APWH Period 3 Review


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My interpretation of the 2017 APWH Period 3 Themes and Key Concepts

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APWH Period 3 Review

  2. 2. TRADE ROUTES GET BIGGER & BETTER!  Old trade routes keep on getting more extensive as transportation & tech improve  Powerful trading cities emerge in Afro-Eurasia  Timbuktu  Swahili city-states  Baghdad  Venice  Exchange networks in Americas develop  Mississippi Valley, Andes, Mesoamerica
  3. 3. NEW TRADE ROUTES & NEW PRODUCTS!  Mesoamerican and Andean trade routes develop  Luxury goods such as porcelain from China, gems from India, and exotic animals from Africa become more common on existing trade routes  Better caravan organization & travel (caravanserai)  New compasses & astrolabes  Larger ships in the Indian Ocean  Credit systems, banking houses for loans
  4. 4. TRADE EXPANDS  States encourage commercial growth within the state  Ex. Building the Grand Canal in China  Inca road system  Minting coins & paper money in the Caliphates & China  Northern European membership in the Hanseatic League  Empires expanded and drew new people into their exchange networks  Tang & Song China  Byzantine Empire  Mongol Empire (Pax Mongolica)  Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates
  5. 5. MIGRATION ALONG & AROUND TRADE ROUTES  Pastoral groups and nomads adapt to and alter environments  Viking long ships are developed to travel rivers  Berbers breed camels to travel the Sahara  Central Asian pastoralists use horses along the steppes of the Silk Roads
  6. 6. MOVEMENT OF PEOPLES  Trade & migration led to the diffusion of existing languages and the creation of new ones:  Arabic is spread throughout the Caliphates  Bantu languages & farming techniques spread south of the Sahara  Swahili
  7. 7. MOVEMENT OF PEOPLES  Some migrations had a significant environmental impact:  Bantu migrations spread iron & farming throughout sub-Saharan Africa  Polynesian migrations brought food and domesticated animals to new islands  Merchants set up diasporic communities where their cultural traditions blended with indigenous culture (Ex. Muslim merchants in Indian Ocean)
  8. 8. CROSS-CULTURAL EXCHANGES  Islam (Muhammad) developed in the Arabian Peninsula  It reflected elements of other monotheistic belief systems and local Arabian customs  Islamic armies conquered lands & expanded the religion through merchants & missionaries  Travelers such as Ibn Battuta told of the vast differences and integration of different cultures.
  9. 9. CULTURAL DIFFUSION  Literature, art & religion spread along these trade routes as people make new contacts with each other  Hinduism & Islam in SE Asia  Buddhism in East Asia  Christianity in Europe  Science & Technology too!  Greek & Indian math is used by Arabic scholars  Printing & gunpowder spread from China to the Middle East to W. Europe  And food!  Bananas to Africa  Champa Rice from Vietnam to China
  10. 10. …AND DON’T FORGET DISEASES AGAIN  Black Death follows trade & military routes from Central Asia to China to W. Europe  A result of Pax Mongolica
  11. 11. CONTINUITY & CHANGE IN AND WITHIN STATES  Out with the Roman and Han Empires….  In with the Byzantine and Sui, Tang & Song Empires!  Both rely on traditional sources of power (i.e. land ownership & patriarchy) and new innovations to better suit the changing times  Ex: Buddhism in Tang China, Orthodox Christianity in the Byzantine Empire
  12. 12. NEW FORMS OF RULING EMERGE  Islamic Caliphates (Abbasid/Fatamid) in Middle East and Iberian Peninsula  Feudalism in W. Europe & Japan  Mongol Khanates in Russia, China, Mid East  City-States (Swahili) in East Africa & Mesoamerica (Maya)  Aztec & Inca Empires develop out of many networks of smaller states  Japan adopts writing, tea, some Confucianism from china  These places adapted many local cultures & traditions!
  13. 13. FEUDALISM
  14. 14. CONTACTS & CONFLICTS=CULTURE TRANSFER  Chinese technology from Tang & Song dynasties reached the Abbasid Caliphate through the trade routes (ex. Paper)  Mongols created “Pax Mongolica” and encouraged transfer of ideas along Silk Roads (ex. Gunpowder)  The Crusades failed to keep Muslims out of the Holy Lands but exposed Western Europeans to new technologies and ideas that spurred the Renaissance
  15. 15. ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES  New technologies = better agriculture  Chinampas in Mesoamerica  Horse collar & plow in W. Europe  Waru-waru in Andes  Chinese porcelain & Persian/Indian textiles are demanded by foreigners leading to increased production  Iron & Steel production expands in Song & Yuan China
  16. 16. URBAN ROLLER COASTER RIDES!  Urban decline and revival is prevalent  Reasons for decline:  Invasion (Constantinople)  Disease (Venice, Chang’an)  Decline of agricultural productivity (Mayan?)  The Little Ice Age in Europe  Reasons for Revivals  Opposites of the above!  Less disease, warmer weather & relative peace=more labor for food production
  17. 17. LABOR ORGANIZATION IS MORE DEFINED  Free peasant agriculture in almost every region  Liked to revolt in China when demands became too high  Nomadic pastoralism continues  Guild organization in W. Europe  Slavery (IN Africa, E. Mediterranean, Turkic mamluks)  Serfdom (Europe & Japan)  Labor Taxation (Incan mit’a system)  Military obligations (ex. Mongol Empire)
  18. 18. CLASS STRUCTURE & GENDER  Class hierarchy & caste systems persisted  Patriarchy persists too, however…..  Women in some areas exercise more power and influence  Japanese court ladies  Nomadic Mongol women  SE Asian merchant community women  West African matrilineal societies
  19. 19. FAMILY LIFE  Religious expectations in Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and NeoConfucianism changed gender roles & family life as these religions spread.  Ex. Shari’a law replaces old Persian laws regarding wives and children.  Footbinding in China with the rise of Neoconfucianism (Song Dynasty)