Communication Pauline Hall

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Communication Pauline Hall

  1. 1. Communication Diploma in Quality Serivce Delivery
  2. 2. Communication <ul><li>Communication, Consultation and Participation = Ways of involving employees in decision-making processes = commitment! </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore employees need to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know what they have to do and why. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the purpose of their work and what it will achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how their personal efforts fit into the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand where the organisation’s resources go </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why Communicate? <ul><li>To inform </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade </li></ul><ul><li>To influence </li></ul><ul><li>To get information </li></ul><ul><li>To convey knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To involve </li></ul><ul><li>To gain support </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is Communication So Important? <ul><li>Changing nature of workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing use of teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on creativity, innovation, problem-solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly mobile work-force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flatter, more flexible organisation structures </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Channels of Communication in Organisations <ul><li>Monthly/Quarterly/Annual written reports </li></ul><ul><li>Letters to personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletters or magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul>
  6. 6. Channels of Communication in Organisations <ul><li>We often think first of channels which are one-way </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way channels include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>management walkabouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data from staff surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regular briefing sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lunches with personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggestion schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feedback from employee representatives </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Which Channel? <ul><li>Depends on the purpose of the communication and the complexity of its content </li></ul><ul><li>Fear is that improved communication will lead to more and more demands for information </li></ul><ul><li>Actually, the more accurate the information the fewer demands arise </li></ul>
  8. 8. Which Channel? <ul><li>Writing - Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for reaching large numbers of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large amounts of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides reference for future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing-Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No exchange of views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only works if people actually read and understand the material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be suited to the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No interaction - almost always one way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No opportunity for clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talking - Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be tailored to the specific audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows interaction and exchange of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows communication of emotions/feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talking - Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No very effective for large numbers of people amounts of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be difficult to get everyone together at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be no reference about what was said or not said - memory! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Communication Process Sender Signal Receiver Encode Decode Noise e.g. information overload The Classic Model of Communication
  10. 10. The Communication Process <ul><li>We don’t just encode and decode messages but actively select, filter and interpret them and try to make sense of them </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if a message is not very interesting or important you may ignore it especially if you have to many to deal with </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Communication Process <ul><li>Serial Distortion, for example the general who sent the following message: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Send reinforcements, we’re going to advance” became “Send three and fourpence, we’re going to a dance” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Serial Distortion <ul><li>Particular points in the message may be given more importance </li></ul><ul><li>New information may be added </li></ul><ul><li>Certain details may be modified to suit either the receiver or the sender </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence of events may be altered </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps may be filled to make sense of the message </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion may be deliberate but often it is simply that we decode and interpret and re-code any message that we send. </li></ul><ul><li>The more stages the message passes through the more likelihood there is of distortion </li></ul>
  13. 13. Good Communication <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the sender knowing clearly what is intended to be communicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using words which allow the receiver to receive the intended message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting the communication in an open way so that the receiver has the opportunity to clarify or ask for more information </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 5 Key Factors in Communication <ul><li>Perception of Self/Others </li></ul><ul><li>Active Listening, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding back </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal communication, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checking, not assuming </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is said and what is communicated by non-verbals, is it the same message? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Guidelines for Active Listening <ul><li>Give people your attention </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to paraphrase or “play back” what they have said </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not understand, ask </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the other person’s feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage </li></ul><ul><li>Do not react or respond until it is clear the other person has finished </li></ul>
  16. 16. Benefits of Active Listening <ul><li>Avoiding misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Building a relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving more information </li></ul><ul><li>Helping articulate </li></ul>
  17. 17. Checking Understanding <ul><li>“ Chunk” your messages and check for understanding after each one </li></ul><ul><li>Listen actively to feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage clarification questions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage “reflecting back” what they have heard to ensure the message you sent is the one received </li></ul>

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