Management of arousal 2013

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Management of arousal 2013

  1. 1. Management of Arousal Definitions, theories, relationship between arousal and performance, arousal and personality, measurement of arousal, methods of controlling arousal
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives • Be able to define arousal and activation • Be able to list effects of arousal • Be able to name 4 theories of arousal • Be able to explain at least 2 theories of arousal • Be able to describe characteristics of being in the Zone • Be able to name strategies for getting in to the zone
  3. 3. Definitions of Arousal •Sense of alertness and anticipation which prepares the body for actions
  4. 4. Arousal and Activation • Activation is the degree of physiological alertness caused by increased arousal which can occur in both body and mind • A degree of activation is needed for everyday activity but sport may place increased demands on a player which requires increased activation.
  5. 5. Effects of arousal • (Similar to what we have discussed for anxiety) • Arousal is measure by the reticular activating system in the brain stem – responsible for organising behaviour • Increased arousal can cause: – In the mind - confusion, irrational thoughts, lack of concentration, faster information processing and increased attention, (High arousal - constant need to urinate!) – In the body – increased HR, BP and sweating • Behaviour change may include shaking, pacing and restlessness
  6. 6. Effects of arousal • Not always negative! • Negative effects = stress/anxiety • Positive effects = eustress – – lead to increased motivation and energy and may enhance performance to an optimum level – Increased attention and better ‘cueing’ may result – Perception of stressors is the key
  7. 7. Theories on Arousal
  8. 8. Drive Theory (Hull) Key message - Relationship between arousal and performance is linear. • P = f(D x H) • D= drive, H= habit • An increase in arousal is proportional to an increase in performance quality • NB – the quality of performance dependant on how well the skill is learned
  9. 9. Drive Theory (Hull) • Learned behaviours tend to be – DOMINANT RESPONSES • Dominant response – behaviour most likely to be reproduced under pressure • Hull suggested arousal increases in competitive situation or assessment situation • Therefore increased arousal in these situations increased likelihood of dominant response
  10. 10. Drive Theory Beginner • High arousal not beneficial to a beginner as dominant response is not as well learned and may have errors • Beginner performs and learns more effectively at low levels of arousal Expert • High arousal beneficial to an expert as dominant response correct Drive Theory now not considered a good explanation of the relationship between arousal and performance. (As the drop off/failure to improve further performance can be seen in elite athletes)
  11. 11. Inverted U Theory (Yerkes and Dodson) • Arousal causes an increase in performance but only up to a point after which further increases in arousal cause a deterioration in performance. • There is an optimum level of arousal at moderate levels • Optimum level can vary depending on a number of factors
  12. 12. Inverted U Theory (Yerkes and Dodson) • Gross skills & simple skills– require higher levels of arousal (because less control is needed – need abilities such as strength and speed) • Fine skills & Complex skills – requires lower levels of arousal as requires cognitive abilities and finer control • Some skills difficult to classify e.g. golf swing which involves strength and complexity
  13. 13. Inverted U Theory (Yerkes and Dodson) • Experts can operate best at high arousal levels because they can perform on auto pilot. • Beginners need only low arousal levels because they are using lots of cognitive attention and a further increase in arousal would cause confusion
  14. 14. Inverted U - Personality Introverts • Quickly experience over arousal • The RAS measures adrenaline in the brain stem and suggest that introverts need only a slight activation to experience the effects of over arousal Extrovert • Can more easily cope with the pressure of a crowd for example
  15. 15. Catastrophe Theory (Fazey & Hardy) • Arousal improves performance up to a point • Rather than a gradual deterioration – sudden dramatic collapse • Collapse due to a combination of somatic and cognitive effects • Once catastrophe has occurred – athlete needs to relax below the point of arousal at which catastrophe occurred
  16. 16. Examples • Jean Van de Velde was on the 18th hole leading the field of golfers with a 6 shot deficit during the 1999 Open at Carnoustie. His drive landed him in the rough but a simple shot back onto the fairway would have enabled Jean to regain momentum…it would have! However, Jean chose an interesting approach, which took him from rough to rough, from rough to water and from water to bunker. In the mean time, his opponent played an astonishing chip in to leave a 1 shot difference. Jean needed to emulate his opponent but you’ve guessed it…he couldn’t. Jean putted in to level the match with a four-way • Roberto Baggio, Italy’s outstanding player of the 1994 FIFA World Cup steps up to take the penalty to even the scores. He looks cool from the outside. He places the ball on the penalty spot and takes a 10 meter run up. He looks up once and beings his run. He side foots the ball leaning backwards and sends the ball over the goal into the crowd. Brazil win the World Cup.
  17. 17. Relationship between somatic and cognitive anxiety • According to this theory – it is beneficial to have a level of cognitive anxiety produced by high arousal levels. • As long as somatic levels of anxiety remain low • When both become high is when catastrophe occurs • Normally somatic anxiety peaks just before the event and lowers once the sporting event begins – sometimes it doesn’t!
  18. 18. The Zone of Optimum Functioning (Hanin) • Similar to Inverted U theory in that there is an optimum point of arousal. I • It can be different for each athlete and athletes can use all their experience and techniques (e.g. imagery) to reach this optimum
  19. 19. Zone of Optimal Functioning Differences in Zones • Fine and complex tasks may be lower • Individual sports • Team sports • Personality • Levels of expertise • Self-confidence • Self-efficacy • Social facilitation Differs from inverted U in…. • Optimal level does not always occur in the midpoint • Optimal level of anxiety is not a point but a bandwidth and there will be a specific zone for an athlete • Anxiety and arousal control should be mixed with emotional control to find the zone
  20. 20. Zone of Optimum functioning Features of the Zone • Confidence – No fear • Automatic – auto pilot • In control – want you want will happened • Focused – Totally absorbed • Fun – You enjoy the flow • Effortless – things go smoothly • Relaxed – Energised yet calm Examples • Sally Gunnell • Sam Torence
  21. 21. Exam Questions
  22. 22. Lesson Objectives • Be able to define arousal and activation • Be able to list effects of arousal • Be able to name 4 theories of arousal • Be able to explain at least 2 theories of arousal • Be able to describe characteristics of being in the Zone • Be able to name strategies for getting in to the zone

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