam Marbury Secretary of StateSecretary of State James MadisonJames Madison
  155. 155. Chief Justice John MarshallChief Justice John Marshall
  156. 156. Key figuresKey figures in the Louisiana Purchasein the Louisiana Purchase
  157. 157. Key figuresKey figures in the Louisiana Purchasein the Louisiana Purchase Napoleon wanted to sellNapoleon wanted to sell Jefferson wanted to buyJefferson wanted to buy
  158. 158. The Louisiana PurchaseThe Louisiana Purchase
  159. 159. Raising of the U.S. flag over theRaising of the U.S. flag over the Louisiana PurchaseLouisiana Purchase
  160. 160. Trail of Lewis & Clark (1804-06)Trail of Lewis & Clark (1804-06)
  161. 161. The War of 1812The War of 1812  CausesCauses  U.S. advantages and disadvantagesU.S. advantages and disadvantages  Treaty of Ghent (1814)Treaty of Ghent (1814)  Battle of New Orleans (1814-15)Battle of New Orleans (1814-15)  SignificanceSignificance
  162. 162. The HMSThe HMS LeopardLeopard fires on the USSfires on the USS ChesapeakeChesapeake (1807)(1807)
  163. 163. The British navy “impresses” sailorsThe British navy “impresses” sailors on U.S. shipson U.S. ships
  164. 164. The British burn Washington, DCThe British burn Washington, DC 18141814
  165. 165. The British approach New OrleansThe British approach New Orleans
  166. 166. General Andrew JacksonGeneral Andrew Jackson
  167. 167. The British attack Gen. Jackson’sThe British attack Gen. Jackson’s “motley crew”“motley crew”
  168. 168. The Battle of New OrleansThe Battle of New Orleans
  169. 169. Down go the British! Down go theDown go the British! Down go the British!British!
  170. 170. The 2The 2ndnd Bank of the United StatesBank of the United States PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia (1816-36)(1816-36)
  171. 171. Old Supreme Court chamber whereOld Supreme Court chamber where McCulloch vs. Maryland was decidedMcCulloch vs. Maryland was decided
  172. 172. Chief Justice John MarshallChief Justice John Marshall
  173. 173. The 36-30 line split the LouisianaThe 36-30 line split the Louisiana PurchasePurchase
  174. 174. President James Monroe warnedPresident James Monroe warned the Euroweenies to back offthe Euroweenies to back off
  175. 175. THE RISE OF THETHE RISE OF THE “COMMON MAN”“COMMON MAN” The Jacksonian PeriodThe Jacksonian Period 1820s-1830s1820s-1830s
  176. 176. Major candidates in the presidentialMajor candidates in the presidential election of 1824election of 1824 Secretary of the TreasurySecretary of the Treasury William CrawfordWilliam Crawford Secretary of StateSecretary of State John Quincy AdamsJohn Quincy Adams Speaker of theSpeaker of the HouseHouse Henry ClayHenry Clay SenatorSenator Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson
  177. 177. Nationalist wing of the partyNationalist wing of the party  22ndnd Bank of the United StatesBank of the United States  Protective (higher) tariffsProtective (higher) tariffs  Strong central governmentStrong central government  Loose constructionLoose construction  Henry Clay, J. A. Adams, Daniel WebsterHenry Clay, J. A. Adams, Daniel Webster
  178. 178. Traditional wing of the partyTraditional wing of the party Suspicious of all banksSuspicious of all banks Low (revenue) tariffsLow (revenue) tariffs States’ rights, laissez faire, strictStates’ rights, laissez faire, strict constructionconstruction Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren,Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, John C. CalhounJohn C. Calhoun
  179. 179. An ad for Andrew Jackson, “theAn ad for Andrew Jackson, “the man of the people”man of the people”
  180. 180. Jackson’s political philosophyJackson’s political philosophy  States rightsStates rights  Laissez faireLaissez faire  Strict constructionStrict construction  Suspicion of banksSuspicion of banks  President = “tribune ofPresident = “tribune of the people”the people”
  181. 181. The “common man” at Jackson’sThe “common man” at Jackson’s inauguration partyinauguration party (1828)(1828)
  182. 182. The 2The 2ndnd B.U.S. and its presidentB.U.S. and its president Nicholas BiddleNicholas Biddle
  183. 183. Andy Jackson fights “the monster”Andy Jackson fights “the monster”
  184. 184. Jackson the way his opponentsJackson the way his opponents saw him – as “King Andrew” thesaw him – as “King Andrew” the tyranttyrant
  185. 185. Jackson and Calhoun disagreed onJackson and Calhoun disagreed on nullificationnullification President Andrew JacksonPresident Andrew Jackson Vice-President John C. CalhounVice-President John C. Calhoun
  186. 186. ANTI-SLAVERY ANDANTI-SLAVERY AND PRO-SLAVERYPRO-SLAVERY
  187. 187. Slavery has existed for thousandsSlavery has existed for thousands of yearsof years
  188. 188. Where the slaves came from andWhere the slaves came from and where they wentwhere they went
  189. 189. Quakers openly criticized slaveryQuakers openly criticized slavery as early as the 1750sas early as the 1750s
  190. 190. ““All men are created equal. . .”All men are created equal. . .”
  191. 191. The American Colonization SocietyThe American Colonization Society
  192. 192. William Lloyd Garrison and hisWilliam Lloyd Garrison and his newspaper,newspaper, The LiberatorThe Liberator
  193. 193. The Nat Turner uprising in Virginia:The Nat Turner uprising in Virginia: Contemporary news accountContemporary news account
  194. 194. The “positive good” defense ofThe “positive good” defense of slavery painted slaves as happyslavery painted slaves as happy
  195. 195. THE NATION BEGINSTHE NATION BEGINS TO CRACKTO CRACK The Sectional CrisisThe Sectional Crisis 1840s-1850s1840s-1850s
  196. 196. Stephen F. Austin broughtStephen F. Austin brought immigrants from U.S. to Texasimmigrants from U.S. to Texas
  197. 197. Leaders at the Battle of the AlamoLeaders at the Battle of the Alamo William TravisWilliam Travis James BowieJames Bowie Davy CrockettDavy Crockett Antonio Lopez de Santa AnnaAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna
  198. 198. Scenes from the Battle of theScenes from the Battle of the AlamoAlamo
  199. 199. The Battle of San JacintoThe Battle of San Jacinto
  200. 200. Americans fulfilled their “ManifestAmericans fulfilled their “Manifest Destiny” by moving westDestiny” by moving west
  201. 201. Border dispute: the Rio Grande orBorder dispute: the Rio Grande or the Nueces?the Nueces?
  202. 202. Three theaters of combat in theThree theaters of combat in the U.S.-Mexican WarU.S.-Mexican War
  203. 203. Gen. Winfield Scott leads anGen. Winfield Scott leads an amphibious invasion into Mexicoamphibious invasion into Mexico
  204. 204. The U.S. Army captured MexicoThe U.S. Army captured Mexico City in September 1847City in September 1847
  205. 205. Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  Mexico cedes 525,000 square miles to U.S.Mexico cedes 525,000 square miles to U.S. (everything from Texas to the Pacific Ocean)(everything from Texas to the Pacific Ocean)  Mexico accepts Rio Grande as Texas borderMexico accepts Rio Grande as Texas border  U.S. pays Mexico $15 millionU.S. pays Mexico $15 million  U.S. pays Mexico’s debts ($3.25 million) to U.S.U.S. pays Mexico’s debts ($3.25 million) to U.S. citizenscitizens
  206. 206. The Mexican CessionThe Mexican Cession (1848)(1848)
  207. 207. Should slavery be allowed toShould slavery be allowed to spread into Mexican Cession?spread into Mexican Cession?  Wilmot ProvisoWilmot Proviso (1846)(1846): Congress should say: Congress should say “no”“no”  Calhoun’s Senate resolutions:Calhoun’s Senate resolutions: (1847)(1847) : the: the Constitution says “yes”Constitution says “yes”  Popular sovereigntyPopular sovereignty (1848)(1848): settlers in the: settlers in the territories should decide, yes or noterritories should decide, yes or no
  208. 208. Another sectional disagreement:Another sectional disagreement: fugitive slavesfugitive slaves
  209. 209. Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850  California admitted into Union as free stateCalifornia admitted into Union as free state  Utah and New Mexico organized as territories with popularUtah and New Mexico organized as territories with popular sovereigntysovereignty  Slave trade banned in District of ColumbiaSlave trade banned in District of Columbia  Stronger fugitive law passedStronger fugitive law passed  Texas accepted smaller, present borders for $10 million (toTexas accepted smaller, present borders for $10 million (to pay off state debt)pay off state debt)
  210. 210. The Compromise of 1850The Compromise of 1850 changed the mapchanged the map
  211. 211. Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850  California admitted into Union as free stateCalifornia admitted into Union as free state  Utah and New Mexico organized as territories with popularUtah and New Mexico organized as territories with popular sovereigntysovereignty  Slave trade banned in District of ColumbiaSlave trade banned in District of Columbia  Stronger fugitive law passedStronger fugitive law passed  Texas accepted smaller, present borders for $10 million (toTexas accepted smaller, present borders for $10 million (to pay off state debt)pay off state debt)
  212. 212. Buying and selling of slaves nowBuying and selling of slaves now banned in District of Columbiabanned in District of Columbia
  213. 213. New fugitive-slave law made it easierNew fugitive-slave law made it easier for owners to catch runawaysfor owners to catch runaways
  214. 214. Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850  California admitted into Union as free stateCalifornia admitted into Union as free state  Utah and New Mexico organized as territories with popularUtah and New Mexico organized as territories with popular sovereigntysovereignty  Slave trade banned in District of ColumbiaSlave trade banned in District of Columbia  Stronger fugitive law passedStronger fugitive law passed  Texas accepted smaller, present borders for $10 million (toTexas accepted smaller, present borders for $10 million (to pay off state debt)pay off state debt)
  215. 215. Texas accepted its smaller, presentTexas accepted its smaller, present borders for $10 millionborders for $10 million
  216. 216. Harriet Beecher Stowe and anHarriet Beecher Stowe and an advertisement for her noveladvertisement for her novel
  217. 217. Senator Stephen A. Douglas of IllinoisSenator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois
  218. 218. The gold rush showed the need forThe gold rush showed the need for a transcontinental railroada transcontinental railroad
  219. 219. A transcontinental railroad fromA transcontinental railroad from Chicago would have to crossChicago would have to cross unorganized wildernessunorganized wilderness
  220. 220. Woman gathering “buffalo chips” forWoman gathering “buffalo chips” for fuel in the unorganized wildernessfuel in the unorganized wilderness
  221. 221. Sen. Douglas created two newSen. Douglas created two new territories with popular sovereigntyterritories with popular sovereignty
  222. 222. Dred Scott andDred Scott and Chief Justice Roger B. TaneyChief Justice Roger B. Taney
  223. 223. Scott and his owner’s family movedScott and his owner’s family moved to free territory (now Minnesota)to free territory (now Minnesota)
  224. 224. Dred Scott’s courthouse is in theDred Scott’s courthouse is in the shadow of the St. Louis archshadow of the St. Louis arch
  225. 225. The U.S. Supreme Court chamberThe U.S. Supreme Court chamber for the Dred Scott casefor the Dred Scott case
  226. 226. John BrownJohn Brown
  227. 227. Harpers FerryHarpers Ferry
  228. 228. Robert E. Lee before the Civil WarRobert E. Lee before the Civil War
  229. 229. The Marines assault the fire stationThe Marines assault the fire station
  230. 230. The fire station later became aThe fire station later became a tourist attractiontourist attraction
  231. 231. The courtroom for John Brown’sThe courtroom for John Brown’s trial in Virginiatrial in Virginia
  232. 232. Four major candidates for presidentFour major candidates for president in 1860in 1860 Senator Stephen A. DouglasSenator Stephen A. Douglas Vice President John C. BreckinridgeVice President John C. Breckinridge Former U.S. senatorFormer U.S. senator John BellJohn Bell Former U.S.Former U.S. RepresentativeRepresentative AbrahamAbraham LincolnLincoln
  233. 233. Platforms of the four partiesPlatforms of the four parties  Douglas Democrats: popular sovereigntyDouglas Democrats: popular sovereignty and Unionand Union  Southern Democrats: CongressionalSouthern Democrats: Congressional protection of slavery in territories,protection of slavery in territories, acquire Cubaacquire Cuba  Constitutional Unionists: preserve theConstitutional Unionists: preserve the Union, accept Dred Scott decisionUnion, accept Dred Scott decision  Republicans: oppose spread of slavery,Republicans: oppose spread of slavery, preserve the Unionpreserve the Union
  234. 234. The Democratic party pulling apartThe Democratic party pulling apart
  235. 235. Lincoln won the electoral vote byLincoln won the electoral vote by winning in the Northwinning in the North
  236. 236. South Carolina seceded firstSouth Carolina seceded first
  237. 237. The southern states seceded in twoThe southern states seceded in two waves (winter & spring 1860-61)waves (winter & spring 1860-61)
  238. 238. Spelling is importantSpelling is important  Secede – not “succeed”Secede – not “succeed”  Secession – not “succession”Secession – not “succession”
  239. 239. THE CIVIL WARTHE CIVIL WAR 1861-18651861-1865
  240. 240. Trouble at Fort Sumter inTrouble at Fort Sumter in Charleston, SCCharleston, SC
  241. 241. Commanders at Fort Sumter:Commanders at Fort Sumter: Robert Anderson and P.G.T. BeauregardRobert Anderson and P.G.T. Beauregard
  242. 242. First shots of the Civil War fired atFirst shots of the Civil War fired at Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861
  243. 243. Location of the Battle of AntietamLocation of the Battle of Antietam (aka Sharpsburg)(aka Sharpsburg)
  244. 244. Commanders at Antietam:Commanders at Antietam: Robert E. Lee and George B. McClellanRobert E. Lee and George B. McClellan
  245. 245. Antietam: first battlefield in historyAntietam: first battlefield in history photographed soon after the shootingphotographed soon after the shooting
  246. 246. Significance of the AntietamSignificance of the Antietam campaigncampaign  Bloodiest day of war and U.S. historyBloodiest day of war and U.S. history  Ended Lee’s invasionEnded Lee’s invasion  Ended threat of European interventionEnded threat of European intervention  Led directly to Emancipation ProclamationLed directly to Emancipation Proclamation
  247. 247. The Emancipation ProclamationThe Emancipation Proclamation freed most (not all) of the slavesfreed most (not all) of the slaves
  248. 248. The Confederate view of LincolnThe Confederate view of Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamationand the Emancipation Proclamation
  249. 249. A northern cartoon celebrating theA northern cartoon celebrating the Emancipation ProclamationEmancipation Proclamation
  250. 250. The commanders at Gettysburg:The commanders at Gettysburg: George G. Meade & Robert E. LeeGeorge G. Meade & Robert E. Lee
  251. 251. How the two armies arrived atHow the two armies arrived at GettysburgGettysburg
  252. 252. Some of the dead at GettysburgSome of the dead at Gettysburg
  253. 253. Pickett’s ChargePickett’s Charge High tide of the ConfederacyHigh tide of the Confederacy 18631863 1913 re-enactment by former1913 re-enactment by former Confederates who made the originalConfederates who made the original charge fifty years earliercharge fifty years earlier
  254. 254. Commanders at VicksburgCommanders at Vicksburg U.S. Grant and John C. PembertonU.S. Grant and John C. Pemberton
  255. 255. Vicksburg, MississippiVicksburg, Mississippi
  256. 256. A roundabout way to VicksburgA roundabout way to Vicksburg
  257. 257. The long siege forced civilians toThe long siege forced civilians to live in caves they duglive in caves they dug
  258. 258. The capture of Vicksburg split theThe capture of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in twoConfederacy in two
  259. 259. Commanders at Chattanooga:Commanders at Chattanooga: U.S. Grant & Braxton BraggU.S. Grant & Braxton Bragg
  260. 260. Chattanooga was a barrier to theChattanooga was a barrier to the heart of the Confederacyheart of the Confederacy
  261. 261. The charge up Missionary Ridge atThe charge up Missionary Ridge at the Battle of Chattanoogathe Battle of Chattanooga
  262. 262. Significance of the ChattanoogaSignificance of the Chattanooga campaigncampaign  Cut lines of communication inCut lines of communication in ConfederacyConfederacy  Opened door into Deep SouthOpened door into Deep South  Led to capture of Atlanta and Sherman’sLed to capture of Atlanta and Sherman’s March to the SeaMarch to the Sea
  263. 263. Sherman’s “March to the Sea”Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
  264. 264. Commanders at the siege ofCommanders at the siege of Petersburg: Grant and LeePetersburg: Grant and Lee
  265. 265. Trenches around Petersburg andTrenches around Petersburg and RichmondRichmond
  266. 266. The Petersburg mine explosionThe Petersburg mine explosion
  267. 267. Union soldiers trapped in the craterUnion soldiers trapped in the crater at Petersburgat Petersburg
  268. 268. Typical Confederate soldier at TheTypical Confederate soldier at The Crater and his typical squeezeCrater and his typical squeeze
  269. 269. Lee’s surrender at AppomattoxLee’s surrender at Appomattox
  270. 270. GOOD LUCK ON YOURGOOD LUCK ON YOUR FINAL EXAMS!FINAL EXAMS!

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