Chapter 6 marine microbes


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  • Left is how appear, right is how their probably appear through our microscopes
  • Chapter 6 marine microbes

    1. 1. Chapter 6 Marine Microbes Plankton(organisms invisible to the naked eye)
    2. 2. • Include viruses, one-celled organisms, and fungi.• Microbes play many different roles in marine ecosystem.• Phytoplankton-planktonic algae• Zooplankton-larvae of small animals-ex fish, jellyfish• We will discuss 3 of these in detail that you will be accountable for and be able to identify under a microscope 1. Diatoms 2. Dinoflagellates 3. Forams 4. Euglena 5. Volvox
    3. 3. Diatoms Characteristics• Most distinctive of plankton samples – Most common• Low latitudes-occur in coastal waters• Phytoplankton-Contributed to most of primary productivity of an area.
    4. 4. Diatom Structure• Bilaterally symmetrical• Glassy Cell wall• 2 valves- 1 large, 1 small• Visible geometrically shaped pattern-(helps distinguish between species)
    5. 5. Reproduction• Reproduction: • Digestion: – Asexually by – Makes own food fission (autotroph) via photosynthesis • When cells divides, each daughter gets one of the 2 valves • Eventually daughter that inherited smaller valve will reproduces sexually
    6. 6. • Level of organization: – Unicellular and eukaryotic• Ecological Role – Responsible for ~50% of oceans energy production – Producers
    7. 7. Dinoflagellates- structure• Globular, single-celled organisms• 2 flagella that lie in groves on the center of surface• Larger of phytoplankton
    8. 8. Reproduction• Asexually by fission – Split cell into two – Can happen at a rate of one division per day• Sexual in some species by gametes• If you had two species of Dinoflagellates and species A produced asexually while species B produced sexually, which species to you expect to survive throughout time longer and why?
    9. 9. • Ecological Role: Some species are responsible for Red Tide – algae bloom-large quick population boom – Produce toxins, usually cannot eat fish during this time – ?v=auEePWRqj7Y&safety_mode =true&persist_safety_mode=1& safe=active• Example (back side of Study Guide) Zooxanthellae are collections of dinoflagellates – They lack flagella like most species – Mutualistic relationships with corals, jellyfish, and mollusks.
    10. 10. Goodby’s Creek in Mandarin during last Algae Bloom
    11. 11. Forams Characteristics and Structure• Have a pseudopod-organelle that is an extension of the cell surface – Used for locomotion and food capture• Have a shell• deep as Marianas Trench• members of zooplankton
    12. 12. Foram Reproduction• Asexual fission most species• Sexual reproduction- some species
    13. 13. Forams: digestion/energy• Consume a lot of diatoms and dinoflagellates• Some host green/red algae – Symbiotic relationship • Forams get nutrients • Coral reefs get calcium carbonate
    14. 14. Ecological Role• Food for fish and invertebrates (inverts)• Turn over nutrients in the ocean• Most abundant group of fossils – Make up sediments
    15. 15. • 6g0&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode =1&safe=active
    16. 16. Ever wonder about that green gunk?• Its Euglena! – Possess chlorophyll, 1 or 2 flagella
    17. 17. Euglena• Salt or fresh water• Digestion- perform photosynthesis or absorb nutrients – stigma at base of flagella allows euglena to orient themselves towards a light source• Reproduce using binary fission – Split into two new organisms
    18. 18. Euglena Structure (draw sketch on back side of Study Guide)
    19. 19. Euglena: Ecological Role• Photosynthesizer• Acts as food for other protists and fish
    20. 20. • Xmc&feature=related&safety_mode=true&per sist_safety_mode=1&safe=active•
    21. 21. Volvox• Structure: – Individual cells form colonies (level of organization= multicellular) up to 50,000 cells!!!!- cannot live alone – Eyespots that allow them to swim near light – Flagellates –locomotion • Similar to Euglena
    22. 22. Volvox Reproduction Asexual Sexual• Gonadia near the posterior – Divide numerous times to • Male colonies release produce new colonies sperm into water column – Genetically identical to the • Female colonies’ individual parent cells enlarge to become – Mitosis eggs • Offspring different from parents – Meiosis
    23. 23. Volvox Digestion• Producer• Makes energy via photosynthesis
    24. 24. Volvox Ecological Role• Primary producers in freshwater ecosystems – Lakes, ponds, ditches• Model science organism for cell death and regrowth• Some parasites feed off Volvox
    25. 25. Volvox• i3A&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode =1&safe=active
    26. 26. Independent Work Time• Finish back side of your study guide and turn in. – Study Guides will count as a homework/classwork assignment for Session 3• You can find more information in Chapter 6 (blue MARINE BIOLOGY class set books)