What we will learn:PersonalityAttitudesMotivation and Achievement MotivationGoal SettingGroup DynamicsLeadership Skills and Styles
Explain the 3 Name 3 theory areas prospectives and there of limitations personality (naming at theory least 1 theory) Describe how we personality profile Understand the links between Define personality theorypersonality and sport
1. What is personality? Write down your own definition.2. How do you think our personalities are formed?3. What affects how our personality develops?
•Personality is. . .“The sum total of an individual‟s psychologicalcharacteristics which make him or her unique.”(Hollander)•„Personality. . .represents those characteristics of the person thataccount for consistent patterns of behaviour‟ (Pervin,1993)•Personality is. . .”The more or less stable and enduring organisation of apersons character, temperament, intellect and physiquewhich determines the unique adjustment (the individualmakes) to the environment” (Eysenck)
Exam Tip. . .Exam questions often ask for explanations of the 3 personalityperspectives. You need to be aware of the drawbacks found in traitand social learning perspectives and the advantages of theinteractionist approach. CRITICALLY EVALUATE!
The trait theory of personality suggests that personality is made up of secondary traits inherited from parental genes. The trait view therefore maintains that all behaviour is innate and genetically programmed. “Traits are innate characteristics and are thought to be relatively stable. They are highly consistent attributes that exert a widely generalised casual effect on behaviour.”“People are born with established personality characteristics”•Inherited at birth.•Stable•Enduring•Consistent in all situations.BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY (B=F(P)). `
•Outgoing, Aggressive, Tense, Shy, Relaxed, Sensitive etc.• Traits can be arranged in hierarchical order.• The stronger the trait, the more dominant the behaviour.• Trait theory does not believe that the situation or environmenthas any bearing on a person‟s behaviour.• Behaviour is said to be consistent.•Traits are thought to be stable, enduring and consistent in allsituations.Trait theory attempts to predict behaviour.+ve = Can be easily measured through questionnaires-ve = Does not take into account environmental influences.It is not a true indicator of behavior.
The drawback with the trait approach is that in reality,behaviour is not always predictable. People adapt theirbehaviour in response to a particular environmental situation.Trait theory does not account for this.Also, the influence that the environment and other peoplehave on shaping personality is not considered.There are 3 specific theories that belong to the traitperspective of personality that we need to know:
Eysencks Theory 1968•Originally Personality types are arranged on 2 dimensions.•Introvert/Extrovert•Stable/Neurotic Neurotic Introvert Extrovert Stable
• Said to achieve more in higher arousal situations.• Become aroused more slowly than introverts• There is a low sensitivity of the reticular activating system (RAS)• Prefer team oriented situations.• Like activities which involve gross motor skills.• Extrovert behaviour is loud, bright & outgoing.
High levels of excitation. Tend not to need added stimulation & excitement. Become aroused more quickly than extroverts There is a high sensitivity of the reticular activating system (RAS) Prefer to take part in activities requiring more precision eg. Archery. Introvert behaviour is shy, quiet & reserved.
•Displays predictableemotions in appropriatesituations•Their moods arepredictable•They tend not toexperience intensestress•Their recovery fromstress is rapid
•. Displays extreme andunpredictable emotionsin the form of moodswings•Their moods areunreliable•They experience highdegrees of stress•Their recovery fromstress is slow
Eysenck proposed the existence of 4 personalitytypes:•Extrovert & Stable•Extrovert and Neurotic•Introvert & Stable•Introvert & NeuroticLater he added a third scale to his model which hetermed Psychoticism - A measure of how Tough-Minded people are. Eysenck used this third scale ina test to determine an individual‟s PersonalityProfile.This test was called the Eysenck‟s PersonalityQuestionnaire (EPQ) – Let‟s have a go at thequestionnaire………(QR codes)
Cattell was also a believer of trait theory.However, he questioned whether personalitycould be understood using only 3 dimensions....Instead, he considered a much larger number oftraits. Cattell examined 16 Personality Factors ina questionnaire called „Cattell‟s 16PF test‟.
1. With a partner, choose 1 sports person each and describe to them why you think their psychological make up makes them successful?2. Make a note of each others responses to this question jotting down any key characteristics that are being identified!3. Can you think of a sports person who has the opposite characteristics to those that you have mentioned but is equally as successful?
Girdano was another trait theorist. He proposedthat there are two distinct personality types –Type A & Type BTYPE A CHARACTERISTICS:•HIGHLY COMPETITIVE•STRONG DESIRE TO SUCCEED•WORKS FAST•LIKES TO CONTROL•PRONE TO SUFFER STRESS
TYPE B CHARACTERISTICS:•NON-COMPETITIVE•UNAMBITIOUS•WORKS MORE SLOWLY•APPEARS TO LACK DESIRETO SUCCEED•DOES NOT ENJOY CONTROL•LESS PRONE TO STRESS
•Which of the characteristics are mostcommon with the sports person youidentified?• Which of the characteristics do youdemonstrate predominantly?
T. ORFORD1. There are 3 sports people below who display significantly different characteristics to the rest, who are they and why do you think this?!Monty Panesar Sven Goran Eriksson Paula Radcliffe Amir Kahn Tiger WoodsMartin Johnson Ronnie O‟Sullivan Steve Redgrave Stephen Hendry Kevin Pietersen Anna Kournikova Tanni-Grey Thomson John Terry Kelly Holmes Jose Mourinho
• If you identified the 3 below as sports people who all display more type „B‟ characteristics than type „A‟ then well done! Sven Goran Eriksson Anna Kournikova Stephen Hendry• Sven is more of • Kournikova • Like Sven,a strategist, appears to be less Stephen is ataking his time to competitive as thinker and iswork through she concentrates reserved in histhings. As a result on commercial approach inhe works more modelling rather comparison withslowly and is less than tennis. Ronnie O‟Sullivan.prone to stress. T. ORFORD
• Why do you think there were only 3 out of 15 successful sports people with type „B‟ characteristics?• So……..how can we develop these characteristics or are they pre - defined, already existing, non – changeable features of our personality?1. Discuss with your partner whether you think you can change the way you are born!? T. ORFORD
biological components Even if biology plays no direct strongly determine our role in our personality, thephysical characteristics such way we look certainly affects as eye color, height, hair how we see ourselves andcolor, body type, and general how others interact with us. looks. Other aspects of human development, such as temperament and extroversion and introversion have also been shown to have strong biological links
•Individuals possess certain body types that predispose behavioural consistency: –Ectomorph: Tense, introverted, inhibited –Endomorph: Affectionate, sociable, relaxed –Mesomorph: Adventurous, dominant, aggressive, risk-taking
Chubby people, tending to “pear-shaped.”Viscerotonics: Sociable types, lovers of food and physical comforts.
Stockier people, with broad shoulders and good musculature.Somatotonics: Active types, physically fit and energetic.
Slender, often tall, people, with long arms and legs and fine features.Cerebrotonics: Nervous types, relatively shy, often intellectual.
Social Learning Theory in direct contrast to traittheory proposes that all behavior is learned.Learning occurs by way of environmentalexperiences and through the influence of otherpeople e.g. Parents, Coaches, Role Models, Friendsand other significant others.Personality is NOT therefore geneticallyprogrammed. “All behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment”
BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT (B= F(E))-ve = Does not consider inherited behavior (traits) NATURE V’s NURTURE debateThe Social Learning approach was presented bypsychologist Bandura. He believed learning wasstimulated by environmental experiences and thisinvolved two processes:•The behaviour of others being imitated throughobservation•New behaviour being acquired after observation,but only when it is endorsed through socialreinforcement
• DemonstrationImportant to observe performance.• Attentionlook carefully for detail of movement.• Retentionremember the demo AND the teaching points / errorcorrection.• Motor Reproductiondemo is only of use if observers can attempt a successfulperformance.• Motivationthe performer must be motivated to perform the action.• Matching Performancethe performer attempts to match the demo and to improve it.
ExampleAn inexperienced sports performer may beinspired by the positive attitude and commitmentdisplayed in training by an experienced player. Thenovice copies the desirable approach of the rolemodel and receives positive reinforcement fromboth coach and peers. The process ofreinforcement has facilitated learning.
CONDITIONS THAT SUPPORT SOCIAL LEARNING When observed behaviour is demonstrated by a „significant‟ other of role model of high status The observer wants to The role model is powerful adopt the norms & values The observer and role and authoritative of a new culture, i.e. after model are the same gender joining a new teamA drawback of social learning perspective is that it doesn‟ttake into account genetically inherited factors. Thisperspective does provide explanation as to why there areindividual differences in „attitude‟ „aggression‟, and „motivation‟of sports performers.Can also explain why young people elect to take part insport or follow a lifestyle that is healthy, active andbalanced.
1. Can you think of any environmental factors that have effected your behaviour? a.) b.) c.) d.) e.) f.) g.) h.) i.) j.)
•Combines trait theory & social learning theory.•This recognises that the trait theory andsocial learning theory both have a role indetermining behaviour and personality.• More realistic explanation of personality?!• Different behaviours produced for differentsituations.•Suggests that we base behaviour on inherenttraits that we then adapt to the situation weare in.
•EQUATION = B = f (PxE)•where behaviour is a functionof personality & environment.Example:• A games player might be loud,extrovert & dominant manner inthe game because that is the bestway to succeed, but would bemore quiet & focused when in atraining session designed toimprove individual technique.
The Interactionist approach is based on the workof Hollander (1967). Hollander proposed thatpersonality has three levels that interact toform personality.Hollander‟s Structure of Personality Social Environment 1 – PSYCHOLGICAL CORE– THE REAL YOU. 2 – TYPICAL RESPONSE– THE WAY YOU RESPOND TO ENVIRONMENTAL DEMANDS. 1 2 3 3 - ROLE-RELATED BEHAVIOUR– VERY CHANGEABLE DEPENDING ON THE ROLE.
1 = The Psychological Core: The „real you‟ Private, not revealed in questioning2 = Typical Responses: Usual way we respond to the environment. Learned & stored experience. LH Responses may indicate the nature of the core.3 = Role-related behaviour: Determined by our perception of env. at any given time. Can be changed at any time Action may not be a typical response but uncharacteristic action. AGG
Marten’s Structure of Personality Role related External behaviour Dynamic Good captain!? Typical responses e.g. win at all costs – Instrumental aggression Psychological core – Attitudes, values, beliefs, motives.Internal e.g. achievement motivation Consistent
1. Interviews - are they reliable and valid in each case? - are they of value in assessing a persons sporting ability?2. Questionnaires - e.g. psychometric self questionnaires, personality tests, multiphasic personality inventory and Catells 16 primary factors questionnaire. - are these appropriate for the results the researcher wants to gain?3. Observations - difficult to remain unobtrusive which will affect behaviour. - secret observation is unethical What are the pros and cons of each method?
• NOT A TRUE PREDICTOR OF BEHAVIOUR, NOSIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE EXISTS BETWEEN SPORTSPERFORMANCE & PEOPLE WITH DIFFERING TRAITSTRENGTHS.• DOES NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE INFLUENCE OFTHE ENVIRONMENT – TOO GENERAL.•TAKES LITTLE ACCOUNT OF EXTERNAL FACTORSTHAT MAY EFFECT BEHAVIOUR.
•What are the 3 theories wehave been looking at? Personality • Additional Reading - •Create a poster that illustrates either one OR all of the three theories, use pictures and diagrams as well as key words / information to illustrate the theory. •You can either use A3 paper or produce using ICT and get your images from the internet. •Note this work will be displayed therefore it must be accurate & well presented. •All work must be handed in next lesson.