“If you can meet with triumph and disasters and treat the two impostersjust the same”. Rudyard Kipling – Wimbledon statueBatting on a sticky wicketBeing on the ropesThe final hurdleOur culture puts sport on apedestal and our sporting heroesare influential role models.Millions watch sport on the TV –Olympics, WorldCup, Premiership matches, F1But sometimes are sporting heroes let us down….
Section C – Part 3Deviance1. Understand the main types of deviance in sport2. Describe the causes of hooliganism and the methodsused to combat it3. Explain the impact of hooliganism and player violencehas on those involved, on sport and on wider society4. Describe violence between players and how it is dealtwith5. Evaluate the relationship between sport and the lawand the effect on performers, officials and spectators
This part of specification also covers drugs in sport andyou will need to:1. Understand why performers take performanceenhancing drugs and the arguments for and againsttheir use2. Explain how the authorities are trying to eliminatedrug taking in sport and the associated difficultiesBut we’ve alreadycovered this when welooked at drug dopingin Section A!
Deviance could be:Voluntary e.g.performerdecideCo-operative e.g.the performerdecides to takedrugs because all hisfriends are doing soEnforced e.g. aformer East Germanswimmer took drugsbecause her coachgave them to her
Deviance:behaviour thatfalls outside thenorms or outsidewhat is deemed tobe acceptableAlso behaviour ofspectators, managers, coaches andofficialsBehaviour ofplayersBreaking the lawsof sportvbreaking the lawsof societySport can be seen as asubsection of social behaviour
Types of devianceSports sociologist Jay Coakley (1992) considered 3 types of behaviour:Positive deviance:Behaviour that isoutside the norm butwith no intention toharm or break rules –overconforming towhat is expectedNormalNegative deviance:Behaviour that goesagainst the norm andhas a detrimentaleffect on individualsand on society ingeneral –underconforming towhat is expectedNormal distribution for this behaviour
Positive deviance:Behaviour that isoutside the norm butwith no intention toharm or break rules –overconforming towhat is expectedE.g.oAn individual who trains or plays so hard theyinjure themselvesoBehaviour that can lead to a disruption of normallifeoPlay when they are injuredDeviance but their actions are for positive reasons:They are striving to win or to improve within theethical guidelines of the activityAlthough deviant can be seen in a positive lightCould argue that a player who is striving to win within the rules and etiquette of thesport and who accidently and without intent injures another player is also exhibitingpositive deviance
Negative deviance:Behaviour that goesagainst the norm andhas a detrimentaleffect on individualsand on society ingeneral –underconforming towhat is expectedBehaves in a way that knowingly andintentionally breaks the rules and ethicsof sporte.g.Using performance enhancing drugsCheating within a contest – deliberatelyfouling another playerBeing bribed to influence the outcomeof a matchFan violence or hooliganismIllegal betting on the outcome of acontestFinancial irregularities in thetransferring of playersPlayer violence
Relative deviance:Deviant behaviour that isnot acceptable in widersociety but may be deemedto acceptable by thoseinvolved in a sub-cultureSome behaviouracceptable in sportbut not in widersociety? e.g. use of fists inrugby (hidden inscrum orotherwisePlayers deem thisacceptable aslong as violencedoesn’t breach anunwritten limitBUT gouging& bitingcompletelyoff limitsSport often likesto deal withthings in houseBut police lessand less willing toturn a blind eye
Devianceand thecontract tocompeteWhether or not the behaviour is viewed within asporting context is determined by whether ornot it breaks the contract to compete.
Don’t strive to win ortry to loose –negative devianceNot trying to win fairly– cheating orunacceptable physicalcontact e.g. biting –negative devianceExpected to allowopponent fair and freechange to win – takingdrugs or bribing anofficial does not allowthis –negative devianceUsingtactics, strategies andskills that you use tostop an opponentwithin theexpectations of theactivity –Relative deviance
Concept of relative deviance and the contract to compete are closely linkedConcept increasinglychallenge but themedia and society ingeneralBoth imply thatsomehow sportexists within itsown moralsubculture
Rewards of winning sogreat that a largenumber of individualsmay be prepared tocross the line. (May beparticularly true ofpositive deviance)Causes ofdeviantbehaviourIndividual lacksmoral restraint tokeep to code ofconductIndividuals may valuewinning above theloss of respect orpunishment that mayoccurDeviant behaviour may bebecoming less sociallyunacceptable and cause lessnegative comment than inthe pastNGBs may feel less able to punish dueto power of commercial interests or fearof being taken to court by performerwho they punish
Violence in sportViolencebetweenplayersViolenceamongspectators
Two ways this generally occurs:A spontaneous outburstA premeditated and planned actionCause of violence between players:Most violence occurs as an aggressive act – refer to sport psychology notesIn summary, aggressive behaviour may be caused by:•Innate•Frustration•Loss of identity (follow the actions of the crowd)•Social learning – imitating othersWithin some teams they have a well-known characters (enforcers), whose role it isto physically intimidate the opposition or to act in retaliation on behalf of othersDrugs,gamesmanship taken too far,hyping-up, presence ofspectators, unacceptableaggression,acts against the law
Dealing withviolencebetweenplayersResponsibility of individualperformers, team managers orcoaches and the NGBsAn NGB may take a range of actions:•Ensuring that match officials and theirdecisions are supported when dealing withviolent behaviour of players•Punishing players post match•Being prepared to use post-match videoevidence•Upholding players with a good disciplinaryrecord as role models•Using ‘fair play’ awards to reward clubs withgood disciplinary records•Training officials in player management andhow to defuse situations between playersNGBs keen to diminishviolence – so sport’sreputation is not damagedNGBs like to deal withviolence themselves butmore involvement fromlegal system evident
Important that leaders, managers,, coaches, captains set agood example and set the tone for their teams as they have agreat responsibility for player conduct.To ensure good player behaviour they could:Set a good example themselves before and during contestsEstablish a clear code of conduct and expectationsCriticise or punish players who fail to meet the code of conduct; playsubstitutes in their placePraise or promote those players who set a good exampleWhere possible, ensure that players who have a low flash point are keptaway from high stress situationsStress appropriate behaviour in team talksUnderstand each individual player’s level of arousal and try to avoidoverarousalTrain players to manage their own level of arousalAvoid an attitude of winning at all costs.
Hooliganism: anti-social or aggressive/violentbehaviour by people in a group of spectatorsSuggested causes:• Fans drink too much alcohol• Local derby/high tensionbetween rival fans• Pre-match media hype• Poor officiating• Diminished responsibilitywithin a largecrowd/depersonalisation• The team being supported islosing• Poor crowd control/poorpolicing – crowd confinement• ReligionSolutions:• Control alcohol sales• All seater stadiums• Improve policing (numbersincrease)/segregation of fans• Stewards• Increase family concept• CCTV• Penalties/bans• More responsible mediareporting• Kick racism out of footballcampaign