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7 ergogenic aids

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7 ergogenic aids

  1. 1. A2 PEDrugs in Sport
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes• Define doping in sport• Discuss the history of doping in sport• Discuss the different performance enhancers you researched• Discuss the BALCO case and how this may affect sports as a whole.• Discuss your won views on performance enhancing drugs
  3. 3. Roles of SportsSupplementation• Almost all professional athletes and many millions of amateur sports people take some kind of supplementation.• Why?• The modern diet does not provide the amount of nutrient, vitamins and minerals needed by the body.
  4. 4. Roles of SportsSupplementation• What is the recommended amount of calories needed by the average person?• 2’000 for males• 2’500 for females……• ………but sports people are not average!
  5. 5. Resting Metabolic RateAge Male Female10-18 (body weight KG (body weight KG X 17.5) + 651 X 12.2) + 74618-30 (body weight KG (body weight KG X 15.3) + 679 X 14.7) + 49631-60 (body weight KG (body weight KG X 11.6) + 879 X 8.7) + 829
  6. 6. Specific Calorie Needs• Mostly Sedentary – RMR X 1.4• Moderately Active – RMR X 1.7• Very Active – RMR X 2.0• Example – 2312 X 2.0 = 4624 Kcal a day• Supplementation is designed to either make up for a shortfall in the diet, or provide an advantage over your opponent.
  7. 7. Roles of Supplements inSport• Research the following:• Anabolic steroids• Human Growth Hormone• Erythropoietin (EPO)• Betablockers• Tetra-hydro-gestrinone (THG)• What they are, who’s been accused of using them (one famous example of each), what they do, why they are banned.
  8. 8. Creatine• One of the most researched supplements on the market.• Theorised to give more strength output for longer during intense short burst exercise.• Has also been shown to give more mass gain.
  9. 9. Creatine• Creatine-Monohydrate is the most successful in 99% of the research.• General use:• 20g a day for 5 days followed by 5g a day for the next 8 weeks.• 4 weeks break.• Which sports people could benefit from this?
  10. 10. Creatine• Possible negative effects: – Bloating – Dehydration – Cramps.
  11. 11. Protein• What is the use of protein?• To repair the muscles and organs.
  12. 12. Protein• Whey protein the most well researched of all supplements.• Whey protein absorbed and used by the body the quickest and should be used after all strenuous exercise, no more than 50g.• Casein protein absorbed much slower and should be used in between meals and just before bed.• If you need it, buy protein with no other added supplements.
  13. 13. Bicarbonate of Soda• Theorised that it reduces the acidity of the bloodstream caused by exercise.• What benefits could this have?• However, research has shown that it makes no difference to well hydrated individuals.• Also, it irritates the intestines and makes you well, y’know…….
  14. 14. Caffeine• One of the first ‘drugs’ to be banned from in sports competitions.• Releases adrenaline which pushes more fatty acids into the bloodstream allowing the athlete to work for longer.• Also stimulates more calcium to be released which increases muscular contraction.
  15. 15. Caffeine• Improves endurance by 12%.• Any more than 2 cups however, has no extra effect and can actually have adverse effects.• Drunk with milk reduces its potency.
  16. 16. Antioxidants• Found in vitamins and in all forms of tea.• When you exercise your body breaks down cells during the oxidisation process.• This leaves FREE RADICALS floating round the body which have been shown to damage muscle tissue and have been linked to cancer.
  17. 17. Antioxidants• Antioxidants remove the free radicals by re-bonding them to other cells.• Research has shown that antioxidants – either in the form of vitamins or particularly green tea and white tea – improves muscle recovery.• Best source is from leafy green veg and fruit.
  18. 18. Aims of Exercise• Why do people • Why do people do exercise? sport?• Fun • To win• Fitness • Enjoyment• To look good • It’s their job• Make friends • Make friends• Improve performance • Compete
  19. 19. At All Costs………….• On your own, think about and write down all the things you’d do to ensure that you won a World Championship / Gold Medal.• 2 minutes
  20. 20. Doping in Sport• What does the term ‘Doping’ mean?• Taking any substance into the body which will increase/decrease the natural functions or performance of the bodies systems.• The most common method is drug abuse.
  21. 21. Banned Substances Timeline• Competitors in ancient Greece took ‘herbs’ to stimulate their senses and give them more endurance.• Native American Indians took part in 3 day races to decide a new chief.• Before the race they would spend 24 hours taking concoctions of different plants to allow them to last the distance.
  22. 22. Banned Substances Timeline• Caffeine and cocaine were amongst the first drugs to be banned in sports due to long distance cyclists using them to gain an advantage throughout the 30’s and 40’s and a British cyclist suddenly dropping dead on the Tour de France.• In the 50’s and 60’s the US and Russia worked together to develop anabolic steroids for their weight lifters.• Due to the Cold War, the advancements in steroids was very fast.
  23. 23. Banned Substances Timeline• International bodies tended to keep drug abuse quiet until the 1988 Olympic Games when Ben Johnson tested positive for steroids after the race in which he won the 100M Gold medal.• He was later quoted as saying: “The drug they caught me with was one of the few that I DIDN’T take!”
  24. 24. Banned Substances Timeline• In the same race, several other athletes also tested positive - including Carl Lewis and Linford Christie - but were either ‘let off’ or covered up.• Since this moment there has been a seemingly never ending run of athletes in all sports testing positive for banned substances.
  25. 25. Banned Substances Timeline• In 1999 the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established to control the drug testing procedures and banned substance list.• This has lead to an even greater increase in the amount of athletes and sports people to test positive for banned substances.
  26. 26. So, what do you knowabout?• Anabolic steroids• Human Growth Hormone• Erythropoietin (EPO)• Betablockers• Tetra-hydro-gestrinone (THG)
  27. 27. Anabolic Steroids• Designed to make the body produce more testosterone, allowing the body to recover quicker and work harder for longer.• Reacts to whichever type of training is done.• Stanazolol• Nandrolone• Boldenone• Watch these vids
  28. 28. Human Growth Hormone• Naturally occurs in the body.• Is illegal in most countries – but not China.• Manufactured and sold via the internet.• Side effects include: – Skull deformation – Nerve damage – Glucose intolerance – Hypertrophy of the heart – Thickening of the blood through increased fats in the blood.
  29. 29. Erythropoietin• EPO works to produce more red blood cells which carry more oxygen around the body.• Who could this be useful for?• Tour de France has been wracked with this drug for years.• Can cause high blood pressure and blood clotting.
  30. 30. However…….
  31. 31. Beta Blockers• Slows the heart rate by blocking the hormones that make the body respond to stimulus and stresses, stopping the release of the adrenal glands.• Which sports are these applicable to?
  32. 32. Tetrahydrogestrinone• THG• A synthetic drug, also known as ‘the clear’ as it was designed to be undetectable.• Works in the same way as anabolic steroids and is taken via a cream on the arms and droplets under the tongue.
  33. 33. The BALCO Scandal• In 2003, a laboratory known as BALCO was found to have developed a series of undetectable performance enhancing drugs.• An investigation has found that the lab had partnerships with a large number the major names in American sports and international athletics.
  34. 34. The BALCO Scandal• THG was one of the drugs BALCO developed. Below is a list of the athletes linked to the company:• Dwain Chambers (European 100M Record Holder)• Maurice Greene (Multiple World and Olympic Champion)• Barry Bonds (Baseball home run record holder)• Marion Jones (5 time Olympic Gold Medallist - stripped)• Tim Montgomery (Former 100M World Record holder)• Shane Mosley (Multiple times World Champion boxer)• Alex Rodriguez (3 time MLB MVP)
  35. 35. The BALCO Scandal• How do you believe such organised and high profile doping is affecting:• Professional sports?• Grass roots sports?• People’s perception of pro sports?• The value of Gold medals, World Records and World Championships?
  36. 36. Christine Ohuruogu
  37. 37. Christine Ohuruogu• Christine Ohuruogu was banned for a year from competition for missing three drugs tests.• She was not at the training area she said she would be despite being given two days notice by the testers.• Her mobile phone inbox was full each time the testers tried to contact her.• After a year with no competition, she won the World 400M Championship in only her second competition back from suspension – she had only made 1 previous international final outdoors.• In her year off she was only tested once and the effects of performance enhancing drugs can last up to 3 years and most will not show up on a test a month after taking them.
  38. 38. With that in mind….• Read through the letter written by Victor Conte (the head of BALCO) detailing how athlete’s get away with doping in athletics.• Compare what the letter says to Christine Ohuruogu’s.
  39. 39. In pairs..........• Discuss: – why you believe performance enhancing drugs are banned – Whether you believe they should be banned• 10 minutes• However,• Is it not also unfair that some athletes are born in richer countries or with genetic advantages?• What other natural advantages do some athletes have over others?
  40. 40. Learning Outcomes• Define doping in sport• Discuss the history of doping in sport• Discuss the different performance enhancers you researched• Discuss the BALCO case and how this may affect sports as a whole.• Discuss your won views on performance enhancing drugs