Profile of mood states hollanders structure and questions
Profile of Mood States(Morgan 1979) A test designed to measure certainpsychological traits. Profile Of Mood States (POMS) is a populartool among sport psychologists who haveused it to compare the prevailing moods ofelite athletes and non-athletes.
Six mood states are used; Tension Depression Anger Vigour Fatigue ConfusionSubjects are given a score for each trait according totheir responses to certain statements which includekey words such as unhappy, tense, careless, andcheerful.
POMS For each statement, subjects state how theyfeel at that moment, or how they felt over theprevious day, few days, or week, by choosingone of the following responses: not at all; alittle; moderately; quite a lot; extremely
Applied to sportsperformers Elite athletes from different sports tend toscore below average for negative states suchas tension, depression, fatigue, andconfusion; and score well above average onvigour.
Applied to sportsperformers When presented on a graph, the POMSprofile for these elite athletes assumes acharacteristic shape that has been called the‘iceberg’ profile; the better the athlete, themore pronounced the profile (figure 53).
Over-training POMS may be used to diagnose overtrainingbecause the shape of the profile becomesinverted when an athlete over-trains.
Personality Structure – Hollander(1971)PsychologicalCoreHollander (1971)Psychological Core Beliefs and values that remain more or lesspermanentTypical Responses The way in which an individual responds incertain situations Usual way we respond to the environment. Learned & stored experience. LH Responses may indicate the nature of the core.Role Related Behaviour In other situations we may behave differently Can be changed at any timeSocial Environment How the behaviour and expectations of othersaffect our role
Exam Questions It was previously thought that certain personalitytypes tended to become involved in particularsports: therefore, those participating in a triathlonmay have shared common personalitycharacteristics. (c) In terms of personality, explain what is meant bytrait and interactionist theories. (3 marks) (d) One aspect of personality is achievementmotivation. What are the characteristics of anindividual with a motive to achieve success? (4marks)
Answer…….(c) 1. Traits . innate/inherited/stable/enduring factors;2. Same personality in all situations/pre-disposition to behave in the sameway;Sub max 2 marks3. Interactionist . concerned with traits;4. And interaction with the situation;5. B = f (P.E.). Sub max 2 marks3 marks(d) 1. Seek out challenging situations;2. Concerned with high standards of performance;3. Task persistence;4. Approach behaviours;5. Enjoy evaluative situations;
Personality profiling and biomechanical analysis can beused to prepare performers who compete at the highestlevel. Morgan’s Profile of Mood State (POMS) is aquestionnaire given to performers to establish theirrelative measures on the six mental health states offatigue, vigour, tension, depression, anger andconfusion.2a. Research has shown that the profile for POMS differsbetween elite and non-elite performers. Describe thesedifferences. (3 marks)b. What are the advantages and disadvantages of usingquestionnaires to provide psychological information? (4marks)
2 (a) 1. Elite score higher on vigour/anger;2. No difference/lower on other scores for both elite and non elite;3. Iceberg profile;4. Iceberg profile does not guarantee an elite performer 3 marks(Credit annotated diagrams showing iceberg profile)(b) Advantages1. High researcher: respondent ratio/lots of subjects at a time/quick/efficient;2. Cheap/cost effective;3. Numerical/objective measures achieved;4. Reliable. Sub max of 3 marks(Do not credit easy)Disadvantages5. Weak validity/non specific/too general/too simplistic for complex areas;6. Tendency to give expected answer/lie/respond with demand characteristics/biasedquestions;7. Difficult to self-assess;8. Ambiguous questions/misinterpretation. Sub max of 3 marks4 marks
The outcome of a sprint race may bedetermined by a performer’s personality andability to overcome and generate forces toprovide acceleration and maintain velocity. The performance and behaviour of sportsperformers may be affected by theirpersonalities. Discuss this statement, using suitableexamples, with reference to both trait andinteractionist theories of personality. (7marks)
Trait theory1. Inherited characteristics/born with/innate/genetic;2. Stable/enduring/unchanging;3. Same behaviour in a variety of situations;4. Behaviour is predictable.5. E.g. aggressive in all situations/extrovert in all situations/etc.Sub max 4 marksInteractionist theory6. B = f (PE)/behaviour is a function of personality and environment;7. Inherited traits are amended by environment/situation;8. Leads to stable behaviour in a certain situation;9. Change environment change behaviour.10. Eg: normally calm, but becomes aggressive in sport environment.sub max 4 marks7 marks