Lifestyle choices


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Lifestyle choices

  1. 1. Active Lifestyles One of the most important lifestyle choices we can make is either: To be Active To be InactiveEssentially how much daily exercise we takeAdults should do a minimum of 30 minutesmoderate-intensity physical activity, five days aweek. - NHS RecommendationsAs a rule of thumb, exercise of moderate intensitywill make you a little warm or sweaty, and slightlyout of breath, but no more than that.
  2. 2. We need to look at the impact of 4 main lifestylechoices on our health and Physical Performance:•Lack of Exercise•Poor Diet•Smoking•Alcohol and Drugs What is meant by an active lifestyle?
  3. 3. The British Darts Organisation wascampaigning for their sport to be included in the2012 London Olympics; and to that end, theyveopened the Darts School of Excellence inLondon. Its for for kids ages 7 to 18, asEngland attempts to groom the next generationof great darts players.
  4. 4. Activities come under the three headingsof:Competitive SportActive Recreation/LeisureHealth and Well Being ActivitiesIn the next 2 minutes write out asmany sports, pastimes or activitiesas you can think of and thencategorise them.
  5. 5. Obesity Obesity is caused by Lack of Exercise and a Poor Diet?Obesity is a major problem in the UK and thewestern world. But it is not the actual obesity that iskilling people it the associated illnesses that arise as aresult of obesity e.g. heart disease, stroke anddiabetes.
  6. 6. “Obesity reduces life expectancy by 10 years” One in four 11 to 15 yearolds was classified as obese in 2004
  7. 7. Obesity
  8. 8. What are the negative affects of obesity on health?Examiners Tip: You are asked to EXPLAIN these – the ‘man inthe pub answer’ is not enough! ATHEROSCLEROSIS: ‘Bad cholesterol’ (LDL Low density Lipoproteins)– found in saturated fats forms plaques which attach to artery and arteriole walls causing a small blockages. ‘Good Cholesterol’ (HDL – High Density Lipoproteins) helps to reduce the effect of LDL’s so if we have a good ratio of HDL:LDL cholesterols it is good for our health HYPERTENSION : These blockages in the arteries cause higher blood pressure known as Hypertension ARTERIOSCLEROSIS : Lack of exercise can cause arteries to harden so stopping Vasodilation and vasoconstriction HEART ATTACK: When a blood vessel supplying the heart becomes totally blocked or STROKE if this occurs in the brain
  9. 9. DIABETES: Occurs when we are unable tocontrol our blood sugar levels. The explanation…….When we eat carbohydrate our blood sugarlevels rise and our Pancreas releases Insulin tocontrol this.If we consume a great deal of simplecarbohydrate or sugars (e.g. sweets, fizzydrinks) our blood sugar rises dramatically.A great deal of insulin has to be released tocontrol this sugar and over time the bodybecomes tolerant of the insulin and it no longerhas an effect.
  10. 10. The Benefits of exercise. Its effects on obesity/ health andphysical performance......... regular exam question!!!  Burn off more of the calories consumed so reducing obesity. – negative energy balance  Exercise increases ratio of HDL(good) to LDL(bad) Cholesterol  Raises Basal metabolic rate  Maintains higher than usual metabolic rate up to 5 hours after exercise  Helps control blood glucose levels so reducing possibility of diabetes.  Reduced blood pressure due to increased elasticity of arteries  Maintains bone density so reduces risk of osteoporosis  Cardiac hypertrophy can help reduce potential of heart attack
  11. 11. SmokingCigarette smoking is the greatest single cause of illnessand premature death in the UK. Smoking reduces lifeexpectancy by up to 10 years. Smoking-related deathsare mainly due to cancers and serious heart and lungproblems.Lung Cancer: 80% of cases are smoking relatedChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). –a serious lung diseaseHeart disease is the biggest killer illness in the UKOther conditions where smoking often causesworse symptoms include: asthma, colds, flu, chestinfections etc.
  12. 12. Alcohol and DrugsIn the UK deaths due to alcohol related diseases haverisen considerably over the last 20 years or so. This isbecause both heavy and binge drinking have becomemore common Liver, stomach and heart diseases High Blood pressure linked to obesityDrugs create a psychological dependence and aphysical dependence. There is no illegal drug thatdoes not have serious adverse consequences to ourhealth and well being.
  13. 13. What are schools and local communities doing to reduce obesity?The 5 Hour offer: For 5-16 year olds the governmentwould like 2 hours high quality curriculum PE and 3 hoursof sport beyond the curriculum delivered through a rangeof school, community and club providers Healthier food - Jamie Oliver PESSCL Strategy: PE and School Sports Club Links: Strengthening links between schools and clubs to move young people on through the system and encourage participation. Sports Colleges: Promoting sport in a family of schools (Fearns) Active England:a £100m programme, funded by Sport England and The Big Lottery Fund to support projects that increase participation.
  14. 14. For Year 13 What affects people’s Lifestyle Choices? 2011-12 What makes us decide whether to be active or inactive? (Factors affecting participation) Media/ Marketing Class Disability/Ability Provision Race/Tradition Opportunity Education Self - Esteem Age Also family support and Money Peer pressure have a strong impact. Sex/Gender
  15. 15. What affects people’s Lifestyle Choices?What makes us decide whether to be active oreat healthily, smoke or take drugs? Media ME CAR Education IS Class/Finance D Pink Age Ferarri Race/Tradition Individual Differences(Body Image) Sex/Gender Disability Provision/availability of facilities Family/Friends
  16. 16. Some often used terms and what links themHealth: a state of complete physical, mental and socialwell-being and not merely the absence of disease orinfirmity Fitness: ‘ the ability to meet the demands of our environment Exercise: ‘ planned, structured physical activity that enhances our physical, mental, and social health and fitness Well-being: a state of being healthy, happy and prosperousExercise is the central link between Health, Fitnessand Well-being. It improves the physical, social andpsychological aspects of an individual.
  17. 17. What provision for sport is available in our area?
  18. 18. What different types of activity are thereand why do people participate in them?Competitive Sport: Where performance is veryimportant. This has organised leagues, referees, markedpitches and strict rules. Sport may be a Job for some aswell as competitive activity they enjoy.Active Recreation/Leisure/:Where active participationis important rather than performance standards.Health and Well Being: This may be due to personal choice(to improve body image or self esteem or purely enjoyment) or medical recommendation (GP Referral, cardiac rehabilitation). It can be:a) Scientific – based on a training programmeb) Ad-hoc – unstructured – whenever you get time
  19. 19. Approaches to Sport/ Health ActivitiesScientific: Ad-Hoc: unstructuredFollowing a strict and Training or exercisingscientifically based in a random fashiontraining regime with a without any realset aim in mind planning or particular goalHighly Effective butoften less enjoyable Less effective but often more enjoyable
  20. 20. A Performance Excellence – Elite Sport Highly Organised and structured – Pyramid leagues etc. Competitive Sport Representative (performance) Honours Scientific Active Recreation Leisure Health, Fitness, Well-being, GP Referrals, Improving body imageunstructured May be (enjoyment/medical/health) and simple organisation Mass Participation – Grass Roots sport Unscientific?
  21. 21. Sporting Excellence Recreation/Leisure Mass ParticipationUsing a Performance Pyramid like the one abovediscuss the following:• What are the motives for a performer at each level ofthe pyramid?•Using an example explain how it is possible for anactivity to feature at different levels of the pyramid. Ifso how will it be different?
  22. 22. In my chosen sport how would someone get involved locally and then what would be their development pathway? County/Regional Coach might Representation recommend for trials Poss. professional club Age group teams – U11, U14, U16 National Representation Secondary school – Players may also wish to follow a teams or local junior coaching role in their sport. This is clubs supported by many current Rossendale Schools Team initiatives and usually coaching courses can be paid for. The Government are very keen toPrimary school or local Tots develop Young Leaders especially t uoc S club (parental support) as a legacy of the 2012 Olympics.
  23. 23. How is talent identified in my Sport?
  24. 24. Promoting Sport in the UK Elite Sport Mass ParticipationUK Sport - No Compromise - Sport England – Grow, Sustain, World Class Performance Excel Pathway (Podium, Development, Talent) NGB – Grow their sport –Talent Identification Team: Active people surveyGirls for Gold School Sports Partnerships: SSCO, PESSYP/ PESSCLTall and Talented ‘The 5 hour offer’Fighting ChanceParalympic Potential “Playground to podium” – nurturing disabled young people and adults with potential to be elite athletes.EIS Support for Athletes National Lottery Funding and money from Central Government(DCMS) – CCPR represents sport to government
  25. 25. Age Overall, according to self-reported data, 39% of men and 29% of women met the government’s physical activity recommendations (30 minutes moderate physicalactivity, 5 times a week) in 2008. Objective accelerometer data, collected for the first time in 2008, showed that actually only 6% of men and 4% of women met the recommendations. Self-reported data is influenced by the respondent’s ability to accurately recall and assess their physical activity
  26. 26. How have leisurepatterns changed in the last 15 years
  27. 27. Reasons for reducedparticipation in sport
  28. 28. Reasons For Increased Participation• INCREASED LEISURE TIME - people nowadays have much more leisure time than in the past.• Some people like to spend this time visiting health and fitness clubs whilst others prefer a walk in the countryside.• People are much more mobile now so a visit to the seaside for example is easy to access.• There are several reasons for this increase in leisure time.
  29. 29. • THE SHORTER WORKING WEEK - in the UK today workers work 37 hours per week or less. During the 1960’s it was common to work between 40 and 44 hours.• TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES - technology has reduced the hours it used to take to do many jobs. There are also other benefits for example advances in medicine has meant people are living longer and therefore able to take part in leisure and sporting activities beyond retirement age.• EARLY RETIREMENT - more people now take an early retirement than ever before• UNEMPLOYMENT - unemployment gives people time to take part in sport and leisure activities. However money can be an issue.
  30. 30. Exam Style Questions1. Explain why cholesterol lipoprotein ratiosare an important indicator of the health statusof an individual? (4)2. Explain three potential health risksassociated with a high percentage of body fat.(6)
  31. 31. 3. Explain how various national and localauthority schemes are being used in your localschools and wider communities to improve thehealth status of the population. (6)4. Competitive sport, active recreation and abalanced diet are seen as key factors inpromoting health, fitness and well-being.Why are active recreation and balanced dietkey factors in combating obesity in the UK?(6)
  32. 32. 5. Using appropriate examples, what have beenthe main influences on your lifestyle choices? (6)6. Explain the provision and athlete/playerdevelopment pathway that is available for acompetitive sport in your locality. (4)7. Government health figures indicate thatapproximately 1.7 million children will be obesein the U.K. by 2010.Explain the potential health risks to these childrenin later life and what lifestyle choices couldreduce the estimated obesity figures. (10)