Phylogeny

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Phylogeny

  1. 1. 2004-2005 Phylogeny & Systematics An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics has revealed that—despite appearances—animals, including humans, and fungi, such as mushrooms, are more closely related to each other than either are to plants.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evolutionary history of a species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on common ancestries inferred from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fossil record </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>morphological & biochemical resemblances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>molecular evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects classification system to phylogeny by categorizing & naming organisms </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Homologous Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similarities based on shared ancestries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bone structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA sequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Analogous structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial structures which serve a similar function, but are not based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on shared ancestries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insect vs bird wing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>convergent evolution </li></ul></ul>marsupial mole placental mole Phylogenies are based on homologous structures
  4. 4. <ul><li>Aligning DNA sequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more bases in common = more closely related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analyzed by software </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Connecting classification to phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hierarchical system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carolus Linnaeas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>latin binomial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>species </li></ul></ul></ul>D umb K ing P hillip C ame O ver F or G ood S paghetti
  6. 6. <ul><li>Connection between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classification (naming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phylogeny (evolutionary relationships) </li></ul></ul>Tracing possible evolutionary relationships between some of the taxa of the order Carnivora, a branch of the class Mammalia.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Cladograms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patterns of shared characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a. phylogenetic trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows evolutionary relationships </li></ul></ul>Classify organisms according to the order in time at which branches arise along a phylogenetic tree
  8. 8. <ul><li>Evolving genomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>now that we can compare the entire genomes of different organisms, we find… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>humans & mice have 99% of their genes in common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% of human genes have a close match with those of yeast! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the simplest eukaryote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>2004-2005
  9. 9. <ul><li>3 Domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukarya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea </li></ul></ul>

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