Name 3prospectivesofpersonalitytheoryExplain the 3theory areasand therelimitations(naming atleast 1 theory)Describehow wepersonalityprofileUnderstand thelinks betweenpersonality theoryand sportDefinepersonality
1. What is personality? Write down your owndefinition.2.How do you think our personalities areformed?3.What affects how our personalitydevelops?
•Personality is. . .“The sum total of an individual‟s psychologicalcharacteristics which make him or her unique.”(Hollander)•„Personality. . .represents those characteristics of the person thataccount for consistent patterns of behaviour‟(Pervin, 1993)•Personality is. . .”The more or less stable and enduring organisation of apersons character, temperament, intellect and physiquewhich determines the unique adjustment (the individualmakes) to the environment” (Eysenck)
Exam Tip. . .Exam questions often ask for explanations of the 3 personalityperspectives. You need to be aware of the drawbacks found in traitand social learning perspectives and the advantages of theinteractionist approach. CRITICALLY EVALUATE!
The trait theory of personality suggests that personality ismade up of secondary traits inherited from parental genes.The trait view therefore maintains that all behaviour is innateand genetically programmed.“Traits are innate characteristics and are thought to berelatively stable. They are highly consistent attributes thatexert a widely generalised casual effect on behaviour.”“People are born with established personality characteristics”•Inherited at birth.•Stable•Enduring•Consistent in all situations.BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY (B=F(P)). `
•Outgoing, Aggressive, Tense, Shy, Relaxed, Sensitive etc.• Traits can be arranged in hierarchical order.• The stronger the trait, the more dominant the behaviour.• Trait theory does not believe that the situation or environmenthas any bearing on a person‟s behaviour.• Behaviour is said to be consistent.•Traits are thought to be stable, enduring and consistent in allsituations.Trait theory attempts to predict behaviour.+ve = Can be easily measured through questionnaires-ve = Does not take into account environmental influences.It is not a true indicator of behavior.
The drawback with the trait approach is that inreality, behaviour is not always predictable. People adapttheir behaviour in response to a particular environmentalsituation.Trait theory does not account for this.Also, the influence that the environment and other peoplehave on shaping personality is not considered.There are 3 specific theories that belong to the traitperspective of personality that we need to know:
Eysencks Theory 1968•Originally Personality types are arranged on 2 dimensions.•Introvert/Extrovert•Stable/NeuroticNeuroticStableIntrovert Extrovert
• Said to achieve more inhigher arousal situations.• Become aroused moreslowly than introverts• There is a low sensitivity ofthe reticular activatingsystem (RAS)• Prefer team orientedsituations.• Like activities whichinvolve gross motor skills.• Extrovert behaviour isloud, bright & outgoing.
High levels of excitation. Tend not to need addedstimulation & excitement. Become aroused morequickly than extroverts There is a high sensitivity ofthe reticular activatingsystem (RAS) Prefer to take part inactivities requiring moreprecision eg. Archery. Introvert behaviour isshy, quiet & reserved.
•Displays predictableemotions in appropriatesituations•Their moods arepredictable•They tend not toexperience intensestress•Their recovery fromstress is rapid
•. Displays extreme andunpredictable emotionsin the form of moodswings•Their moods areunreliable•They experience highdegrees of stress•Their recovery fromstress is slow
Eysenck proposed the existence of 4 personalitytypes:•Extrovert & Stable•Extrovert and Neurotic•Introvert & Stable•Introvert & NeuroticLater he added a third scale to his model which hetermed Psychoticism - A measure of how Tough-Minded people are. Eysenck used this third scale ina test to determine an individual‟s PersonalityProfile.This test was called the Eysenck‟s PersonalityQuestionnaire (EPQ) – Let‟s have a go at thequestionnaire………(QR codes)
Cattell was also a believer of trait theory.However, he questioned whether personalitycould be understood using only 3 dimensions....Instead, he considered a much larger number oftraits. Cattell examined 16 Personality Factors ina questionnaire called „Cattell‟s 16PF test‟.
1. With a partner, choose 1 sports person each and describeto them why you think their psychological make up makesthem successful?2. Make a note of each others responses to this questionjotting down any key characteristics that are beingidentified!3. Can you think of a sports person who has the oppositecharacteristics to those that you have mentioned but isequally as successful?
Girdano was another trait theorist. He proposedthat there are two distinct personality types –Type A & Type BTYPE A CHARACTERISTICS:•HIGHLY COMPETITIVE•STRONG DESIRE TO SUCCEED•WORKS FAST•LIKES TO CONTROL•PRONE TO SUFFER STRESS
TYPE B CHARACTERISTICS:•NON-COMPETITIVE•UNAMBITIOUS•WORKS MORE SLOWLY•APPEARS TO LACK DESIRETO SUCCEED•DOES NOT ENJOY CONTROL•LESS PRONE TO STRESS
•Which of the characteristics are mostcommon with the sports person youidentified?• Which of the characteristics do youdemonstrate predominantly?
T. ORFORD1. There are 3 sports people below who display significantly differentcharacteristics to the rest, who are they and why do you think this?!Monty Panesar Sven Goran Eriksson Paula Radcliffe Amir Kahn Tiger WoodsMartin Johnson Ronnie O’Sullivan Steve Redgrave Stephen Hendry Kevin PietersenAnna Kournikova Tanni-Grey Thomson John Terry Kelly Holmes Jose Mourinho
T. ORFORD• If you identified the 3 below as sports people who all display more type ‘B’characteristics than type ‘A’ then well done!• Sven is more ofastrategist, takinghis time to workthrough things. Asa result he worksmore slowly and isless prone tostress.• Kournikovaappears to be lesscompetitive asshe concentrateson commercialmodelling ratherthan tennis.• LikeSven, Stephen is athinker and isreserved in hisapproach incomparison withRonnie O’Sullivan.Sven Goran Eriksson Anna Kournikova Stephen Hendry
T. ORFORD• Why do you think there were only 3 out of 15 successful sportspeople with type ‘B’ characteristics?• So……..how can we develop these characteristics or are they pre -defined, already existing, non – changeable features of ourpersonality?1. Discuss with your partner whether you think you can change theway you are born!?
Social Learning Theory in direct contrast to traittheory proposes that all behavior is learned.Learning occurs by way of environmentalexperiences and through the influence of otherpeople e.g. Parents, Coaches, Role Models, Friendsand other significant others.Personality is NOT therefore geneticallyprogrammed.“All behaviour is learned through interaction withthe environment”
BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT (B= F(E))-ve = Does not consider inherited behavior (traits)NATURE V’s NURTURE debateThe Social Learning approach was presented bypsychologist Bandura. He believed learning wasstimulated by environmental experiences and thisinvolved two processes:•The behaviour of others being imitated throughobservation•New behaviour being acquired after observation,but only when it is endorsed through socialreinforcement
• DemonstrationImportant to observe performance.• Attentionlook carefully for detail of movement.• Retentionremember the demo AND the teaching points / errorcorrection.• Motor Reproductiondemo is only of use if observers can attempt a successfulperformance.• Motivationthe performer must be motivated to perform the action.• Matching Performancethe performer attempts to match the demo and to improve it.
ExampleAn inexperienced sports performer may beinspired by the positive attitude and commitmentdisplayed in training by an experienced player. Thenovice copies the desirable approach of the rolemodel and receives positive reinforcement fromboth coach and peers. The process ofreinforcement has facilitated learning.
When observed behaviouris demonstrated by a„significant‟ other of rolemodel of high statusThe role model is powerfuland authoritativeThe observer wants toadopt the norms & valuesof a new culture, i.e. afterjoining a new teamThe observer and rolemodel are the same genderCONDITIONS THAT SUPPORTSOCIAL LEARNINGA drawback of social learning perspective is that it doesn‟ttake into account genetically inherited factors. Thisperspective does provide explanation as to why there areindividual differences in „attitude‟ „aggression‟, and „motivation‟of sports performers.Can also explain why young people elect to take part insport or follow a lifestyle that is healthy, active andbalanced.
1. Can you think of any environmentalfactors that have effected your behaviour?a.)b.)c.)d.)e.)f.)g.)h.)i.)j.)
•Combines trait theory & social learning theory.•This recognises that the trait theory andsocial learning theory both have a role indetermining behaviour and personality.• More realistic explanation of personality?!• Different behaviours produced for differentsituations.•Suggests that we base behaviour on inherenttraits that we then adapt to the situation weare in.
•EQUATION = B = f (PxE)•where behaviour is a functionof personality & environment.Example:• A games player might beloud, extrovert & dominantmanner in the game because thatis the best way to succeed, butwould be more quiet & focusedwhen in a training sessiondesigned to improve individualtechnique.
The Interactionist approach is based on the workof Hollander (1967). Hollander proposed thatpersonality has three levels that interact toform personality.Hollander‟s Structure of PersonalitySocial Environment1 – PSYCHOLGICAL CORE– THEREAL YOU.1 2 32 – TYPICAL RESPONSE– THE WAYYOU RESPOND TOENVIRONMENTAL DEMANDS.3 - ROLE-RELATED BEHAVIOUR–VERY CHANGEABLE DEPENDINGON THE ROLE.
1 = The Psychological Core: The ‘real you’ Private, not revealed in questioning 2 = Typical Responses: Usual way we respond to the environment. Learned & stored experience. LH Responses may indicate the nature of the core. 3 = Role-related behaviour: Determined by our perception of env. at any given time. Can be changed at any time Action may not be a typical response but uncharacteristicaction. AGG
Role relatedbehaviourGood captain!?Typical responsese.g. win at all costs –Instrumental aggressionPsychological core –Attitudes, values, beliefs, motives.e.g. achievement motivationDynamicExternalInternal ConsistentMarten’s Structureof Personality
1. Interviews - are they reliable and valid in each case?- are they of value in assessing a persons sporting ability?2. Questionnaires - e.g. psychometric self questionnaires, personalitytests, multiphasic personality inventory and Catells 16 primaryfactors questionnaire.- are these appropriate for the results the researcher wants to gain?3. Observations - difficult to remain unobtrusive which will affectbehaviour.- secret observation is unethicalWhat are the pros and cons of each method?
• NOT A TRUE PREDICTOR OF BEHAVIOUR, NOSIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE EXISTS BETWEEN SPORTSPERFORMANCE & PEOPLE WITH DIFFERING TRAITSTRENGTHS.• DOES NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE INFLUENCE OFTHE ENVIRONMENT – TOO GENERAL.•TAKES LITTLE ACCOUNT OF EXTERNAL FACTORSTHAT MAY EFFECT BEHAVIOUR.
• Additional Reading -•Create a poster that illustrates either one OR all of the threetheories, use pictures and diagrams as well as key words / informationto illustrate the theory.•You can either use A3 paper or produce using ICT and get your imagesfrom the internet.•Note this work will be displayed therefore it must be accurate & wellpresented.•All work must be handed in next lesson.Personality•What are the 3 theories wehave been looking at?