Life style choices presentation 2014

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Life style choices presentation 2014

  1. 1. Active Lifestyles To be Active To be Inactive Essentially how much daily exercise we take One of the most important lifestyle choices we can make is either: Adults should do a minimum of 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity, five days a week. - NHS Recommendations As a rule of thumb, exercise of moderate intensity will make you a little warm or sweaty, and slightly out of breath, but no more than that.
  2. 2. We need to look at the impact of 4 main lifestyle choices on our health and Physical Performance: •Lack of Exercise •Poor Diet •Smoking •Alcohol and Drugs What is meant by an active lifestyle?
  3. 3. The British Darts Organisation was campaigning for their sport to be included in the 2012 London Olympics; and to that end, they've opened the Darts School of Excellence in London. It's for for kids ages 7 to 18, as England attempts to groom the next generation of great darts players.
  4. 4. Activities come under the three headings of: Competitive Sport Active Recreation/Leisure Health and Well Being Activities In the next 2 minutes write out as many sports, pastimes or activities as you can think of and then categorise them.
  5. 5. What different types of activity are there and why do people participate in them? Competitive Sport: Where performance is very important. This has organised leagues, referees, marked pitches and strict rules. Sport may be a Job for some as well as competitive activity they enjoy. Active Recreation/Leisure/:Where active participation is important rather than performance standards. Health and Well Being: This may be due to personal choice(to improve body image or self esteem or purely enjoyment) or medical recommendation (GP Referral, cardiac rehabilitation). It can be: a) Scientific – based on a training programme b) Ad-hoc – unstructured – whenever you get time
  6. 6. Obesity Obesity is a major problem in the UK and the western world. But it is not the actual obesity that is killing people it the associated illnesses that arise as a result of obesity e.g. heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Obesity is caused by Lack of Exercise and a Poor Diet?
  7. 7. “Obesity reduces life expectancy by 10 years” One in four 11 to 15 year olds was classified as obese in 2004
  8. 8. Obesity
  9. 9. Task – In your groups you are to produce a short film about your given topic: • Obesity and associated diseases – the facts! • The perils of drinking too much alcohol – when the fun is over what lasting effects happen to the body! • Smoking – don’t let your health go up in smoke! • Drugs – Not all fun and games – the detrimental side effects of illegal drugs. Rules: Short film but not two short. Key facts about problems and diseases associated with these lifestyle choices. Must all star in the movie at some point. Do the research and investigate before starting to film. You must also produce a poster/handout to summarise your research. This needs to be high quality and worthy of display.
  10. 10. What are the negative affects of obesity on health? Examiners Tip: You are asked to EXPLAIN these – the „man in the pub answer‟ is not enough! ATHEROSCLEROSIS: „Bad cholesterol‟ (LDL Low density Lipoproteins)– found in saturated fats forms plaques which attach to artery and arteriole walls causing a small blockages. „Good Cholesterol‟ (HDL – High Density Lipoproteins) helps to reduce the effect of LDL‟s so if we have a good ratio of HDL:LDL cholesterols it is good for our health Arthero/LDL clip (Coronary Heart Disease) HYPERTENSION : These blockages in the arteries cause higher blood pressure known as Hypertension High blood pressure ARTERIOSCLEROSIS : Lack of exercise can cause arteries to harden so stopping Vasodilation and vasoconstriction Angina HEART ATTACK: When a blood vessel supplying the heart becomes totally blocked or STROKE if this occurs in the brain
  11. 11. DIABETES: Occurs when we are unable to control our blood sugar levels. Youtube When we eat carbohydrate our blood sugar levels rise and our Pancreas releases Insulin to control this. If we consume a great deal of simple carbohydrate or sugars (e.g. sweets, fizzy drinks) our blood sugar rises dramatically. A great deal of insulin has to be released to control this sugar and over time the body becomes tolerant of the insulin and it no longer has an effect. insulin 2 The explanation…….
  12. 12. The Benefits of exercise. Its effects on obesity/ health and physical performance......... regular exam question!!!  Burn off more of the calories consumed so reducing obesity. – negative energy balance  Exercise increases ratio of HDL(good) to LDL(bad) Cholesterol  Raises Basal metabolic rate  Maintains higher than usual metabolic rate up to 5 hours after exercise  Helps control blood glucose levels so reducing possibility of diabetes.  Reduced blood pressure due to increased elasticity of arteries  Maintains bone density so reduces risk of osteoporosis  Cardiac hypertrophy can help reduce potential of heart attack
  13. 13. 10 mark question
  14. 14. 2012 Mark scheme
  15. 15. BMI • Calculated Weight (KGs)/Height (M) squared. • Underweight – below 18.5 • Overweight - 25-29.9 • Obese – over 30 • http://www.bhf.org.uk/bmi/BMI_Cal c.html
  16. 16. Obesity Trends - U.S. Adults (1985 – 2009) Definitions: • Obesity: having a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass, or Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or higher. • Body Mass Index (BMI): a measure of an adult’s mass in relation to their height, specifically the adult’s mass (kg) divided by the square of their height (m).
  17. 17. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 No Data <10% 10%–14% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  18. 18. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1986 No Data <10% 10%–14% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  19. 19. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1987 No Data <10% 10%–14% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  20. 20. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1988 No Data <10% 10%–14% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  21. 21. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1989 No Data <10% 10%–14% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  22. 22. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  23. 23. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  24. 24. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1992 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  25. 25. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1993 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  26. 26. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1994 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  27. 27. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  28. 28. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1996 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  29. 29. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1997 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  30. 30. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1998 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  31. 31. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1999 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  32. 32. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  33. 33. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2001 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  34. 34. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2002
  35. 35. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2003 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%
  36. 36. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2004 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25% (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)
  37. 37. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  38. 38. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2006 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  39. 39. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2007 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  40. 40. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2008 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  41. 41. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2009 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  42. 42. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 1999 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985, 1990, 1999, 2009 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 2009 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% 1985
  43. 43. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC.
  44. 44. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. 1999 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2009 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 2009 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  45. 45. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics
  46. 46. Link between obesity and diabetes? 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Incidenceofobesity(%) Incidence of diabetes (%) Relationship between rates of incidence of obesity and diabetes in the USA 1989 - 2009
  47. 47. Link between obesity and diabetes? 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Incidenceofobesity(%) Incidence of diabetes (%) Relationship between rates of incidence of obesity and diabetes in the USA 1989 - 2009
  48. 48. Smoking Cigarette smoking is the greatest single cause of illness and premature death in the UK. Smoking reduces life expectancy by up to 10 years. Smoking-related deaths are mainly due to cancers and serious heart and lung problems. Lung Cancer: 80% of cases are smoking related Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). – a serious lung disease Heart disease is the biggest killer illness in the UK Other conditions where smoking often causes worse symptoms include: asthma, colds, flu, chest infections etc.
  49. 49. Alcohol and Drugs In the UK deaths due to alcohol related diseases have risen considerably over the last 20 years or so. This is because both heavy and binge drinking have become more common Liver, stomach and heart diseases High Blood pressure linked to obesity Drugs create a psychological dependence and a physical dependence. There is no illegal drug that does not have serious adverse consequences to our health and well being.
  50. 50. What are schools and local communities doing to reduce obesity? The 5 Hour offer: For 5-16 year olds the government would like 2 hours high quality curriculum PE and 3 hours of sport beyond the curriculum delivered through a range of school, community and club providers Healthier food - Jamie Oliver PESSCL Strategy: PE and School Sports Club Links: Strengthening links between schools and clubs to move young people on through the system and encourage participation. Sports Colleges: Promoting sport in a family of schools Active England:a £100m programme, funded by Sport England and The Big Lottery Fund to support projects that increase participation.
  51. 51. • Sportivate is an Olympic Legacy programme running up to 2017 • Helps local people organise exciting 6-8 week sports programmes for young people. • Sportivate offers funding for activities that are organised because young people want to try them. • E.g. Free Running, Snow Boarding, Dodgeball or Climbing. • It's about putting on activities that 11-25 year old will be interested in and ensuring there are places for young people to carry on that activity after the 6 to 8 week project.
  52. 52. 'a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity' the ability to meet the demands of our environment planned, structured physical activity that enhances our physical, mental, and social health and fitness 'a state of being healthy, happy and prosperous' Exercise is the central link between Health, Fitness and Well-being. It improves the physical, social and psychological aspects of an individual. Some often used terms and what links them Health Fitness Exercise Well-being
  53. 53. Fitness and Fitness Testing • Components of fitness – Health Related: CV Endurance, Muscular endurance, strength, flexibility – Skill related: Agility, balance, speed, power, reaction time, co- ordination Why test? •Base-line tests are used to get initial information •Re-tests are used to get subsequent information •Results give info as where the performer is NOW •Identify strengths & weaknesses •Show progress •Give the coach info for team selection •Give the coach info for position selection •Motivate the performer TESTS – name some! Lab v field tests Lab tests More accurate Specialist equipment & facilities Can be expensive 1:1 analysis Field tests Less accurate Simple equipment & facilities Cheaper Can be done with larger groups of performers (eg school groups) A SEDENTARY person is someone who does no physical activity (a couch-potato) Which fitness tests that you have done might not be suitable for a sedentary individual? Which tests would be OK?
  54. 54. What provision for sport is available in our area? Teams? Leagues? Level? Turn up and play? Age involved? Which sports? Range? Fitness activities?
  55. 55. Frequency/When? What level? Activities available What provision for competitive sport is available in our area? Location Produce an A3 poster using above format – 20min
  56. 56. What different types of activity are there and why do people participate in them? Competitive Sport: Where performance is very important. This has organised leagues, referees, marked pitches and strict rules. Sport may be a Job for some as well as competitive activity they enjoy. Active Recreation/Leisure/:Where active participation is important rather than performance standards. Health and Well Being: This may be due to personal choice(to improve body image or self esteem or purely enjoyment) or medical recommendation (GP Referral, cardiac rehabilitation). It can be: a) Scientific – based on a training programme b) Ad-hoc – unstructured – whenever you get time
  57. 57. Approaches to Sport/ Health Activities Scientific: Following a strict and scientifically based training regime with a set aim in mind Ad-Hoc: unstructured Training or exercising in a random fashion without any real planning or particular goal Highly Effective but often less enjoyable Less effective but often more enjoyable
  58. 58. A Performance Pyramid
  59. 59. Competitive Sport (performance) Active Recreation Leisure Health, Fitness, Well-being, GP Referrals, Improving body image (enjoyment/medical/health) May be unstructured and simple organisation Unscientific? Highly Organised and structured – leagues etc. Representative Honours Scientific A Performance Pyramid Mass Participation – Grass Roots sport Excellence – Elite Sport
  60. 60. Mass Participation Sporting Excellence Using a Performance Pyramid like the one above discuss the following: • What are the motives for a performer at each level of the pyramid? •Using an example explain how it is possible for an activity to feature at different levels of the pyramid. If so how will it be different? Recreation/Leisure
  61. 61. In my chosen sport how would someone get involved locally and then what would be their development pathway? Primary school or local Tots club (parental support) Secondary school – teams or local junior clubs Rossendale Schools Team Age group teams – U11, U14, U16 Coach might recommend for trials Scoutsfromlocalteams County/Regional Representation Poss. professional club National Representation Players may also wish to follow a coaching role in their sport. This is supported by many current initiatives and usually coaching courses can be paid for. The Government are very keen to develop Young Leaders especially as a legacy of the 2012 Olympics.
  62. 62. Gymnastics – Long Term Athlete Development
  63. 63. Gymnastics – Long Term Athlete Development
  64. 64. How is talent identified in my Sport?
  65. 65. Single System • The Single System is the development pathway for players, coaches and officials of all ages and abilities to reach their full potential. • It is based on Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) principles that put the participant at the centre of all decisions, with extensive scientific research that has been widely accepted by the majority of other major sports within England
  66. 66. Promoting Sport in the UK Elite Sport UK Sport - No Compromise - World Class Performance Pathway (Podium, Development, Talent) Talent Identification Team: Girls for Gold Tall and Talented Fighting Chance Paralympic Potential EIS Support for Athletes Mass Participation Sport England – Grow, Sustain, Excel NGB – Grow their sport – Active people survey School Sports Partnerships: SSCO, PESSYP/ PESSCL „The 5 hour offer‟ “Playground to podium” – nurturing disabled young people and adults with potential to be elite athletes. National Lottery Funding and money from Central Government(DCMS) – CCPR represents sport to government
  67. 67. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ 53 49 44 41 32 20 9 35 36 34 32 28 17 6 Men Women Age Overall, according to self-reported data, 39% of men and 29% of women met the government’s physical activity recommendations (30 minutes moderate physical activity, 5 times a week) in 2008. Objective accelerometer data, collected for the first time in 2008, showed that actually only 6% of men and 4% of women met the recommendations. Self-reported data is influenced by the respondent’s ability to accurately recall and assess their physical activity
  68. 68. Activity – Define and show the links between….
  69. 69. Define the concepts of leisure? • Defined: time during which you have no obligations to work or to family, and are free to engage in self-directed and chosen activities • Something that is engaged during freetime – free from obligations • A time when you engage in freely chosen activities • Used for ease and relaxation • Done for enjoyment
  70. 70. Recreation Definition • “Enaged in activities that refresh, relax or enable the re-creation of oneself after the rigours or work or day to day life!” • As people in the world’s healthier regions lead increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the need for recreation has increased. • The rise of so called active vacations exemplifies this!
  71. 71. Physical activity continuum • Level of organisation Play Leisure Physical Rec/Active Leisure Outdoor PE Sport Least organised most organised • Competition Play Leisure Outdoor Physical Rec/Active Leisure PE Sport Least competitive most competitive
  72. 72. How have leisure patterns changed in the last 15 years?
  73. 73. Reference: DCMS (2012-13), Taking Part: The National Survey of Culture, Leisure and Sport 2012-13 Quarter 2 Statistical release Dec 2012
  74. 74. Why have leisure patterns changed in the last 15 years
  75. 75. Reasons for reduced participation in sport
  76. 76. Reasons For Increased Participation • INCREASED LEISURE TIME - people nowadays have much more leisure time than in the past. • Some people like to spend this time visiting health and fitness clubs whilst others prefer a walk in the countryside. • People are much more mobile now so a visit to the seaside for example is easy to access. • There are several reasons for this increase in leisure time.
  77. 77. • THE SHORTER WORKING WEEK - in the UK today workers work 37 hours per week or less. During the 1960‟s it was common to work between 40 and 44 hours. • TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES - technology has reduced the hours it used to take to do many jobs. There are also other benefits for example advances in medicine has meant people are living longer and therefore able to take part in leisure and sporting activities beyond retirement age. • EARLY RETIREMENT - more people now take an early retirement than ever before • UNEMPLOYMENT - unemployment gives people time to take part in sport and leisure activities. However money can be an issue.
  78. 78. Factors that influence individual lifestyle choices
  79. 79. Factors that influence individual lifestyle choices
  80. 80. Factors that influence individual lifestyle choices Individual differences/body image Tradition/Culture AgeFinance Disability
  81. 81. What affects people‟s Lifestyle Choices? What makes us decide whether to be active or inactive? (Factors affecting participation) Media/ Marketing Class Disability/Ability Race/Tradition Education Age Money Sex/Gender Provision Opportunity Self - Esteem Also family support and Peer pressure have a strong impact.
  82. 82. What affects people‟s Lifestyle Choices? What makes us decide whether to be active or eat healthily, smoke or take drugs? Media Education Class/Finance Age Race/Tradition Individual Differences(Body Image) Sex/Gender Disability Provision/availability of facilities Family/Friends ME CAR IS D Pink Ferarri
  83. 83. Moving from an inactive lifestyle to active…. • (a) Identify three health screening procedures that could be carried out prior to a sedentary individual undertaking a structured exercise programme. [3]
  84. 84. PAR-Q • Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) • For most people, physical activity should not pose any problem or hazard. PAR-Q is designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity might be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them. • Common sense is the best guide in answering these few questions.
  85. 85. • Has your doctor ever said that you have a bone or joint problem, such as arthritis, that has been aggravated by exercise or might be made worse with exercise? Yes/No • Do you have high blood pressure? Yes/No • Do you have low blood pressure? Yes/No • Do you have Diabetes Mellitus or any other metabolic disease? Yes/No • Has your doctor ever said that you have raised cholesterol (serum level above 6.2mmol/L)? Yes/No • Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by your doctor? Yes/No • Have you ever felt pain in your chest when you do physical exercise? Yes/No • Is your doctor currently prescribing you drugs or medication? Yes/No • Have you ever suffered from unusual shortness of breath at rest or with mild exertion?Yes/No • Is there any history of Coronary Heart Disease in your family? Yes/No • Do you often feel faint, have spells of severe dizziness or have lost consciousness? Yes/No • Do you currently drink more than the average amount of alcohol per week (21 units for men and 14 units for women)? Yes/No • Do you currently smoke? Yes/No • Do you currently exercise on a regular basis (at least 3 times a week) and work in a job that is physically demanding? Yes/No • Are you, or is there any possibility that you might be pregnant? Yes/No • Do you know of any other reason why you should not participate in a programme of physical activity? Yes/No PARQ
  86. 86. Other answers.... • Monitoring resting heart rate • Measurement of blood pressure • Cholesterol or % body fat testing • BMI measurement • Sub-maximal fitness testing (e.g. Harvard step test) • E.C.G • Blood testing (if specific reason is provided) • M.R.I. Scanning • Urine check (if specified)
  87. 87. Exam Style Questions 1. Explain why cholesterol lipoprotein ratios are an important indicator of the health status of an individual? (4) 2. Explain three potential health risks associated with a high percentage of body fat. (6)
  88. 88. 3. Explain how various national and local authority schemes are being used in your local schools and wider communities to improve the health status of the population. (6) 4. Competitive sport, active recreation and a balanced diet are seen as key factors in promoting health, fitness and well-being. Why are active recreation and balanced diet key factors in combating obesity in the UK? (6)
  89. 89. 5. Using appropriate examples, what have been the main influences on your lifestyle choices? (6) 6. Explain the provision and athlete/player development pathway that is available for a competitive sport in your locality. (4) 7. Government health figures indicate that approximately 1.7 million children will be obese in the U.K. by 2010. Explain the potential health risks to these children in later life and what lifestyle choices could reduce the estimated obesity figures. (10)

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