Prey in group; round up preySneek attachStalk and wait till prey is vunerableCosts energyLarge body; more choice of prey, less likely to get eaten; Sharp teeth, claws, eyes
Advantages: don’t need a mate and can produce many offspring without expending much energyDisadvantage: no genetic variation so if the ecosystem changes like with introduction of invasive species or removal of keystone species; consequences could be deadly to all( weakness is present is all)organisms that don’t move that much( worms, echinoderms, plankton, bacteria) budding: tapeworms; fragmentation: earthworms: Annalids
Advantage: genetic variation; set of genes from each parent: weeds out weaknesses or harmful mutationsDisadvantage: need to find a mateBetter: animals that are on the move; places where there are abundant number of individuals in a population
Zoology review final
Scientific method• What are the steps that we address in our lab notebooks?126.96.36.199.5.6.7.
• What happens to the amount of energy as you go up the pyramid?
Food Webs• What do the arrow mean?• What are the producers?• Primary consumers?• Secondary consumers?• Tertiary consumers?
Try this one!: producer, each level of consumers are?????
Keystone species food web- what iskeystone species? How do you know?
Invasive species: can you tell what the invasive species are?
With an invasive species introduced….• What will it take for an organism to survive with the new surroundings???? – ADAPTATIONS!!!!! – AND HOW DO ADAPTATIONS OCCUR? • MUTATIONS IN GENES….. • Can you decode this::::: ACT GAG CTU? • How would the mutation occur in this gene sequence? • What does it take for the mutation to continue to be passed on ?
Can you think of adaptations that animals we discussed have had?• Amphibians? – Life on land • Gills to lungs • Stronger bones to support gravity • Paired find to 4 limbs to walk • More complex ears to hear on land • Life Series: toad tightened body in ball to elude predators• Cephalopods: what is an example of a cephalopod? – Modified mantle to swim in open water – Beak from radula to crush prey – Males modified organ to deposit sperm so females don’t eat them
Questions so far???????• Continue to work on vocab…• We will continue to review on Friday (when your vocab is due!!!!)
Day 2 Review: Feeding Strategies• Deposit feeder: shove food in mouth• Filter Feeders: active or passive• Suspension feeders – Use a filter system to gather food• Grazers
• Carnivores: Predators – Many different ways predators can capture food what are some examples? – What costs are involved in actively seeking prey? – Advantages of being a large carnivore? – Structures developed via evolution Prey: Want to avoid getting eaten to carry on species What are some defense mechanism animals have to avoid “being eaten?
Prey can change during carnivore life cycle: What changes in diet do you see here? Both species live in same ecosystem, what is a possible explanation for this?
Reproduction• Asexual- What process is this type? • what is the advantage? • What is the disadvantage? • When would this be the better method of reproduction? • What types of organisms reproduce this way? • Types of a asexual: budding: offspring grows out of parent, fragmentation: part of parent breaks off that can reproduce
Reproduction• Sexual – what process is this type? • what is the advantage? • What is the disadvantage? • When would this be the better method of reproduction? • Types external and internal fertilization. – Which has higher survival rate? – What organisms reproduce these ways?
Osmosis and Diffusion• What are these?• What is hypotonic solution?• Isotonic solution?• Hypertonic solution?• How do animal cells respond to each of the solutions?
Taxonomy• How do you classify species into groups?• How can you find the scientific name of a species unknown to you?
Population Density• What data do you collect in the field?• What organisms are best to sample this way?• What can this data tell you about other organisms living in this ecosystem?
How are organisms affected by these in an ecosystem• Abiotic Factors • Biotic Factors• Temp • Other organisms• Salinity • Plants• Turbidity • animals• Pressure• Amount of sunlight• Pollutants• Weather conditions
Exam Topics• Food webs and trophic levels• Keystone/invasive species• Osmosis and diffusion• Taxonomy• Population sampling• Scientific method• Phylums we have discussed this year• Reproduction• Animal Adaptations• Land vs. aquatic environments• Feeding strategies